Presentation on theme: "Electronic Crime in Modern Business Cultures"— Presentation transcript:
1Electronic Crime in Modern Business Cultures Hiram College Online CourseBy Roger CramPowerPoint PresentationAtoms, Energy, and Electricity – PART II
2As you learned in Part I of Atoms, Energy, and Electricity, an atom is comprised of neutrons (zero charge) and Protons (plus charge) both residing in the nucleus and electrons (negative charge) in orbital shells around the nucleus.
3The nucleus is composed of positively charged protons and neutrally charged neutrons. The electrons are negatively charged particles revolving around the nucleus much like the planets revolve around our sun.
4For every negative electron circling around the nucleus, there is also one positive proton and one neutral neutron in the nucleus.If the atom has two circling electrons, then the nucleus has two protons and two neutrons.
5These atoms are called elements These atoms are called elements. Each atom with an additional proton is another element. There are 118 elements, the first 92 occur naturally in nature while are synthesized. It’s the number of protons that determine the element.Helium is the second element with two electrons, two protons, and two neutrons.Oxygen has eight electrons, eight protons, and eight neutrons.Gold has 79 of them, etc.
6If the atom has six negative electrons and six positive protons, the same number of positive and negative charges cancel each other out. The atom as a whole is said to have a charge of zero.
7The atom below has three positively charged protons and only two negatively charged electrons. The atom as a whole has a charge of -2 and +3 = +1. Remember, opposite charges attract and like charges repel. This atom is now positively charged.
8Copper is the 29th element. It has 29 protons and 29 electrons Copper is the 29th element. It has 29 protons and 29 electrons. The electrons in the outer orbits are loosely bound to the atom. This means copper’s outer electrons could easily travel from atom to atom along the wire if a pressure was applied to cause them to do so. Materials with lose electrons are called conductors like copper and aluminum. Materials without lose electrons in their outer shell are called insulators like rubber. That’s why copper wire is covered in rubber. You can touch the rubber without getting an electric shock because the rubber does not conduct electrons.Copper wireRubber insulation
9rod to the outer battery casing made of zinc. A battery is a device filled with a chemical paste that moves many of the electrons from a graphiterod to the outer battery casing made of zinc.Graphite center rodChemical pasteOuter battery zinc case
10Many of the electrons from the Positively charged rod because many of the negative electrons left leaving the positive protons.Chemical paste moving Electrons from the graphite rod to the zinc caseMany of the electrons from thegraphite center post are now resting on the inside of the zinc case. There is now a great negative charge on this case because electrons are negatively charged. When many of the electrons left the graphite rod, positive protons remained in the graphite atoms making the rod positively charged.Negatively charged case because of the buildup of electronsIf a wire connected the negatively charged case of the battery to the positivelycharged center rod (wire shown in red), the lose electrons on the case would flow through the copper wire jumping orbit to orbit until reaching the positive center post. Why? Opposite charges attract (negative electrons attracted to positively charged rod.) This flow of electrons is called electricity.
11REPEAT! - If a wire connected the negatively charged case of the battery to the positively charged center rod, the lose electrons on the case would flow through the copper wire jumping the copper atoms orbit to orbit until reaching the battery's positive center post. Why? Opposite charges attract (negative electrons attracted to positively charged rod.) This flow of electrons is called electricity.Insert a light bulb in this circuit and the flowing electrons heat the bulb’s tiny wire until it glows. This tiny wire is called a filament and has a high resistance. When the electrons return to the graphite positively charged rod the battery’s chemical paste again separates them to the zinc outer casing and this electron flow continues to move along the copper wire.When the chemical paste loses its ability to move the electrons from the graphite post to the zinc outer casing, the battery is said to be dead, and the flow of electrons stops.
12In review: electrical charge (positive/negative) and magnetism (north/south) are different aspects of the same force -- electromagnetism. Oppositely charged objects, such as a proton and an electron, attract one another, while particles with the same charge (electron and electron) repel each other.
13Copper wirePositively charged endof wireNegatively Charged end of wire
14Where does the electron get its negative charge?
15Remember from Part I, the carrier particle of the electromagnetic force is the photon. Depending on the photon’s energy, they are called gamma rays, light rays, television, microwaves, radio waves, radar, etc.
16The electromagnetic interaction is carried by photons The electromagnetic interaction is carried by photons. The electromagnetic interaction digests our food, grows our corn, moves our muscles, allows computers to work and hackers to steal.Photons can be absorbed or radiated by any charged particle. Radiated photons are magnetic fields, light, microwaves, cell phone messages, radar, and WiFi signals.Photons have zero mass. They always travel at the speed of light = 186,000 miles per second.
17The visible light we see are photons. They travel in a wave The visible light we see are photons. They travel in a wave. They are pure energy. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it just changes form.
18The photons we can’t see are still light energy which is electrometric energy. The photons we can see and cannot see are determined by the frequency of the photon wave and how the human eye is only designed to see a limited wavelength.
19Below is pictured a sign wave. Think of it as a graph Below is pictured a sign wave. Think of it as a graph. The graph is separated by a horizontal straight line. The height of each wave is called the amplitude as indicated. The length of a complete wave is called a wavelength as shown below.
