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American Studies II Midterm Review. Reconstruction The time period from 1865-1877 during which the South was rebuilt.

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Presentation on theme: "American Studies II Midterm Review. Reconstruction The time period from 1865-1877 during which the South was rebuilt."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Studies II Midterm Review

2 Reconstruction The time period from 1865-1877 during which the South was rebuilt

3 Conditions after the Civil War Land, factories, railroads and the economy was destroyed

4 How did sharecropping result in many former slaves being in such a bad situation? No matter how hard they worked, many fell deeply into debt and remained trapped on the land

5 Southern Economy Cotton prices decreased Money was worthless Banks failed Factories were forced to close

6 Problems of the Black South Most couldn’t read or write They were not used to being on their own No concept of money

7 Freedmen’s Bureau Established by Congress to help the freedmen to adjust to their lives Most important accomplishment was education

8 Black Codes series of laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans

9 Jim Crow Laws Made segregation legal

10 carpetbaggers and scalawags Northerners that went South after the war Southerners that Supported the new government

11 Iron Clad Oath Southerners had to take this oath to be able to vote saying that they had not taken part in the Confederate Army or government. Many could not so they lost their right to vote

12 Reconstruction Plans Lincoln’s –Amnesty –10% plan –Abolish slavery –Suffrage to all literate African American males or those that serve in the army Radical Republicans –Punish the South –Abolish slavery –Pass the 13 th, 14, 15 th amendments

13 Impeachment Formal charges to remove from office The House of Representatives impeaches and the Senate tries the impeachment Pres. Johnson was impeached by the House, but was not removed from office by one vote

14 The Dream of Emancipation was not the Reality Violence-KKK Disenfranchised Jim Crow laws led to segregation

15 13 th, 14 th, 15th Abolish slavery Made African Americans citizens African American suffrage

16 Industrial Revolution Started in Great Britain By 1900 the United States became #1

17 Factors that led to the Industrialization of the U.S. Natural resources Capital Entrepreneurs Laissez-faire- gov. kept their hands off business Railroads* Labor force Loans and land grants to railroads Protective tariffs Consumer demands Capitalism New technology –Edison’s light bulb

18 Labor force Immigrants Farmers Women Children

19 Sherman Anti-trust Act Stated trust, monopolies, and interference with trade was wrong Ineffective because it wan not enforced

20 Standardized Time Zone Established to help with railroad schedules

21 Horatio Alger Novelist that wrote “rag to riches” stories

22 Captains of Industry/Robber Barons? Captains –Created jobs –More consumer products –Higher standard of living Robber Barons –Low wages –Long hours –Dangerous working conditions –bribery

23 Effects of Industrialization Social –Population increase –Tenement housing –Urbanization –Discrimination Political –Lassize-faire –Sherman Anti-trust Act –Gov. usually sided with Big Business –Protective tariffs

24 Effects of Industrialization Economical –Low wages –Tenement housing –Higher standard of living –Availability of more consumer goods

25 Trust Were one company/individuals controls an industry (ie; monopoly)

26 Tariff Tax on imported goods to protect American industry

27 Big Business Carnegie –Steel tycoon –Used vertical integration then horizontal Rockefeller –Oil tycoon –Used horizontal integration

28 Company Town Town where everyone who worked for a company lived, worked, and shopped Usually paid in scrip money that could only be used in company stores Created a cycle of debt similar to sharecropping

29 Corporation Investors would have a limited liability, only risking what they invested –Trusts –Pools/cartels –Holding companies

30 Mass production Producing a product on a large scale Led to lower prices

31 Social Darwinism Belief that only the fit survived applied to society Used to justify the techniques of big businesses

32 Methods used Labor Unions –Strike –Boycott –Secondary boycott –Open shop Big Business –Scabs –Pinkerton’s –Federal troops –Injunctions –Lockouts –Blacklist

33 Haymarket Square Riot Associated the labor unions with violence and anarchy

34 Labor Unions Knights of Labor –Powderly –All workers American Federation of Labor –Gompers –Skilled workers organized into crafts –Most successful All Railroad workers American Railway Union Debs Fell apart after Debs arrest

35 Immigrants Old –Prior to 1850 –Came from Germany and Western Europe –Skilled workers –Settled in rural areas New –After 1850 –Came from Eastern and Southern Europe –Unskilled –Settled in urban areas; ethnic neighborhoods

36 Integration Horizontal –Integration of all similar businesses –Creates a monopoly/trust Vertical –Combination of businesses used to make final product

