4Learning Targets Sections 1-1and 1-2 Explain the goals of scienceExplain what a hypothesis is and give examplesList and explain the steps of the scientific method
5What is Science? Science: A systematic way of learning about the world The goal of science is to….Investigate & Understand natureExplain events in natureMake predictions based on explanationsThe goal of technology is…to use science to improve our daily lives
6What is Biology? Bio: Life or living organism Logy: The study of Break It Down:Bio: Life or living organismLogy: The study ofExamples of words with Bio- in them? With –logy in them?
7Themes of Biology Two Main Themes of Biology: Shared Properties of Living Things/LifeWhat we will be learning 1st semesterBiochemistryCellsGeneticsDiversity of Living Things/Life
9Me, A Scientist?Science is asking questions about nature and investigating to try to find “answers”Remember: One of our first goals of science was to try to understand natureAnswers are not always achieved, logical explanations are foundExamples in your life where you may act as a scientist
10What Is My Job?Scientists seek proof, or explanations for things occurring in natureThese explanations are often used to build predictions (another goal of science)What is the method called that scientists use to come up with these reasonable explanations?
11The Scientific MethodA series of steps scientists use to help solve a problemCan be used by all people and for all problemsSteps:ObservationsState the problemMake a testable hypothesisExperimentation- (Designing & Complete)Data- Record and AnalyzeForm a conclusionRepeat and publish results
12Let’s Create a Mnemonic Device This HAS to be in order:O________________S ________________H________________E ________________D________________C________________R________________
131. Observations Observe the world around you/sometimes called research Involves using the 5 sensesKeep an open mind with no conclusionsInformation gathered from observations is called evidence
14Observations, cont’d. TWO TYPES: Quantitative Observation: Deals with numerical values or a quantityExample: The dog weighs 55 poundsQualitative Observation:Usually does not involve a numerical value but rather a descriptive statement.Example: The dog is heavy.
151–1 A)qualitative observations. B)hypothetical observations. Observations involving numbers are known asA)qualitative observations.B)hypothetical observations.C)quantitative observations.D)inferred observations.
16Interpreting Evidence Inference is a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience.Not necessarily based on fact or experimental data.Inferences are formed after observations have been made
171–1A scientist takes paint chips from 10 apartments in a large building. She tests for the presence of lead in the paint and finds it in all 10 samples. She then concludes that lead paint is probably present in all 120 apartments in the building. This conclusion is an example ofA) a scientific fact.B) a scientific error.C) proof.D) a reasonable inference.
18What type of observations are these? StatementObservationInferenceObject A is round and orange.Object A is a basketball.Object C is round, black and white.Object C is larger than Object B.Object B is smooth.Object B is a table-tennis ball.Each object is used in a different sport.XXXXXXXWhat is Object C?Soccer BallWhat type of observations are these?Qualitative
202. State the Problem Identify the problem to study Based on observations, curiosity and past experiencesEx: Is it living or non-living?
213. Form a testable Hypothesis Where do hypothesescome from?Prior KnowledgeLogical InferencesImaginative Guesses
22Hypotheses, cont’d. Form a Hypothesis: Attempts to explain the event before facts are gathered and testedMust be testable!!!Should contain “If” and “Then”Ex: If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light, then people with a high exposure to UV light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer.
23Try writing your own hypothesis Use the following problem to come up with a hypothesis and write it down in your notes.Problem: The leaves on one of your house plants are turning yellow. The plant gets plenty of sunlight and water, but it is located in front of a drafty window where it gets very cold.
244. Experimentation Determine if the hypothesis is correct Repeat experiments many, many timesAccuracy of results depends on amount of data collectedOnly changeone variable ata time, keep allothers controlled
25Experimentation, cont’d. Two parts to an experiment:Control: the part of the experiment that stays the sameVariable: the part of the experiment that is being testedIndependent Variable/Manipulated VariableThe variable that scientists deliberately changeGraphed on the X-axisDependent Variable/Responding VariableThe variable that changes in response to the manipulated variableGraphed on the Y-axis
26Redi’s Experiment Uncovered jars Covered jars Maggots appear OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat.HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots.PROCEDUREUncovered jarsCovered jarsControlled Variables:jars, type of meat,location, temperature,timeSeveraldays passManipulated Variables:gauze covering thatkeeps flies away frommeatResponding Variable:whether maggotsappearMaggots appearNo maggots appearCONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.
