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1 Problem Solving Model Tier I and Tier II Rowan Salisbury School System RtI Foundations Training June-September 2010 Amy Roberts and Erin Banks, School.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Problem Solving Model Tier I and Tier II Rowan Salisbury School System RtI Foundations Training June-September 2010 Amy Roberts and Erin Banks, School."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Problem Solving Model Tier I and Tier II Rowan Salisbury School System RtI Foundations Training June-September 2010 Amy Roberts and Erin Banks, School Psychologists

2 2

3 3 Shift Happens Why change, why now? Legislation is necessitating a change Research has shown that there is a better way

4 4 Quick Review: What is RtI ? The practice of providing high quality instruction matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying child response data to important educational decisions. Response to Intervention Policy Considerations and Implementation, NASDSE

5 5 Philosophy of RtI Changes in philosophy are necessary for all of those involved: All children can learn Focus on meeting the needs of all children Wealth of knowledge and partnership from parents Work collaboratively to develop solutions and strategies

6 6 Philosophy of RtI Proactive instruction within general education Prevention more cost effective than remediation Utilize resources necessary to meet the educational needs of all children

7 7 Problem Solving Model An approach to developing interventions and ensuring positive student outcomes, rather than determining failure or deviance (Deno, 1995). Seven step cyclical process

8 8 Problem Solving (PSM) Process Step 7 Analysis of the Intervention Plan make a team decision on the effectiveness of the intervention Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral (observable) definition of problem Step 2 Develop an Assessment Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions related to the problem Step 3 Analysis of the Assessment Plan Create a functional and multidimensional assessment to test the hypothesis Step 4 Generate a Goal Statement Specific Description of the changes expected in student behavior Step 5 Develop an Intervention Plan Base interventions on best practices and research-proven strategies Step 6 Implement the Intervention Plan Provide strategies, materials, and resources: include progress monitoring

9 9 What about Assessments? RtI advocates two principles: Assessments should have a relationship to positive child outcomes, not just predictions of failure Assessments without this relationship do little to benefit children and waste precious time and resources

10 10 Problem Solving Model Collaborate and consult: no “expert” makes determinations! Why is the problem occurring? Assessment is related to the problem Data is collected answer questions and provide basis for interventions Interventions are based on data collected Effectiveness of intervention is continuously tested and change is made when needed.

11 11 What About Traditional Evaluations? Brief screening measures of IQ can rule out mental retardation If mental retardation is not suspected, measures of IQ have no role in LD diagnosis with RtI

12 12 Problem Solving Model (PSM) & Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) RtI uses PSM and frequent monitoring of student’s performance to determine the effectiveness of interventions “Is the student making sufficient progress with this intervention? Why or why not?” 4 Tiers are used to describe the increasing amount of support a student may need to make sufficient progress

13 13 Tier I 80-85% Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom Tier II 10-15% Ex: Small group instruction 2-3 days a week Tier III 3-5% Ex: 1:1-1:3 support 3-5 days per week Tier IV 1-3% Classroom Teacher And Parent RtI Support Classroom Teacher And Parent Classroom Teacher And Parent Classroom Teacher And Parent RtI Support/ EC Teacher/ Interventionist/ Teacher/ Title 1 Teacher EC Teacher

14 14 PSM & RtI All seven stages of PSM occur at each Tier Movement through the tiers is FLUID and depends upon the severity of the problem and the intensity of services needed to adequately meet the student’s need. Tier 1 is the least amount of additional support while Tier IV is the most intensive amount of support.

15 15 How do we identify students in need? Universal Screening: screen all students in the school to determine those in need of intervention  Areas to Screen: Early Literacy, Early Numeracy, Reading, Math, Behavior, and Writing Rowan County uses:  AIMSweb  Children’s Progress  Local Writing Assessment  Discipline Referrals

16 16 RtI Measurement of intervention effectiveness Early identification and early intervention Intervention increase in intensity, guided by data based decision making

17 17 So How Do We Do This Differently? Problem-Solving Model!

18 18 Problem Solving Model (PSM) The number of students with disabilities grew from 3.7 million to 5.3 million Eliminate inappropriate referrals and increase the legitimacy of the referrals initiated

19 19 PSM Laut et al. (2001) implemented a PSM/CBM model in three elementary schools 77% of the students that went through the previous (TAT) pre-referral process were referred for testing and only 35% qualified for special education services With the PSM/CBM model 50% of the students that went through the process were sent for testing and 75% were found eligible for special education services

20 20 PSM 70% of K-5 initial placements first year are from K-2 nd grade.  76%  80% After first year there has been an 8:1 reduction in Special Ed placements across 25 K-5 schools.  An additional 6% reduction After first year there was a 45% reduction is special education placements for black males.  An additional 22% reduction Parents satisfaction surveys indicate higher level of approval for the new process.

21 21 Prerequisites Philosophy continued: Evaluate effectiveness of educational strategies frequently Communicate accurate information about student progress regularly Provide opportunities for all children to achieve their goals Best educational strategy: the one that works!

22 22 PSM Model designed to meet the needs of diverse learners within school districts Attempts to identify and implement best educational strategies to meet the needs of all learners Requires significant changes in mind set and philosophy

23 23 Thinking Outside the Box !

