2Section 1: The Rise of Dictators Due to economic hardship, and bitterness from the terms of WWI resolution, several dictatorships arose in Europe in the 1920s and 30s.
3Totalitarian Rule When government has total control over a nation. Dominates all aspects of life.Uses terror and violence to suppress individual rights and silence opposition.
4Fascism Fascism is a form of totalitarianism Fascism emphasized national interests over individual interests and the supreme authority of the leader.Opposed the economic principles of communism, despite the similarity of dictatorship.
5Soviet Union: Joseph Stalin LeninStalinJoseph Stalin took control of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenin died in 1924.Even more extreme than Lenin, plans to take “one great leap forward” to communism.Launched five-year plans to communize all agriculture and build new industry.
6Stalin’s Economic Plans Forced small family farms to form huge collective farms; forced resistors off their land.Punished resistors by confiscating the food they produced.Millions of people starved during the state takeover of farming.Stalin sent 5 million peasants to labor camps in Siberia.
7Stalin’s Industrial Takeover Assigned millions of laborers from rural areas to build and run new industrial centers producing iron, steel, oil, and coal.Neglected to produce essential consumer goods, clothing, and housing.Soviet quality of life fell even amidst new, industrial strength.
8Stalin’s Reign of Terror Enforced his political power through numerous “purges”, removing enemies or dissidents perceived to be a threat.The Great Purge began in 1934By 1939, his agents hadArrested over 7 million peopleExecuted over 1 millionSent millions more into forced labor campsNearly all were innocent victims of Stalin’s paranoia
9Italy: Benito Mussolini Wounded in WWI.Bitter that the Versailles Treaty didn’t grant Italy more territory.Formed the Fascist Party in 1919Called himself Il Duce, “the leader”Organized fascist groups throughout ItalyRelied on gangs of thugs to terrorize opponents
10MussoliniMussolini’s following grew increasingly powerful amidst economic hardship.In 1922, he threatened to march on Rome, the king panicked and appointed him prime minister.Took firm dictatorial control; suspended elections and outlawed all other political parties.Dreamed of recreating the great Roman Empire.Slogan: “The Country is Nothing Without Conquest.”
11Hitler’s Rise to PowerLike Mussolini, Hitler was wounded physically and emotionally by WWI.Enraged by the settlement terms.Germany had been forced to give up territory, pay steep reparations, and accept blame for the war.
12The Nazi PartyIn 1919, Hitler joined a small political group that became the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi Party.Nazism was a form of fascism that promoted intense German nationalism and racial superiority.Hitler’s powerful speaking skills quickly made him a leader.
13Failed UprisingIn 1923, with 3,000 followers, Hitler tried to overthrow the German government.The uprising was easily crushed and Hitler was sentenced to 5 years in prison.Spent only 9 months in jail, during which he wrote Mein Kampf, “my struggle”.Articulated his views of Germany’s problems and outline his plans for revitalization.Heavily blamed the Jewish race as a sort of cancer to German progress.
14The Great Race: Aryan Race Hitler, along with many others, believed in the supremacy of the “Aryan race”: blond-haired, blue-eyed Germans.Believed all other races to be inferior, particularly the Jewish race.Significant research was done to reinforce this belief scientifically.Today, biologists agree that race isn’t even a helpful biological or genetic classification.
15Germany’s EconomyEven during America’s booming 1920s economy, Germany suffered hyperinflation (rapid devaluing of currency).When the global economy crashed in 1929, things became desperate.Hitler’s bold promises and confidence attracted this desperation.
16Hitler Becomes Chancellor With rapidly increasing popularity, Hitler placed second in the presidential election of 1932.In 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor, head of German government.Hitler quickly began suspending freedom of speech and press.Nazi thugs began violent terrorization of those who opposed Hitler.
17Growing PowerIn 1933 elections, the Nazis won enough seats to take control of parliament.In 1934, German President Hindenburg died.Hitler became both chancellor and president.Called this new role Der Fuhrer: “the leader”
18Germany RearmsIn violation of the Versailles Treaty, the Nazis secretly began rebuilding Germany’s armed forces.Hired unemployed workers to build public buildings and a highway system known as the autobahn.Unemployment fell to near zero and by 1936, the Depression had ended in Germany.
191936 Olympics Hitler hoped to display new German power and industry. Hoped to prove racial dominance of the Aryan RaceAfrican American Jesse Owens wins 5 medals
201936In 1936, German troops entered Rhineland, in Western Germany, an area that the Versailles Treaty had prohibited Germany from rearming.Hitler took a risk in sending military forces to Rhineland, but Britain and France did nothing.Hitler and Mussolini signed an alliance.
22Germany Expands; Sudetenland Two years later, a much stronger German Army was sent to invade Austria, Hitler’s homeland.Britain and France protested but did nothing.Months later, Hitler demanded the Sudetenland, a western portion of Czechoslovakia.