27Apply It! Redi’s Experiment Observations: Flies land on meant that is left uncovered. After time, maggots appear on the meat.Hypothesis: Flies produce maggots.Controlled Variables: jars, types of meat, location, temperature, timeManipulated Variables: Gauze covering that keeps flies out of jars, away from meatResponding Variables: Whether maggots appear or notConclusion: Maggots only form when flies come in contact with meat. There is no spontaneous generation of maggots.
285. Data- Record and Analyze Written records of their observation during the experiments (data)Measurements (numbers, tick marks, etc.)Observations (statements, notes, etc.)Graphs, charts are developed to show relationships within the data
29Bell Ringer 8/22Without using your notes try to answer the following questions in your science journal.What is the goal of science?What is a hypothesis and in what form should it presented?List the steps of the Scientific Method. (Use your mnuemonic)
30Graphing Criteria Things to do when graphing: Title Label X and Y axis with variable label and unitsNumbering interval on each axis must be uniformPoints are plotted neatly“Best Fit” line for linear data, or smooth curves for other dataMust be neat and legibleUse entire sheet of graph paper
31Types of Graphs Line Graphs: Frequently used in science X axis always contains the independent or manipulated dataY axis contains the dependent or responding variable.Multiple related data sets can be graphed on one graphMust use a legend or keyUse different colors or line types
406. Come to a ConclusionThe summary of all the information gathered in an experimentRestates the hypothesisIdentifies if the hypothesis was accepted or rejectedWill identify at least 3 errors to the experiment
417. Repeat and Publish Investigations A key assumption in science is that experimental results can be reproduced.Therefore, scientists test one another’s investigationsYour procedure needs to be able to be reproduced—your conclusion will not be accepted if it cannot be reproduced
42Fact, Theory, and Law Fact A known truth about something Ex: It is 85° outsideTheoryThe most logical explanation for an event in natureBased on careful observation and analysisMust be dependable and reproducibleEx: The World is FlatLawDescribes an eventSummarizes repeated observationsEx: Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion
43A Scientific View of the World Scientists assume the universe obeys certain rules and those rules can be discovered and understoodA good scientist should be curious, open minded, honest, and skeptical
44The Study of Living Things Characteristics of Life in the Scientific World
45Learning Targets Section 1-3: Studying Life List and describe the characteristics of living thingsDescribe how life can be studied at different levels.Distinguish between living and non-living things
46What is Biology? We determined early in Chapter 1 that… BIO means… LOGY means…Biology studies the living worldUsing the Scientific Method
47Characteristics of Living Things Biologists still debate today what it takes to constitute a living thingMOST agree that there are 8 characteristics that are common to living things
488 Common Characteristics Living Things… Are made up of CELLSREPRODUCEBased on a universal GENETIC CODEGROW AND DEVELOPOBTAIN and USE materials and ENERGYRESPOND to their environmentMAINTAIN stable living ENVIRONMENTAs a group, CHANGE OVER TIME
49Lets Think of a mneumonic Device This one does not have to have a specific order!Be creative!Use the letters:C, R, G, G, E, R, M & C
50Living Things: Made of CELLS Cell: collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundingsCells are the smallest units of an organism that can be considered aliveComplex and highly organizedUnicellular vs. MulticellularHuman Red Blood Cells
52Living Things: REPRODUCE Two Basic Kinds of Reproduction:Sexual ReproductionTwo cells from different parents produce first cell of new organismMost multicellular organisms produce this wayAsexual ReproductionNew organism is produced by a single parentIn some cases, a single-celled organism will divide in half to form two new organismsOther times, a new organism can grow out of (or split off from) the existing organism--Budding
54Living Things: Based on a GENETIC CODE Offspring usually resemble their parentsIn Asexual Reproduction, offspring and parents have the exact same traitsIn Sexual Reproduction, offspring differ from their parents (in limited ways)
55Living Things: Genetic Code Directions for inheritance are carried by DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)With minor exceptions, DNA genetic code determines the inherited traits of EVERY organism on Earth!
57Living Things: GROW AND DEVELOP Every organism has a distinct life cycle—there is a set pattern of growth and change that occursAll organisms grow during at least part of their lives (increase in size)Multicellular organisms’ life cycles involve a process called development—cells increase in number and differentiateDevelopment is LIMITED OR NON-EXISTENT in unicellular organisms
58THINK- PAIR- SHARETHINK- Close your notes and think about the four characteristics of life we just discussed.PAIR- Turn to your partner and see if you can list them and explain what they mean.SHARE- You and your partner pair up with another group and share what you know about the four characteristics we just learned.
