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Problem Solving Model Tier I and Tier II

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1 Problem Solving Model Tier I and Tier II
Rowan Salisbury School System RtI Foundations Training June-September 2010 Amy Roberts and Erin Banks, School Psychologists

2 If what we’ve been doing works, why do we need something different
If what we’ve been doing works, why do we need something different? Because overall what we’ve done has not necessairly worked, so we need to make changes.

3 Shift Happens Why change, why now?
Legislation is necessitating a change Research has shown that there is a better way Briefly touch on the fact that IDEIA, 2004 put in place Response to Intervention (RtI) for eligibility determination of SLD students. This training will briefly touch on the eligibility piece, as you’re already heard. Research show us that intervening early is much more effective when correcting student’s academic difficulties or weaknesses.

4 Quick Review: What is RtI ?
The practice of providing high quality instruction matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying child response data to important educational decisions. Response to Intervention Policy Considerations and Implementation, NASDSE This is a review of the definition of Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) used in NC

5 Philosophy of RtI Changes in philosophy are necessary for all of those involved: All children can learn Focus on meeting the needs of all children Wealth of knowledge and partnership from parents Work collaboratively to develop solutions and strategies What is the reasoning behind RtI? Quick review: Students have different skills, and bring different needs. We are responsible for educating all students in our school. We need ownership. Parents are engaged with us from the beginning. They also understand more clearly specific data, such as “Your child can read 20 sight words and should be reading 50”, as opposed to “You child has a vocabulary deficit. We are all responsible for working collaboratively. We need to step out of our normal roles and duties. For example, the behavior lab specialist may regularly conduct progress monitoring for a group of students that do not have behavior issues.

6 Philosophy of RtI Proactive instruction within general education
Prevention more cost effective than remediation Utilize resources necessary to meet the educational needs of all children Research shows that early intervention makes a larger impact. The sooner we remediate—or correct the problem—the more effective the use of resources. Use ALL resources to meet the needs of ALL children.

7 Problem Solving Model An approach to developing interventions and ensuring positive student outcomes, rather than determining failure or deviance (Deno, 1995). Seven step cyclical process

8 1 2 6 3 5 4 Problem Solving (PSM) Process Step 1 Define the Problem
Develop a behavioral (observable) definition of problem 2 Step 7 Analysis of the Intervention Plan make a team decision on the effectiveness of the intervention Step 2 Develop an Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem 6 3 Step 6 Implement the Intervention Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include progress monitoring Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to test the hypothesis 5 4 Step 5 Develop an Intervention Plan Base interventions on best practices and research-proven strategies Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific Description of the changes expected in student behavior

9 What about Assessments?
RtI advocates two principles: Assessments should have a relationship to positive child outcomes, not just predictions of failure Assessments without this relationship do little to benefit children and waste precious time and resources We have historically had norm-referenced assessments, such as EOGs. They give us scores but have little direct effect on instruction. Using curriculum based assessments provides us with

10 Problem Solving Model Collaborate and consult: no “expert” makes determinations! Why is the problem occurring? Assessment is related to the problem Data is collected answer questions and provide basis for interventions Interventions are based on data collected Effectiveness of intervention is continuously tested and change is made when needed.

11 What About Traditional Evaluations?
Brief screening measures of IQ can rule out mental retardation If mental retardation is not suspected, measures of IQ have no role in LD diagnosis with RtI There may still be a need for assessments to rule out other disabilities. With the RtI model, the magical 15 discrepancy is no longer an issue.

12 Problem Solving Model (PSM) & Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI)
RtI uses PSM and frequent monitoring of student’s performance to determine the effectiveness of interventions “Is the student making sufficient progress with this intervention? Why or why not?” 4 Tiers are used to describe the increasing amount of support a student may need to make sufficient progress

13 Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom
Classroom Teacher And Parent EC Teacher Tier IV 1-3% RtI Support/ EC Teacher/ Interventionist/ Teacher/ Title 1 Teacher Classroom Teacher And Parent Tier III 3-5% Ex: 1:1-1:3 support 3-5 days per week Tier II 10-15% Ex: Small group instruction 2-3 days a week Classroom Teacher And Parent RtI Support Classroom Teacher And Parent Tier I 80-85% Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom

14 PSM & RtI All seven stages of PSM occur at each Tier
Movement through the tiers is FLUID and depends upon the severity of the problem and the intensity of services needed to adequately meet the student’s need. Tier 1 is the least amount of additional support while Tier IV is the most intensive amount of support.

15 How do we identify students in need?
Universal Screening: screen all students in the school to determine those in need of intervention Areas to Screen: Early Literacy, Early Numeracy, Reading, Math, Behavior, and Writing Rowan County uses: AIMSweb Children’s Progress Local Writing Assessment Discipline Referrals

16 RtI Measurement of intervention effectiveness
Early identification and early intervention Intervention increase in intensity, guided by data based decision making Monitor the intervention to ensure it is effectively addressing the need of the student. If it’s not working, change it. Identify need early and begin intervention. A graduated series of interventions that increase in intensity, as needed Early intervening means getting help early for the student. Again, we’re not waiting for the student to fail. As the demonstration of need increases, so does the intensity of the intervention.

