Presentation on theme: "Problem Solving Model Tier I and Tier II"— Presentation transcript:
1 Problem Solving Model Tier I and Tier II Rowan Salisbury School SystemRtI Foundations TrainingJune-September 2010Amy Roberts and Erin Banks, School Psychologists
2 If what we’ve been doing works, why do we need something different If what we’ve been doing works, why do we need something different? Because overall what we’ve done has not necessairly worked, so we need to make changes.
3 Shift Happens Why change, why now? Legislation is necessitating a changeResearch has shown that there is a better wayBriefly touch on the fact that IDEIA, 2004 put in place Response to Intervention (RtI) for eligibility determination of SLD students. This training will briefly touch on the eligibility piece, as you’re already heard. Research show us that intervening early is much more effective when correcting student’s academic difficulties or weaknesses.
4 Quick Review: What is RtI ? The practice of providing high quality instruction matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying child response data to important educational decisions.Response to InterventionPolicy Considerations and Implementation,NASDSEThis is a review of the definition of Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) used in NC
5 Philosophy of RtIChanges in philosophy are necessary for all of those involved:All children can learnFocus on meeting the needs of all childrenWealth of knowledge and partnership from parentsWork collaboratively to develop solutions and strategiesWhat is the reasoning behind RtI? Quick review:Students have different skills, and bring different needs.We are responsible for educating all students in our school. We need ownership.Parents are engaged with us from the beginning. They also understand more clearly specific data, such as “Your child can read 20 sight words and should be reading 50”, as opposed to “You child has a vocabulary deficit.We are all responsible for working collaboratively. We need to step out of our normal roles and duties. For example, the behavior lab specialist may regularly conduct progress monitoring for a group of students that do not have behavior issues.
6 Philosophy of RtI Proactive instruction within general education Prevention more cost effective than remediationUtilize resources necessary to meet the educational needs of all childrenResearch shows that early intervention makes a larger impact.The sooner we remediate—or correct the problem—the more effective the use of resources.Use ALL resources to meet the needs of ALL children.
7 Problem Solving ModelAn approach to developing interventions and ensuring positive student outcomes, rather than determining failure or deviance (Deno, 1995).Seven step cyclical process
8 1 2 6 3 5 4 Problem Solving (PSM) Process Step 1 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral(observable) definitionof problem2Step 7Analysis of theIntervention Planmake a team decision on the effectiveness of theinterventionStep 2Develop anAssessment PlanGenerate a hypothesis and assessment questionsrelated to the problem63Step 6Implement the Intervention PlanProvide strategies, materials, and resources: includeprogress monitoringStep 3Analysis of the Assessment PlanCreate a functional and multidimensional assessment totest the hypothesis54Step 5Develop an Intervention PlanBase interventions on best practices and research-proven strategiesStep 4Generate a Goal StatementSpecific Description of the changes expected in studentbehavior
9 What about Assessments? RtI advocates two principles:Assessments should have a relationship to positive child outcomes, not just predictions of failureAssessments without this relationship do little to benefit children and waste precious time and resourcesWe have historically had norm-referenced assessments, such as EOGs. They give us scores but have little direct effect on instruction. Using curriculum based assessments provides us with
10 Problem Solving ModelCollaborate and consult: no “expert” makes determinations!Why is the problem occurring?Assessment is related to the problemData is collected answer questions and provide basis for interventionsInterventions are based on data collectedEffectiveness of intervention is continuously tested and change is made when needed.
11 What About Traditional Evaluations? Brief screening measures of IQ can rule out mental retardationIf mental retardation is not suspected, measures of IQ have no role in LD diagnosis with RtIThere may still be a need for assessments to rule out other disabilities. With the RtI model, the magical 15 discrepancy is no longer an issue.
12 Problem Solving Model (PSM) & Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) RtI uses PSM and frequent monitoring of student’s performance to determine the effectiveness of interventions“Is the student making sufficient progress with this intervention? Why or why not?”4 Tiers are used to describe the increasing amount of support a student may need to make sufficient progress
13 Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom Classroom TeacherAnd ParentEC TeacherTier IV1-3%RtI Support/EC Teacher/Interventionist/Teacher/Title 1 TeacherClassroom TeacherAnd ParentTier III3-5%Ex: 1:1-1:3 support3-5 days per weekTier II10-15%Ex: Small group instruction2-3 days a weekClassroom TeacherAnd ParentRtI SupportClassroom TeacherAnd ParentTier I80-85%Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom
14 PSM & RtI All seven stages of PSM occur at each Tier Movement through the tiers is FLUID and depends upon the severity of the problem and the intensity of services needed to adequately meet the student’s need.Tier 1 is the least amount of additional support while Tier IV is the most intensive amount of support.