59Living Things: OBTAIN AND USE ENERGY Organisms take in selected materials they need from their surroundings (environment)—BUT the way that they obtain energy variesPlants from Sunlight, Sheep from Plants, etc.Decomposers from remains of dead organismsMetabolism: Combination of chemical reactions through which organisms build up or break down materials required for life processes
61Living Things: RESPOND TO ENVIRONMENT Necessary because organisms live in constantly changing environments (light, temperature, etc)Each organism responds to the environment in their own waySome slow, some fastEX: New leaves and stems growing from a tree grow towards light
63Living Things: Maintain Stable Internal Environment HOMEOSTASIS: Process by which organisms keep their internal environments relatively stableEx: Plants can take in and give off water as neededIf homeostasis is disrupted in a major way, the organism cannot survive
64Living Things: CHANGE OVER TIME Basic traits of organisms stay the same over their lifetimeGroups of organisms change over time, or EVOLVEOccurs over hundreds of thousands or even millions of years, not just a few generationsUsually in response to changes in their environmentsOrganisms naturally make changes over time to increase the species’ chances of survival
66THINK PAIR SHARETHINK- Close your notes and think about the four characteristics of life we just discussed.PAIR- Turn to your partner and see if you can list them and explain what they mean.SHARE- Share with each other why it might be important for us to make a list of qualities that living things must share.
67Concept CheckUsing what you know so far explain in your science journal how the following pictures exhibits all of the characteristics of living thingsTURN IN YOUR RESPONSE
68BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY Biology is often organized into branches Some divisions are based on the type of organism being studiedZoologists (study animals)Botanists (study plants)Ethologists (study animal behavior)Some divisions are based on the idea that life can be studied at different levels of organization-Molecules -Populations-Cells -Communities-Groups of Cells -Ecosystems-Organisms -Biospheres
69Levels of Organization BiosphereThe part of Earththat contains allecosystemsBiosphereCommunity andits nonlivingsurroundingsEcosystemHawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, airCommunityPopulations thatlive together in adefined areaHawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grassGroup oforganisms of onetype that live inthe same areaPopulationGo to Section:Bison herd
70Bison Organism Groups of Cells Cells Molecules Go to Section: Individual livingthingBisonGroups ofCellsTissues, organs,and organ systemsNervous tissueBrainNervous systemCellsSmallest functionalunit of lifeNerve cellGroups of atoms;smallest unit ofmost chemicalcompoundsMoleculesWaterDNAGo to Section:
71HOW DOES BIOLOGY AFFECT ME? More than any other science, Biology helps you understand what affects the quality of your lifeWhat DOES affect the quality of your life?
73Learning Targets Section 1-4: Tools and Procedures Describe the measurementsystem most scientists use,and be able to make conversionsUnderstand why it is necessary for scientists to use the same measurement systemExplain how light microscopes and electron microscopes are similar and different
74Common Measurement System THE METRIC SYSTEMThe metric system is the most widely used system of measurement in the worldThe United States is one of the two countries in the world that does not use the metric system (Burma is the other)System International is the governing body for the metric system (SI)The metric system is based on units of 10
75Why the Same System?Scientists need a common system of measurement to be able to replicate others’ experiments, so they use the metric system when collecting DATA
76Temperature-Celsius (°C) Common Metric UnitsLength-meter (m)Mass- gram (g)1 meter = 100 centimeters (cm)1 meter = 1000 millimeters (mm)1000 meters = 1 kilometer (km)1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams1 gram = milligrams (mg)1000 kilograms (kg) = 1 metric ton (t)Volume-liter (L)Temperature-Celsius (°C)1 liter = 1000 milliliters (mL)1 liter = 1000 cubic centimeters(cm3 or cc)0°C= freezing point of water100°C = boiling point of water
77Metric Prefixes Name Meaning Abbr Kilo X 1000 k Hecta (Hecto) X 100 H DecaX 10DDeci/ 10dCenti/ 100cMilli/ 1000mTeraX 1012TGigaX 109GPicoX 10-12pMicroX 10-6
78Metric Line k H D base unit d c m Kiss Him/Her Dummy But Don’t Catch MonoBase units:Meter (m)Liter (L)Gram (g)
79Metric Conversions Metric Line Place finger on starting prefix Place 2nd finger on ending prefixCount the lines between fingersMove the decimal place the # of lines toward the 2nd fingerAdd zeros to hold placek H D base unit d c m
80Answers:1 km = 1000 m12 mm = 1.2 cm4.2 L = 4200mLConvert the following:1 km = ________ m12 mm = _______ cm4.2 L = _______ mL
81MicroscopesDevices that produce magnified images of things too small to see with the unaided eyeTwo typesLight microscopeElectron
82Compound Light Microscopes Magnify images by focusing visible light raysAdvantage: view living thingsDisadvantage: Resolution limit is only 1000X
84Electron Microscopes Magnify images by focusing electrons Advantage: higher resolution limit, about 100,000X normal size100X higher than a light microscopeDisadvantage: Organisms must be stained and are in a vacuum (cannot view live specimens)
85Two Types of Electron Microscopes Scanning electron microscopes (SEM)Takes a 3-D view of the surfaceTransmission electron microscopes (TEM)Beam of electrons passes through a thin sliceSpecimens must stained and sliced
87According to the Video… On a sheet of paper, give me the two ways that Light Microscopes differ from Electron MicroscopesTURN IT IN!