17 So How Do We Do This Differently?
Problem-Solving Model!

18 Problem Solving Model (PSM)
The number of students with disabilities grew from 3.7 million to 5.3 million Eliminate inappropriate referrals and increase the legitimacy of the referrals initiated Research Data and philosophy. From 1977 to 1994 there was a marked increase in students identified with a disability, , despite school enrollment remaining constant. Collaborative problem-solving by a multidisciplinary team is a way to insure appropriate referrals.

19 PSM Laut et al. (2001) implemented a PSM/CBM model in three elementary schools 77% of the students that went through the previous (TAT) pre-referral process were referred for testing and only 35% qualified for special education services With the PSM/CBM model 50% of the students that went through the process were sent for testing and 75% were found eligible for special education services Recent research includes Molly Laut, out of Horry County, SC . She looked at the effect of RtI in three schools. The change came from looking at the data; looking at changes that could be put in place. What she found was a decrease in referrals, but an increase in the rate of appropriate referrals.

20 PSM 76% 80% An additional 6% reduction An additional 22% reduction
70% of K-5 initial placements first year are from K-2nd grade. 76% 80% After first year there has been an 8:1 reduction in Special Ed placements across 25 K-5 schools. An additional 6% reduction After first year there was a 45% reduction is special education placements for black males. An additional 22% reduction Parents satisfaction surveys indicate higher level of approval for the new process. The goal should be around 80% of referrals occurring in K-2, again supporting the practice of early intervention. Reduction of special ed placements. Think about those students who bounce around from school to school. Is the reason for academic struggles due to a disability or because of lack of consistent instruction? Example: Attendance at six schools in 2 years does not build a strong instructional pattern. RtI can be a factor in monitoring disproportionality. Parents are generally reporting that they are happy that their student is receiving help and support sooner.

21 Prerequisites Philosophy continued:
Evaluate effectiveness of educational strategies frequently Communicate accurate information about student progress regularly Provide opportunities for all children to achieve their goals Best educational strategy: the one that works!

22 PSM Model designed to meet the needs of diverse learners within school districts Attempts to identify and implement best educational strategies to meet the needs of all learners Requires significant changes in mind set and philosophy RtI will look differently in different places. Learners will also look different. We are changing our mind set to get the whole pictrure of the child. We need to ensure that appropriate strategies meet the needs of the student.

23 Thinking Outside the Box !
In other words, we want to think outside the box. We want to look at defining what the issues are. Our questions need to drive our assessment, which in turn drive the instruction.

24 Prerequisites Changes in mind-set that are necessary for all of those involved Student problems are defined Questions drive assessments Engage in instruction that addresses learning Intervention is derived from analysis of baseline data Change is needed: Change in mind-set; change in focus; change in ownership. What can we do differently? Questioning leads us to know what areas to assess. Instruction must address the learning needs that were identified. The intervention comes from looking at the data and making decisions based on the results of the data.

25 Training Important to have training on at least two components of RtI
Problem-Solving Model (PSM) Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) It is imperative that teams be trained in what a problem-solving model is, and how to use information from this monitoring to affect instruction. Curriculum Based Measurement or formative assessment measures what is being instructed and utilizes charting/graphing and progress monitoring. Don’t forget – peer reviewed research based interventions, team building, local norming, and case studies

26 Implementation of a RtI System
First three tiers call for implementation of Problem Solving Model and Curriculum Based Measure in the general education setting Fourth tier represents determining the need for special education referral – the highest level of service intensity

27 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I: Define the problem
Send out the Tier I notification form, social history and Working Together document and document date Give nurse the screening form Parent and teacher working together to define the problem What is it? When does it occur? Why is this happening? Then, analyze baseline data or develop plan for collecting baseline data (examples of baseline data: AIMSweb, Children’s Progress, DRA, writing assessments, etc.)

28 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I
Based on baseline data develop an intervention plan Parent and teacher together brainstorm ideas for interventions Discuss what interventions look like Look at differentiated instruction Create a Parent/Teacher Log Develop progress monitoring plan (Pre and Post-Test) Set time table for reconvening to evaluate interventions (4 to 6 weeks)

29 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Implement intervention plan
Evaluate Use progress monitoring (Post-Test) Determine effectiveness of intervention If child DID make progress - determine whether to continue/discontinue Tier I If child DID NOT make sufficient progress - modify Tier I OR consider moving to Tier II Put the plan in place. Teacher and parent use progress monitoring data to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Whether or not you determine to continue or to modify intervention is dependent upon your post-test data. If they made some progress and almost met their goal, you might consider modifying intervention and continuing in Tier I. Remember - Pre and Post test have to be the same instrument.