23Neville Chamberlain: Appeasement Neville Chamberlain, Britain’s Prime Minister, pursued a policy of appeasement.Appeasement- giving in to a competitor’s demands in order to keep peace.Chamberlain met with Hitler and Mussolini in Munich, Germany in 1938 and agreed to give Hitler the Sudetenland in hopes to satisfy his appetite for territory.
24Pablo Picasso's famous Guernica Spanish Civil WarIn 1937 a Civil War broke out in Spain between the government and rebels.Germany and Italy provided aid to the rebels and bombed the Spanish town of Guernica into ruins, gaining international attention.One witness said the attack was “a preview of the end of the world.”Pablo Picasso's famous Guernica
25Section 2: Europe Goes to War Germany’s continued aggression finally pushed France and Britain to enter a war they tried to avoid.
26Chamberlain’s Appeasement Some praised Neville Chamberlain as a peacemaker, others saw appeasement as giving power to an enemy.Winston Churchill, at the time a member of Parliament said, “Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.”
27Continued Expansion6 months after granting Hitler the Sudetenland, Germany had taken all of Czechoslovakia.In March of 1939, Britain and France threatened Hitler with war if he continued expanding.B&F pledged support to Poland in the event of their invasion.
28Hitler’s Pact With Stalin To avoid two-fronted war, Hitler and Stalin signed a ten-year Nonaggression Pact.Although they were sworn enemies, Stalin didn’t think Hitler planned on attacking the Soviet Union.Hitler wanted to buy a period of peace on the Eastern frontier.
29Invasion of Poland; War Begins On September 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland causing Britain and France to declare war on Germany.Britain and France had more soldiers than Germany, but lacked the organization and armament of Germany.
30Blitzkrieg; “Lightening War” In Poland, Germany revealed a new form of mass-attack warfare, blitzkrieg.Dive-bombing warplanes attacked first, then tanks moved in, surrounded, and destroyed the enemy.Germany overran Poland in less than a month.
32InactionAfter the fall of Poland the war entered a period of inaction for several months.The British and French held back, fearing great losses, while Hitler regrouped and waited.A strong fortification called the Maginot Line, protected France from an attack, but not on their Belgium border.
33German AttackOn April 9, 1940, war resumed as Hitler attacked Denmark and Norway.In May Germany launched blitzkrieg on the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.They were all overrun within days or weeks.Meanwhile, they invaded Northern France by going above the Maginot Line.
34DunkirkInvasion of France divided British and French Troops into two groups, the north and south.At the coastal city of Dunkirk, facing sure defeat in the north, troops retreated on a makeshift fleet of boats across the English Channel into Great Britain.340,000 troops were saved, leaving on 900 vessels.
35Fall of FranceAfter the retreat of Dunkirk, German troops turned and swept through southern France.In stunning speed, Germany captured Paris by June 14, and on the 22nd France officially surrendered.By the summer of 1940, Hitler had conquered almost all of Western Europe.
37Battle of BritainBritain presented a different challenge for Germany, being an island with a strong Navy.Germany focused on controlling the air.In August 1940, he launched an unprecedented air assault known as the Battle of Britain.
38Battle of BritainFor over a month, as many as 1,000 planes dropped bombs on Britain each day.At first, Germany only attacked British ports and airfields.Soon they also began attacking aircraft factories and oil tanks.Finally, they began bombing the city of London itself.
39Bombing CiviliansThe bombing of cities/civilians was a historic shift in warfare, breaking the “rules” of war.Both sides of the war continued bombing population centers throughout the remainder of the war.
40Defense/ProtectionBritain’s Royal Air Force, though greatly outnumbered, went into the sky to counterattack the German bombers.Britain also managed to crack the code of German communication, to learn their plans.Londoners routinely hid in bunkers and ran for cover during air raids.
41Section 3: Japan Builds an Empire While dictators gained power in Europe, a separate imperial power was growing in East Asia, Japan.
42Japan and WWI Japan had joined the Allies in WWI. Thrived economically after the war.Enacted a two-party political system and joined international peace agreements.Showed signs of stability and democracy, initially.
43Democracy in CrisisJapan experienced sharp economic recessions in the 1920s that intensified in Global Depression of the 1930s.Massive layoffs and strikes led to political discontent.Japanese blamed the new democratic, multiparty system of government for taking too long to deal with problems.
44Rise of NationalismRadical nationalist groups formed in response to the government’s perceived weakness.Demanded an end to multiparty political system.Radicals assassinated business and political leaders.
45ManchuriaJapan’s population was exploding and struggled to provide food and resources for everyone.Thought the acquisition of Manchuria, at the time a part of China, could provide them with new resources and undeveloped land.
46The Manchurian Incident In 1931, a Japanese army stationed in Manchuria claimed that Chinese soldiers became violent and seized several Manchurian cities.The operation was not supported by Japanese government, who attempted to stop the seizure.The Japanese army operated independently and by 1932 had taken over all of Manchuria.
47The Manchurian Incident Japan announced that Manchuria was an independent state, called Manchukuo, under Japanese protection.Manchukuo was a puppet state, a supposed “independent” country under the control of a powerful neighbor.Japan sent millions of farmers, entrepreneurs, and soldiers to secure it as a Japanese colony.