37 Working conditions in factories Unsafe Dark Hot Unventilated unsanitary

38 Child labor Cheap Could fit into small places Easy to control Parents needed the money

39 Economics Traditional –Hunters and gatherers –Found in preindustrial societies Market –Based on the laws of supply and demand –Individuals make the decisions

40 Economies Command –Government makes most of the economic decisions Mixed –Decisions made by the government and individuals

41 Coming to American Push Factors –Religious and political persecution –Famine Pull factors –Job –Free land –Political and religious freedom –Better life –education

42 Rural to urban migration Farmers moved to the cities for jobs because they were not needed on the farms anymore

43 Immigrants Mixing Pot –Cultures mix together to form something new and different Salad Bowl –Cultures are tossed together but retain their cultural identity

44 Ports of Entry Ellis Island –European immigrants –Usually waited a few hours being inspected Angel Island –Asian Immigrants –Could wait for months to be processed

45 Mass culture Changed Americans way of life because Americans became more alike in their purchasing.

46 Nativism –Belief that native born Americans are superior Discrimination –Immigrants were discriminated because of their language, working for lower wages, their dress and their customs

47 Immigrants contributions to the U.S. Fueled industrialization Music Language Food Customs

48 Chinese Exclusion Act No more Chinese immigration Only immigrant group legally excluded

49 New South 3 legs of industry: natural resources, labor, and capital The South was missing labor and capital

50 Civil Rights Act of 1875 Was negated by the Supreme Court ruling that public accommodation was the decision of local and State courts

51 Plains Indians Nomadic following the buffalo Viewed the land as sacred

52 Dawes Act Gave Native Americans 160 Acres on a reservation Real purpose was to break up tribes and destroy tribe loyalty

53 Native American Leaders Chief Joseph –Was captured when leading his tribe to Canada Sitting Bull –Leader of the Sioux –Killed at Wounded Knee for allowing the Ghost Dance

54 Plain Wars Little Big Horn –Native American victory in a series of defeat –Gen. Custer was killed –Brought the full force of the Army Wounded Knee –Last battle of the Plains wars –Sitting Bull killed along with 190 unarmed Native Americans

55 Assimilation Being absorbed into a culture Failed for the Native Americans, it went against their culture; some became trapped between 2 cultures

56 Homestead Act Terms: 160 acres; must be 21; $10 to file, build a house, farm the land Wasn’t the best land and it was expensive to get started

57 Cattle Kingdom Rise: easy profit; grazing land Decline: overproduction and barbwire Cowtowns –Located at the end of the long drive at railroads to ship the cattle to markets in the north and east

58 Challenges living in the West Isolation Weather Competition for land

59 Genocide Systematic destruction on a race Was what happened to Native Americans genocide?

60 Railroads Brought supplies and settlers to the west Encouraged development Transported finished goods to the market

61 Removal of the Troops Allowed the White South to treat the African American as they wished

62 African Americans Gains –13, 14, 15 th Amendments –Education* Setbacks –White backlash –Violence –Un-enforced rights

63 African American Suffrage African Americans were disenfranchised because of –Literacy test –White primaries –Poll tax –*grandfather clause

64 African American Leaders Booker T. Washington –Believed education was the key to equality –gradualism W.E.B. DuBois –Believed equality should be demanded through suffrage

65 Women Gains –Education –Property rights Setbacks –suffrage

66 Federal jobs Spoil System –Government jobs given to loyal party supporters –patronage Civil Service System –Government jobs given to those qualified for after taking a test –Passed after Garfield’s assassination –Established with the Pendleton Act

67 Political Cartoonist Important because not everyone could read, but they could understand the cartoons Thomas Nast was a famous cartoonist, that exposed the greed of Boss Tweed

68 Problems of Farmers and attempts to solve Problems –Overproduction –Debt –Overcharged (banks and railroads) –No political power Attempts to solve –Looked to the government, the Grange, and the Populist party to help Evaluation - Most attempts were unsuccessful

69 Discrimination in the West Women Chinese –blamed for taking white jobs Mexicans- didn’t follow the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which allowed property rights African Americans

70 Parties after the War Republican –Lincoln –Supported by merchants, bankers –“waving the bloody shirt” –Active involvement in the government Democrats –Jefferson/Jackson –Supported by the South, farmers –The government that governs least it the best

71 Social Studies Skills and Methods Primary/Secondary Source Generalization/Trends

72 Merry Christmas and Happy New Year Mrs. Clark

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