30 Examples of Data at Tier I
AIMSweb Children’s Progress Informal reading or math assessment DRA Writing assessment (Cold Write) Running Record Book and Print

31 Rowan Salisbury School RtI Tier I Forms
Direct participants to the forms behind this PowerPoint. Blank DPI -- RtI blank forms are found there.

32 Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom
Classroom Teacher And Parent EC Teacher Tier IV 1-3% RtI Support/ EC Teacher/ Interventionist/ Teacher/ Title 1 Teacher Classroom Teacher And Parent Tier III 3-5% Ex: 1:1-1:3 support 3-5 days per week Tier II 10-15% Ex: Small group instruction 2-3 days a week Classroom Teacher And Parent RtI Support Classroom Teacher And Parent Tier I 80-85% Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom

33 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier II
Send home Tier II Problem-Solving Parent Invitation and document date Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat, but more school personnel are involved as needed Parent Teacher Grade level-team Counselor, school psychologist, reading teacher, administrator, social worker, nurse, etc.

34 PSM Procedures Examples at Tier II
Parent, Teacher and Other Teacher/Specialist (other professional in the building) Title 1 services Informal speech interventions Intervention groups 2-3 times a week for 30 minutes Computer remediation lab: Orchard, Waterford, Prescriptive Instruction

35 Tier II Procedures Develop Tier II Intervention Plan to include:
Identify the problem Complete areas of concerns and indicate strengths, needs, and current levels (Only complete the areas of concern) Document baseline (the Post-Test data from Tier I if in AIMSweb, PI and Waterford; if not, you need to get a baseline in AIMSweb, PI or Waterford) List 2 most significant behaviors that are interfering with classroom performance if applicable Document the goal/expected performance: 25th percentile Specify intervention: who, when, where and what Decision Date: date you are holding the meeting

36 Progress Monitoring at Tier II
In Tier II, progress monitoring takes places every other week (2x a month) Document on Tier II paperwork the date and results of the progress monitoring Meet back as a team to evaluate the intervention and to analyze progress monitoring data If sufficient progress is made, consider continuing at Tier II OR moving to Tier I If sufficient progress is NOT made, consider continuing at Tier II and modifying plan OR moving to Tier III Cannot use CP or DRA, etc. at Tier II because you can’t progress monitor frequently enough Again - you will need to look at the data to determine moving to Tier III, staying at Tier II or dropping back to Tier I. If you modify intervention then plan the next meeting date to analyze progress monitoring data

37 Rowan Salisbury Schools Tier II forms
Direct participants to Tier II paperwork.

38 Time to Review….

39 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI
School-based collaborative process Uses problem solving approach to identify academic/behavioral needs Involves data-based decision-making Primary purpose is to design useful interventions in the regular education environment

40 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI
The focus is on Problem Solving… Not a mechanism for referring students to special education It is Not a Pre-referral team Assessment is functional & diagnostic Interventions based on data… Not a guessing game

41 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI
Interventionists School Volunteers Any available staff member Peer tutoring Parents Teacher’s Aides Intervention Specialist Key: Training ! The people who are the most knowledgeable should be working with the lowest group

42 Final Thoughts and Conclusions
OWNERSHIP Administrators are key! To successfully implement a PSM/CBM system on the district, school, and individual levels, everyone must take ownership Top down implementation is very important

43 Final Thoughts and Conclusions
Change in mind-set Areas for training Team Building PSM CBM Local Norming Research-Based Interventions for reading, math, written expression, and behavior Progress monitoring and charting etc Implementation requires a significant shift in philosophy and a focused training effort

44 Final Thoughts and Conclusions
Research has shown repeatedly that all of the time, effort, and money is worth it !

45 General education/special education changes
Send us your tired, your hungry, your poor…. Your students who aren’t performing…. Shift from placement to high quality interventions Progress of ALL students (tied with NCLB – AYP) Shift from focus on placement in special education as the intervention TO high quality interventions in general education

46 Questions Regular Educators May Ask:
What is a high quality intervention? How do I do more in my class? How do I collect and use data to make decisions?

47 Special Educators Skills in individualized, remedial interventions
Share with general educators! Classroom, teacher, and individual student support

48 Roles of District and School Leaders:
Support Provide vision Reinforce effective practices Expect accountability Provide support for systems change effort Training Coaching Technology Policies Batsche & Curtis, 2005 Provide vision for outcomes based service delivery

49 Roles, con’t: Principal Vision of Problem-Solving Process
Supports development of expectations Allocation of resources Facilitates priority setting Ensures follow-up Supports program evaluation Monitors staff support/climate Batsche & Curtis, 2005

50 Questions and Conclusions
Drowning in information?

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