Presentation on theme: "Electronic Crime in Modern Business Cultures Hiram College Online Course By Roger Cram PowerPoint Presentation Atoms, Energy, and Electricity – PART II."— Presentation transcript:
Electronic Crime in Modern Business Cultures Hiram College Online Course By Roger Cram PowerPoint Presentation Atoms, Energy, and Electricity – PART II
As you learned in Part I of Atoms, Energy, and Electricity, an atom is comprised of neutrons (zero charge) and Protons (plus charge) both residing in the nucleus and electrons (negative charge) in orbital shells around the nucleus.
The electrons are negatively charged particles revolving around the nucleus much like the planets revolve around our sun. The nucleus is composed of positively charged protons and neutrally charged neutrons.
For every negative electron circling around the nucleus, there is also one positive proton and one neutral neutron in the nucleus. If the atom has two circling electrons, then the nucleus has two protons and two neutrons.
These atoms are called elements. Each atom with an additional proton is another element. There are 118 elements, the first 92 occur naturally in nature while are synthesized. Its the number of protons that determine the element. Helium is the second element with two electrons, two protons, and two neutrons. Oxygen has eight electrons, eight protons, and eight neutrons. Gold has 79 of them, etc.
If the atom has six negative electrons and six positive protons, the same number of positive and negative charges cancel each other out. The atom as a whole is said to have a charge of zero.
The atom below has three positively charged protons and only two negatively charged electrons. The atom as a whole has a charge of -2 and +3 = +1. Remember, opposite charges attract and like charges repel. This atom is now positively charged.
Copper is the 29 th element. It has 29 protons and 29 electrons. The electrons in the outer orbits are loosely bound to the atom. This means coppers outer electrons could easily travel from atom to atom along the wire if a pressure was applied to cause them to do so. Materials with lose electrons are called conductors like copper and aluminum. Materials without lose electrons in their outer shell are called insulators like rubber. Thats why copper wire is covered in rubber. You can touch the rubber without getting an electric shock because the rubber does not conduct electrons. Copper wire Rubber insulation
A battery is a device filled with a chemical paste that moves many of the electrons from a graphite rod to the outer battery casing made of zinc. Graphite center rod Outer battery zinc case Chemical paste
Many of the electrons from the graphite center post are now resting on the inside of the zinc case. There is now a great negative charge on this case because electrons are negatively charged. When many of the electrons left the graphite rod, positive protons remained in the graphite atoms making the rod positively charged. Negatively charged case because of the buildup of electrons Positively charged rod because many of the negative electrons left leaving the positive protons. Chemical paste moving Electrons from the graphite rod to the zinc case If a wire connected the negatively charged case of the battery to the positively charged center rod (wire shown in red), the lose electrons on the case would flow through the copper wire jumping orbit to orbit until reaching the positive center post. Why? Opposite charges attract (negative electrons attracted to positively charged rod.) This flow of electrons is called electricity.
REPEAT! - If a wire connected the negatively charged case of the battery to the positively charged center rod, the lose electrons on the case would flow through the copper wire jumping the copper atoms orbit to orbit until reaching the battery's positive center post. Why? Opposite charges attract (negative electrons attracted to positively charged rod.) This flow of electrons is called electricity. Insert a light bulb in this circuit and the flowing electrons heat the bulbs tiny wire until it glows. This tiny wire is called a filament and has a high resistance. When the electrons return to the graphite positively charged rod the batterys chemical paste again separates them to the zinc outer casing and this electron flow continues to move along the copper wire. When the chemical paste loses its ability to move the electrons from the graphite post to the zinc outer casing, the battery is said to be dead, and the flow of electrons stops.
In review: electrical charge (positive/negative) and magnetism (north/south) are different aspects of the same force -- electromagnetism. Oppositely charged objects, such as a proton and an electron, attract one another, while particles with the same charge (electron and electron) repel each other.
Copper wire Positively charged end of wire Negatively Charged end of wire
Where does the electron get its negative charge?
Remember from Part I, the carrier particle of the electromagnetic force is the photon. Depending on the photons energy, they are called gamma rays, light rays, television, microwaves, radio waves, radar, etc.
The electromagnetic interaction is carried by photons. The electromagnetic interaction digests our food, grows our corn, moves our muscles, allows computers to work and hackers to steal. Photons can be absorbed or radiated by any charged particle. Radiated photons are magnetic fields, light, microwaves, cell phone messages, radar, and WiFi signals. Photons have zero mass. They always travel at the speed of light = 186,000 miles per second.
The visible light we see are photons. They travel in a wave. They are pure energy. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it just changes form.
The photons we cant see are still light energy which is electrometric energy. The photons we can see and cannot see are determined by the frequency of the photon wave and how the human eye is only designed to see a limited wavelength.
Below is pictured a sign wave. Think of it as a graph. The graph is separated by a horizontal straight line. The height of each wave is called the amplitude as indicated. The length of a complete wave is called a wavelength as shown below.