48OppositionThis takeover, known as the Manchurian Incident, was opposed by the U.S. and Britain, but they did nothing to stop it.The League of Nations ordered Japan to end occupation, Japan refused and withdrew from the League.
49Military PowerThe Manchurian Incident gave the military power over the government.In 1932, naval officers helped assassinate the prime minister and other politicians.Japan’s government was never actually overthrown, but its power was lost to the army.Politicians were afraid to speak out against the military for fear of their own lives.
50War Against China In 1937, Japan extended their invasion of China. A minor clash outside of Beijing turned into full-scale war.Japan occupied Beijing and threatened all of northern China.Japan’s superior weapons overpowered China’s greater manpower.
51War Against China Japanese warplanes ruthlessly bombed Chinese cities. During the “Rape of Nanjing,” Japanese soldiers brutalized or killed over 100,000 civilians, including women and children.
52Aid to Chinese The much of the world condemned Japan’s actions. Roosevelt, “ the epidemic of lawlessness is spreading.”The Soviet Union supplied China with arms, warplanes, and military advisors.Britain sent supplies to China over the Burma Road, a 700-mile-long highway linking Burma to China.
53Chinese UnificationJiang JieshiMao ZedongThe war unified China in opposition to Japan, particularly two longtime enemies.General Jiang Jieshi: military leader of ChinaMao Zedong: Chinese Communist leaderThe two had been struggling for power but joined together to fight Japan.By 1939, the war had reached a sort of stalemate.
54Looking Beyond ChinaAs Europe became distracted with their own war, Japan chose to expand their empire to the south.Announced a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, to unite the territory from Manchuria to the Dutch East Indies.Presented it as a liberation of the countries, but really an invasion for resources.
55Axis PowersIn September 1940, Japan allied itself with Germany and Italy.Signed a neutrality pact with the Soviet Union in 1941.With early success, Japan turned their attention to challenging America.
56Section 4: From Isolationism to War After an early policy of neutrality, the U.S. began aiding the allies, before entering the war after the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor.
57United States Neutrality Struggling to overcome the Great Depression, the U.S. focused internally during the 1930s, not abroad.The Hawley-Smoot tariff in 1930 prompted the stagnation of international trade.
58Neutrality ActsCongress passed a series of Neutrality Acts, designed to limit international involvement.1935- banned the U.S. from providing weapons to nations at war.1936- banned loans to these nations.1937- permitted trade with fighting nations in nonmilitary goods, but required the country to pay cash and transport the cargo themselves.Known as cash and carry
59Growing ConcernIn the late 1930s, the U.S. economy was slowly recovering, allowing for more international attention.Concern over both German and Japanese expansion began to grow.After Germany invaded Poland, the country still opposed going to war, but heavily sympathized with Britain.
60Debating the American Role After the war officially began in 1939, Roosevelt asked Congress to revise the Neutrality Acts.Congress repealed the arms embargo and began providing Britain and France with weapons.Neutrality legislation still prevented them from lending money to the Allies.
61France FallsFrance fell so quickly that many Americans began to support more extensive aid to Britain.The U.S. sent 50 destroyer ships to Britain in exchange for permission to build bases on British territory.Americans who opposed involvement formed the America First Committee.Charles Lindbergh was a prominent and vocal critic of foreign involvement.
62FDR and ChurchillIn 1940, FDR won reelection to a third term, freeing him from campaign pressures.Britain was running out of money and resources.Churchill wrote to FDR, “the moment approaches, when we shall no longer be able to pay cash for shipping and other supplies.”
63Lend-LeaseFDR proposed a bold solution: lend Britain supplies without payment in return.“If your neighbor’s house is on fire, you don’t sell him a hose. You lend it to him and take it back after the fire is out. –RooseveltCongress passed the Lend-Lease Act in March, 1941.Authorized the President to aid any nation whose defense was considered vital to American security.
66Relations with JapanAlthough focused on Europe, the U.S. also began limiting purchases from Japan.Ended sales of iron and steel.After Japan seized French IndochinaFDR froze Japanese financial assets in the U.S.Cut off all oil shipments/trade
67Final Weeks of PeaceAmidst growing tension, General Tojo Hideki became Japan’s prime minister in October 1941.Tojo was a militant army officer who supported war against the U.S.America had cracked Japanese code this time.By Nov. 27, Americans decoded messages that spoke of Japanese aircraft movement and American attacks.They expected an attack, but didn’t know where.
68Pearl Harbor AttackOn December 7, 1941, 180 Japanese warplanes attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.Half of America’s Pacific Fleet was stationed at Pearl Harbor.In less than two hours…2,400 Americans were killed; 1,200 wounded200 American warplanes destroyed or damaged18 warships sunk or damaged; 8 out of 9 of the fleet’s battleships.
69United States Declares War Pearl Harbor stunned AmericaRoosevelt called December 7, 1941, “a date that will live in infamy.”The very next day, December 8, the U.S. declared war on Japan.Days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.