15 How do we identify students in need? Universal Screening: screen all students in the school to determine those in need of interventionAreas to Screen: Early Literacy, Early Numeracy, Reading, Math, Behavior, and WritingRowan County uses:AIMSwebChildren’s ProgressLocal Writing AssessmentDiscipline Referrals
16 RtI Measurement of intervention effectiveness Early identification and early interventionIntervention increase in intensity, guided by data based decision makingMonitor the intervention to ensure it is effectively addressing the need of the student. If it’s not working, change it.Identify need early and begin intervention.A graduated series of interventions that increase in intensity, as neededEarly intervening means getting help early for the student. Again, we’re not waiting for the student to fail.As the demonstration of need increases, so does the intensity of the intervention.
17 So How Do We Do This Differently? Problem-SolvingModel!
18 Problem Solving Model (PSM) The number of students with disabilities grew from 3.7 million to 5.3 millionEliminate inappropriate referrals and increase the legitimacy of the referrals initiatedResearch Data and philosophy.From 1977 to 1994 there was a marked increase in students identified with a disability, , despite school enrollment remaining constant.Collaborative problem-solving by a multidisciplinary team is a way to insure appropriate referrals.
19 PSMLaut et al. (2001) implemented a PSM/CBM model in three elementary schools77% of the students that went through the previous (TAT) pre-referral process were referred for testing and only 35% qualified for special education servicesWith the PSM/CBM model 50% of the students that went through the process were sent for testing and 75% were found eligible for special education servicesRecent research includes Molly Laut, out of Horry County, SC . She looked at the effect of RtI in three schools.The change came from looking at the data; looking at changes that could be put in place. What she found was a decrease in referrals, but an increase in the rate of appropriate referrals.
20 PSM 76% 80% An additional 6% reduction An additional 22% reduction 70% of K-5 initial placements first year are from K-2nd grade.76%80%After first year there has been an 8:1 reduction in Special Ed placements across 25 K-5 schools.An additional 6% reductionAfter first year there was a 45% reduction is special education placements for black males.An additional 22% reductionParents satisfaction surveys indicate higher level of approval for the new process.The goal should be around 80% of referrals occurring in K-2, again supporting the practice of early intervention.Reduction of special ed placements. Think about those students who bounce around from school to school. Is the reason for academic struggles due to a disability or because of lack of consistent instruction? Example: Attendance at six schools in 2 years does not build a strong instructional pattern.RtI can be a factor in monitoring disproportionality.Parents are generally reporting that they are happy that their student is receiving help and support sooner.
21 Prerequisites Philosophy continued: Evaluate effectiveness of educational strategies frequentlyCommunicate accurate information about student progress regularlyProvide opportunities for all children to achieve their goalsBest educational strategy: the one that works!
22 PSMModel designed to meet the needs of diverse learners within school districtsAttempts to identify and implement best educational strategies to meet the needs of all learnersRequires significant changes in mind set and philosophyRtI will look differently in different places. Learners will also look different. We are changing our mind set to get the whole pictrure of the child. We need to ensure that appropriate strategies meet the needs of the student.
23 Thinking Outside the Box ! In other words, we want to think outside the box. We want to look at defining what the issues are. Our questions need to drive our assessment, which in turn drive the instruction.
24 PrerequisitesChanges in mind-set that are necessary for all of those involvedStudent problems are definedQuestions drive assessmentsEngage in instruction that addresses learningIntervention is derived from analysis of baseline dataChange is needed: Change in mind-set; change in focus; change in ownership. What can we do differently? Questioning leads us to know what areas to assess. Instruction must address the learning needs that were identified. The intervention comes from looking at the data and making decisions based on the results of the data.
25 Training Important to have training on at least two components of RtI Problem-Solving Model (PSM)Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM)It is imperative that teams be trained in what a problem-solving model is, and how to use information from this monitoring to affect instruction. Curriculum Based Measurement or formative assessment measures what is being instructed and utilizes charting/graphing and progress monitoring. Don’t forget – peer reviewed research based interventions, team building, local norming, and case studies
26 Implementation of a RtI System First three tiers call for implementation of Problem Solving Model and Curriculum Based Measure in the general education settingFourth tier represents determining the need for special education referral – the highest level of service intensity
27 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I: Define the problem Send out the Tier I notification form, social history and Working Together document and document dateGive nurse the screening formParent and teacher working together to define the problemWhat is it?When does it occur?Why is this happening?Then, analyze baseline data or develop plan for collecting baseline data (examples of baseline data: AIMSweb, Children’s Progress, DRA, writing assessments, etc.)
28 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Based on baseline data develop an intervention planParent and teacher together brainstorm ideas for interventionsDiscuss what interventions look likeLook at differentiated instructionCreate a Parent/Teacher LogDevelop progress monitoring plan (Pre and Post-Test)Set time table for reconvening to evaluate interventions (4 to 6 weeks)
29 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier I Implement intervention plan EvaluateUse progress monitoring (Post-Test)Determine effectiveness of interventionIf child DID make progress - determine whether to continue/discontinue Tier IIf child DID NOT make sufficient progress - modify Tier I OR consider moving to Tier IIPut the plan in place. Teacher and parent use progress monitoring data to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Whether or not you determine to continue or to modify intervention is dependent upon your post-test data. If they made some progress and almost met their goal, you might consider modifying intervention and continuing in Tier I. Remember - Pre and Post test have to be the same instrument.