125 miles per hour 75 miles per hour 25 miles per hour 10 miles per hour ZERO miles per hour 10 miles per hour 25 miles per hour 75 miles per hour 125 miles per hour Car Traveling East Above the Zero Line Car Traveling West Above the Zero Line Think of the sign wave as a graph. In this case, a graph depicting the speed of a car racing back and forth on a road. The car starts at point A, going zero mph, and as the car gradually accelerates traveling east it eventually reaches a speed on 125 mph – POINT B. The car must turn around and race in the other direction, so it gradually slows down to a stop at POINT C. It cannot turn around and go the other way until it stops. After turning around it accelerates traveling west until reaching 125 mph at POINT D. The car must slow down and stop again in order to go the other direction. POINT A ZERO MPH STOPPED POINT B POINT C POINT D
125 miles per hour 75 miles per hour 25 miles per hour 10 miles per hour ZERO miles per hour 10 miles per hour 25 miles per hour 75 miles per hour 125 miles per hour Car Traveling East Above the Zero Line Car Traveling West Above the Zero Line When the car races east on the track, accelerates to 125 mph, then slows down, stops, turns around, accelerates west to 125 mph and then slows down and stops, it has completed one cycle. The amplitude is 125 mph. The frequency is one if it can complete going both directions in one second-almost impossible for a car, but easy as pie for a photon. The frequency is one cycle per second. POINT A ZERO MPH STOPPED POINT B POINT C POINT D
ONE SECOND The above graph depicts two cycles per second. Several years ago the term cycle was changed to the name Hertz to honor a scientist with the same name. So, to stay up on modern times, the above graph indicates 2 Hertz expressed 2 HZ. Lets replace the racing car now with electrons traveling in a wire. This is electricity, the flow of electrons. If the electrons travel along a wire and then stop and turn the other way, they are doing what the racing car did: going back and forth. They are alternating their course back and forth. This alternating current is called AC. If the electrons only go in one direction in a wire without going back the other way it Is called direct current or DC. All batteries offer only DC current.
Source - bbc.co.uk The top of the first wave is called the crest; the bottom of the first wave is called the trough; the amplitude or height of the wave is shown by letter a. From one crest to the next is the wavelength indicated by the lower case Greek letter Lambda. Lambda
The upper left shows a graph of electricity alternating in a wire 110 times per second. The frequency is 110 HZ. The upper lefts frequency is 220 cycles per second or 220 HZ. The lower right graph depicts a frequency of 880 HZ. Isnt it amazing that electrons can go back and forth so fast! You aint seen nuttn yet! If your favorite radio station is found on the dial at 107.3, then the frequency of the radio stations signal is million cycles per second or megahurtz.
Cycles per SecondNumberTermApplication 10TensDecahertz 100HundredsHectohertzHuman Hearing = 20 HZ - 20,000 HZ 1000ThousandKilohertzAM Radio 1,000,000MillionMegahertzFM Radio, UHF, VHF, Microwaves, Television, Cell Phones 1,000,000,000BillionGigahertzRadar 1,000,000,000,000TrillionTerahertzInfrared, Visible Light, Ultraviolet 1,000,000,000,000, 000PetahertzX-Rays Visible Light detected by humans, a tiny area of the electromagnetic spectrum. All the other frequencies of electromagnetic waves humans cannot see. Source: kids.britanica.com
What Do I Need To Know From This Lesson – Atoms, Energy, and Electrons Part II? Atoms have a nucleus with positively charged protons, neutrally charged neutrons, and orbiting negatively charged electrons. We have learned that atoms with the same number of electrons and protons have a zero or neutral charge. Atoms with two more protons than electrons have a charge of +2; atoms with three more protons than electrons have a charge of +3; atoms with one more electron than proton have a charge of -1. Like charges repel each other (- & -) or (+ & +). Opposite charges attract each other (+ & - ) Electricity is the flow of electrons through a wire. A battery has a chemical paste that removes electrons from a center post sending them to the batterys zinc outer casing. The casing becomes negatively charged because of all the extra electrons; the post is then positively charged because the atoms in the post have far more protons than electrons. Many of the posts electrons were transferred to the zinc case. The kind of element is determined by the number of protons, not the number of electrons (hydrogen, helium, aluminum, copper, gold, oxygen, etc.) The item that gives an electron a negative charge is the photon. It is pure magnetic energy. It is light. Photons are radio, television, cell phone, microwave, gamma rays, x-rays, etc.) The photon travels at different frequencies and at the speed of light. The photon frequency is how many times the photon wave alternates per second. One hundred million oscillations per second = 100 megacycles = 100 megahertz. The wave length is how far the photon travels at the speed of light during one cycle. It is the distance between two crests or two troughs of one cycle.
At this point you have learned enough about electricity to start studying how criminals intercept our electronic signals. This is fascinating! We will start this next week in Part III. Source: onlinetaxprofessionals.blogspot.com Source: thehackernews.com
Electronic Crime in Modern Business Cultures Hiram College Online Course By Roger Cram PowerPoint Presentation The End Atoms, Energy, and Electricity – PART II Next week Atoms, Energy, and Electricity Part III