24 24 Prerequisites Changes in mind-set that are necessary for all of those involved Student problems are defined Questions drive assessments Engage in instruction that addresses learning Intervention is derived from analysis of baseline data

25 25 Training Important to have training on at least two components of RtI Problem-Solving Model (PSM) Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM)

26 26 Implementation of a RtI System First three tiers call for implementation of Problem Solving Model and Curriculum Based Measure in the general education setting Fourth tier represents determining the need for special education referral – the highest level of service intensity

27 27 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I: Define the problem  Send out the Tier I notification form, social history and Working Together document and document date  Give nurse the screening form Parent and teacher working together to define the problem What is it? When does it occur? Why is this happening? Then, analyze baseline data or develop plan for collecting baseline data (examples of baseline data: AIMSweb, Children’s Progress, DRA, writing assessments, etc.)

28 28 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Based on baseline data develop an intervention plan Parent and teacher together brainstorm ideas for interventions Discuss what interventions look like Look at differentiated instruction Create a Parent/Teacher Log Develop progress monitoring plan (Pre and Post-Test) Set time table for reconvening to evaluate interventions (4 to 6 weeks)

29 29 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Implement intervention plan Evaluate Use progress monitoring (Post-Test) Determine effectiveness of intervention  If child DID make progress - determine whether to continue/discontinue Tier I  If child DID NOT make sufficient progress - modify Tier I OR consider moving to Tier II

30 30 Examples of Data at Tier I AIMSweb Children’s Progress Informal reading or math assessment DRA Writing assessment (Cold Write) Running Record Book and Print

31 31 Rowan Salisbury School RtI Tier I Forms

32 32 Tier I 80-85% Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom Tier II 10-15% Ex: Small group instruction 2-3 days a week Tier III 3-5% Ex: 1:1-1:3 support 3-5 days per week Tier IV 1-3% Classroom Teacher And Parent RtI Support Classroom Teacher And Parent Classroom Teacher And Parent Classroom Teacher And Parent RtI Support/ EC Teacher/ Interventionist/ Teacher/ Title 1 Teacher EC Teacher

33 33 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier II  Send home Tier II Problem-Solving Parent Invitation and document date  Steps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat, but more school personnel are involved as needed Parent Teacher Grade level-team Counselor, school psychologist, reading teacher, administrator, social worker, nurse, etc.

34 34 PSM Procedures Examples at Tier II Parent, Teacher and Other Teacher/Specialist (other professional in the building) Title 1 services Informal speech interventions Intervention groups 2-3 times a week for 30 minutes Computer remediation lab: Orchard, Waterford, Prescriptive Instruction

35 35 Tier II Procedures Develop Tier II Intervention Plan to include:  Identify the problem  Complete areas of concerns and indicate strengths, needs, and current levels (Only complete the areas of concern)  Document baseline (the Post-Test data from Tier I if in AIMSweb, PI and Waterford; if not, you need to get a baseline in AIMSweb, PI or Waterford)  List 2 most significant behaviors that are interfering with classroom performance if applicable  Document the goal/expected performance: 25th percentile  Specify intervention: who, when, where and what  Decision Date: date you are holding the meeting

36 36 Progress Monitoring at Tier II In Tier II, progress monitoring takes places every other week (2x a month) Document on Tier II paperwork the date and results of the progress monitoring Meet back as a team to evaluate the intervention and to analyze progress monitoring data  If sufficient progress is made, consider continuing at Tier II OR moving to Tier I  If sufficient progress is NOT made, consider continuing at Tier II and modifying plan OR moving to Tier III

37 37 Rowan Salisbury Schools Tier II forms

38 38 Time to Review….

39 39 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI School-based collaborative process Uses problem solving approach to identify academic/behavioral needs Involves data-based decision-making Primary purpose is to design useful interventions in the regular education environment

40 40 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI The focus is on Problem Solving… Not a mechanism for referring students to special education It is Not a Pre-referral team Assessment is functional & diagnostic Interventions based on data… Not a guessing game

41 41 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI Interventionists School Volunteers Any available staff member Peer tutoring Parents Teacher’s Aides Intervention Specialist Key: Training !

42 42 Final Thoughts and Conclusions OWNERSHIP Administrators are key!

43 43 Final Thoughts and Conclusions Change in mind-set Areas for training Team Building PSM CBM Local Norming Research-Based Interventions for reading, math, written expression, and behavior Progress monitoring and charting etc

44 44 Final Thoughts and Conclusions Research has shown repeatedly that all of the time, effort, and money is worth it !

45 45 General education/special education changes Send us your tired, your hungry, your poor…. Your students who aren’t performing…. Shift from placement to high quality interventions Progress of ALL students (tied with NCLB – AYP)

46 46 Questions Regular Educators May Ask: What is a high quality intervention? How do I do more in my class? How do I collect and use data to make decisions?

47 47 Special Educators Skills in individualized, remedial interventions Share with general educators! Classroom, teacher, and individual student support

48 48 Roles of District and School Leaders: District: Support Provide vision Reinforce effective practices Expect accountability Provide support for systems change effort Training Coaching Technology Policies Batsche & Curtis, 2005

49 49 Roles, con’t: Principal Vision of Problem-Solving Process Supports development of expectations Allocation of resources Facilitates priority setting Ensures follow-up Supports program evaluation Monitors staff support/climate Batsche & Curtis, 2005

50 50 Questions and Conclusions Drowning in information?


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