88Laboratory Techniques for Studying Cells Cell CulturesGrow cells in dish from a single organismUsed toTest cell responses under controlled conditionsStudy interactions between cellsSelect specific cells for further study
89Laboratory Techniques for Studying Cells, cont’d. Cell FractionationMethod of separating the pieces of broken cellsStepsBreak cells apartAdd liquid and mixCentrifuge to separate by mass (spin very fast)
90Cell FractionationBiologists can remove specific parts to be studied by selecting layer.
911–1Which of the following shows the interaction of science and human values?the debate over the best way to produce electricityinvestigating how a manatee behavesDetermining what causes a diseaseusing a hypothesis to test an explanation
921–1 A possible explanation for a set of observations is known as data. a hypothesis.an inference.a result.
931–1 A good scientific hypothesis must be correct. able to be tested. obvious.based on common sense.
941–2 control. manipulated variable. responding variable. In an experiment, the variable that is deliberately changed is called thecontrol.manipulated variable.responding variable.constant control
951–2 biogenesis. Pasteur's theory. spontaneous generation. The mistaken belief that living organisms can arise from nonliving matter is calledbiogenesis.Pasteur's theory.spontaneous generation.Spallanzani’s hypothesis.
961–2 the kind of meat used the temperature the jars were kept Which of the following was the manipulated variable in Redi’s experiment?the kind of meat usedthe temperature the jars were keptthe gauze covering on some jarsthe kind of fly that visited the jars
971–2 hypothesis. variable. control. theory. A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations is ahypothesis.variable.control.theory.
981–2 a majority of scientists agree with it. A scientific explanation does not become a theory untila majority of scientists agree with it.it has been supported by evidence from numerous investigations and observations.it is first proposed as an explanation.it is published in a textbook.
991-3 growth. metabolism. development. differentiation. An increase in size is known asgrowth.metabolism.development.differentiation.
1001-3 use of energy made of cells stable internal environment Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all living things?use of energymade of cellsstable internal environmentneed for oxygen
1011-3 cells, tissues, organs, and organisms Which of the following are branches in the study of biology?cells, tissues, organs, and organismsbotany, cell biology, ecology, and zoologypopulations, communities, and ecosystemsthe genetic code, evolution, and the biosphere
1021-3The genetic code is carried inWater.DNA.proteins.soil.
1031-3 organisms, cells, populations, molecules, ecosystems Which of the following shows the levels of organization in correct order from the simplest to the most complex?organisms, cells, populations, molecules, ecosystemsecosystems, populations, organisms, cells, moleculesmolecules, cells, organisms, populations, ecosystemsmolecules, organisms, cells, populations, ecosystems
1041-4A single measurement system is commonly used in science becauseit allows scientists to easily replicate one another’s experiments.basic units of mass, length, and volume are unrelated to one another.more kinds of measurements can be made.computers can store large amounts of scientific data.
1051-4 larger objects with less detail. larger objects with more detail. Compared to a light microscope, an electron microscope is used to observelarger objects with less detail.larger objects with more detail.smaller objects with more detail.smaller objects with less detail.
1061-4 centrifuge. cell culture. light microscope. electron microscope. A device that separates cell parts is acentrifuge.cell culture.light microscope.electron microscope.
1071-4 staining. cell fractionation. cell culturing. cell fertilizing. A technique in which cells are grown in a nutrient solution is known asstaining.cell fractionation.cell culturing.cell fertilizing.
1081-4 make sure all materials are available. When you work in a biology laboratory situation, your first priority should be tomake sure all materials are available.modify any instructions that do not make sense.familiarize yourself with all safety rules before beginning to work.know ahead of time what kinds of results to expect.