30 Examples of Data at Tier I AIMSwebChildren’s ProgressInformal reading or math assessmentDRAWriting assessment (Cold Write)Running RecordBook and Print
31 Rowan Salisbury School RtI Tier I Forms Direct participants to the forms behind this PowerPoint. Blank DPI -- RtI blank forms are found there.
32 Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom Classroom TeacherAnd ParentEC TeacherTier IV1-3%RtI Support/EC Teacher/Interventionist/Teacher/Title 1 TeacherClassroom TeacherAnd ParentTier III3-5%Ex: 1:1-1:3 support3-5 days per weekTier II10-15%Ex: Small group instruction2-3 days a weekClassroom TeacherAnd ParentRtI SupportClassroom TeacherAnd ParentTier I80-85%Example: Differentiated instruction within the classroom
33 PSM Procedures Activities at Tier II Send home Tier II Problem-Solving Parent Invitation and document dateSteps of cyclical problem-solving model repeat, but more school personnel are involved as neededParentTeacherGrade level-teamCounselor, school psychologist, reading teacher, administrator, social worker, nurse, etc.
34 PSM Procedures Examples at Tier II Parent, Teacher and Other Teacher/Specialist (other professional in the building)Title 1 servicesInformal speech interventionsIntervention groups 2-3 times a week for 30 minutesComputer remediation lab: Orchard, Waterford, Prescriptive Instruction
35 Tier II Procedures Develop Tier II Intervention Plan to include: Identify the problemComplete areas of concerns and indicate strengths, needs, and current levels (Only complete the areas of concern)Document baseline (the Post-Test data from Tier I if in AIMSweb, PI and Waterford; if not, you need to get a baseline in AIMSweb, PI or Waterford)List 2 most significant behaviors that are interfering with classroom performance if applicableDocument the goal/expected performance: 25th percentileSpecify intervention: who, when, where and whatDecision Date: date you are holding the meeting
36 Progress Monitoring at Tier II In Tier II, progress monitoring takes places every other week (2x a month)Document on Tier II paperwork the date and results of the progress monitoringMeet back as a team to evaluate the intervention and to analyze progress monitoring dataIf sufficient progress is made, consider continuing at Tier II OR moving to Tier IIf sufficient progress is NOT made, consider continuing at Tier II and modifying plan OR moving to Tier IIICannot use CP or DRA, etc. at Tier II because you can’t progress monitor frequently enoughAgain - you will need to look at the data to determine moving to Tier III, staying at Tier II or dropping back to Tier I.If you modify intervention then plan the next meeting date to analyze progress monitoring data
37 Rowan Salisbury Schools Tier II forms Direct participants to Tier II paperwork.
39 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI School-based collaborative processUses problem solving approach to identify academic/behavioral needsInvolves data-based decision-makingPrimary purpose is to design useful interventions in the regular education environment
40 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI The focus is on Problem Solving…Not a mechanism for referring students to special educationIt is Not a Pre-referral teamAssessment is functional & diagnosticInterventions based on data…Not a guessing game
41 Important Points to Consider and/or Remember when Implementing RtI InterventionistsSchool VolunteersAny available staff memberPeer tutoringParentsTeacher’s AidesIntervention SpecialistKey: Training !The people who are the most knowledgeable should be working with the lowest group
42 Final Thoughts and Conclusions OWNERSHIPAdministrators are key!To successfully implement a PSM/CBM system on the district, school, and individual levels, everyone must take ownershipTop down implementation is very important
43 Final Thoughts and Conclusions Change in mind-setAreas for trainingTeam BuildingPSMCBMLocal NormingResearch-Based Interventions for reading, math, written expression, and behaviorProgress monitoring and chartingetcImplementation requires a significant shift in philosophy and a focused training effort
44 Final Thoughts and Conclusions Research has shown repeatedly that all of the time, effort, and money is worth it !
45 General education/special education changes Send us your tired, your hungry, your poor…. Your students who aren’t performing….Shift from placement to high quality interventionsProgress of ALL students (tied with NCLB – AYP)Shift from focus on placement in special education as the intervention TO high quality interventions in general education
46 Questions Regular Educators May Ask: What is a high quality intervention?How do I do more in my class?How do I collect and use data to make decisions?
47 Special Educators Skills in individualized, remedial interventions Share with general educators!Classroom, teacher, and individual student support
48 Roles of District and School Leaders: SupportProvide visionReinforce effective practicesExpect accountabilityProvide support for systems change effortTrainingCoachingTechnologyPoliciesBatsche & Curtis, 2005Provide vision for outcomes based service delivery
49 Roles, con’t: Principal Vision of Problem-Solving Process Supports development of expectationsAllocation of resourcesFacilitates priority settingEnsures follow-upSupports program evaluationMonitors staff support/climateBatsche & Curtis, 2005
50 Questions and Conclusions Drowning in information?