20Car Traveling East Above the Zero Line POINT B125 miles per hour75 miles per hour25 miles per hour 10 miles per hourZERO miles per hour10 miles per hour25 miles per hour 75 miles per hourPOINT A ZERO MPH STOPPEDPOINT CPOINT DCar Traveling West Above the Zero LineThink of the sign wave as a graph. In this case, a graph depicting the speed of a carracing back and forth on a road. The car starts at point A, going zero mph, and as the cargradually accelerates traveling east it eventually reaches a speed on 125 mph – POINT B. The car must turn around and race in the other direction, so it gradually slows down to a stop at POINT C. It cannot turn around and go the other way until it stops. After turningaround it accelerates traveling west until reaching 125 mph at POINT D. The car must slow down and stop again in order to go the other direction.
21Car Traveling East Above the Zero Line POINT B125 miles per hour75 miles per hour25 miles per hour 10 miles per hourZERO miles per hour10 miles per hour25 miles per hour 75 miles per hourPOINT A ZERO MPH STOPPEDPOINT CPOINT DCar Traveling West Above the Zero LineWhen the car races east on the track, accelerates to 125 mph, then slows down, stops,turns around, accelerates west to 125 mph and then slows down and stops, it hascompleted one cycle. The amplitude is 125 mph. The frequency is one if it can complete going both directions in one second-almost impossible for a car, but easy as pie for a photon. The frequency is one cycle per second.
22ONE SECONDThe above graph depicts two cycles per second. Several years ago the term “cycle” was changed to the name Hertz to honor a scientist with the same name. So, to stay up on modern times, the above graph indicates 2 Hertz expressed 2 HZ.Lets replace the racing car now with electrons traveling in a wire. This is electricity,the flow of electrons. If the electrons travel along a wire and then stop and turnthe other way, they are doing what the racing car did: going back and forth. They arealternating their course back and forth. This alternating current is called AC. If theelectrons only go in one direction in a wire without going back the other way it Is called direct current or DC. All batteries offer only DC current.
23LambdaLambdaThe top of the first wave is called the crest; the bottom of the first wave is calledthe trough; the amplitude or height of the wave is shown by letter a. From onecrest to the next is the wavelength indicated by the lower case Greek letter Lambda.Source - bbc.co.uk
24The upper left shows a graph of electricity alternating in a wire 110 times per second. The frequency is 110 HZ . The upper left’s frequency is 220 cycles per second or 220 HZ. The lower right graph depicts a frequency of 880 HZ. Isn’t it amazing that electrons can go back and forth so fast! You ain’t seen nuttn’ yet!If your favorite radio station is found on the dial at 107.3, then the frequency of the radio station’s signal is million cycles per second or megahurtz.
25Cycles per Second Number Term Application10TensDecahertz100HundredsHectohertzHuman Hearing = 20 HZ - 20,000 HZ1000ThousandKilohertzAM Radio1,000,000MillionMegahertzFM Radio, UHF, VHF, Microwaves, Television, Cell Phones1,000,000,000BillionGigahertzRadar1,000,000,000,000TrillionTerahertzInfrared, Visible Light, Ultraviolet1,000,000,000,000, 000PetahertzX-RaysVisible Light detectedby humans, a tiny area ofthe electromagneticspectrum.All the other frequencies ofelectromagnetic waves humans cannot see.Source: kids.britanica.com
27What Do I Need To Know From This Lesson – Atoms, Energy, and Electrons Part II? Atoms have a nucleus with positively charged protons, neutrally charged neutrons, and orbiting negatively charged electrons.We have learned that atoms with the same number of electrons and protons have a zero or neutral charge.Atoms with two more protons than electrons have a charge of +2; atoms with three more protons than electrons have a charge of +3; atoms with one more electron than proton have a charge of -1.Like charges repel each other (- & -) or (+ & +). Opposite charges attract each other (+ & - )Electricity is the flow of electrons through a wire.A battery has a chemical paste that removes electrons from a center post sending them to the battery’s zinc outer casing. The casing becomes negatively charged because of all the extra electrons; the post is then positively charged because the atoms in the post have far more protons than electrons. Many of the posts electrons were transferred to the zinc case.The kind of element is determined by the number of protons, not the number of electrons (hydrogen, helium, aluminum, copper, gold, oxygen, etc.)The item that gives an electron a negative charge is the photon. It is pure magnetic energy. It is light. Photons are radio, television, cell phone, microwave, gamma rays, x-rays, etc.)The photon travels at different frequencies and at the speed of light.The photon frequency is how many times the photon wave alternates per second. One hundred million oscillations per second = 100 megacycles = 100 megahertz.The wave length is how far the photon travels at the speed of light during one cycle. It is the distance between two crests or two troughs of one cycle.
28At this point you have learned enough about electricity to start studying how criminals intercept our electronic signals. This is fascinating! We will start this next week in Part III.Source: thehackernews.comSource: onlinetaxprofessionals.blogspot.com
29Electronic Crime in Modern Business Cultures Hiram College Online CourseBy Roger CramPowerPoint PresentationThe EndAtoms, Energy, and Electricity – PART IINext week Atoms, Energy, and Electricity Part III