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Writing IEPs for Entry Level Students from Early Intervention

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1 Writing IEPs for Entry Level Students from Early Intervention
COMPLEX NEEDS Autistic, Life Skills and Multiple Disabilities Support Office of Specialized Instructional Services This presentation will provide information about writing goals and objectives and other IEP components for students coming into complex support needs programs from early intervention. These programs are life skills support, autistic support and multiple disabilities. You will also learn some of the characteristics of complex support needs students, the domains of the life skills curriculum, specifics about the autism support program, and what makes a quality program.

2 LIFE SKILLS PROGRAMS A Functional Skills Program
Students Learn Life Skills Functional Academics Standards Aligned Core Curriculum When Appropriate Students In Autistic Support May Have A More Academic Program And Include Behavior And Social Skills. Complex Support Needs Replaces Low Incidence Supplemental Or Itinerant Level Of Service IDEA defines life skills support as a functional program for students who have intellectual disabilities ( formerly known as mental retardation) and who need to learn functional life skills. Life Skills Support is not a program for students who have only significant academic deficits, although students in life skills support programs are usually substantially below grade level in academic areas. This is not to imply that students in LSS programs are not taught academics. In additional to functional academics, students are instructed in reading and math using researched-based direct instruction programs. Students in autistic support have a diagnosis on the autism spectrum disorder. They may also have an intellectual disability, behavior problems, and speech and language deficits. Their program focuses on the ABCs- academics, behavior, communication and social and sensory. Students in multiple disabilities support have severe and profound multiple disabilities, usually severe to profound intellectual disability ( previously known as mental retardation) , along with language deficits, behavior problems, health impairments, physical disabilities, and/or autism,and may also be deaf or blind.

Many students in complex support needs programs received early intervention services Students are diagnosed with developmental delay under age 5 Transition to school age program includes reevaluation Entry reevaluation can include- Review of records, observation, interview of parent and teachers, assessment of cognitive and adaptive behavior functioning, academic achievement, screening for related services, other assessments as indicated Many students in LSS, MDS, & AS programs attended Early Intervention programs, and come to the district with an IEP and evaluation data from their EI program. The transition to school age program includes a reevaluation to minimally review the records and update the data. A full reevaluation would consist of a measures of cognitive functioning, literacy and math levels, adaptive behavior, and assessments from related service providers as needed such as speech and language assessment, need for physical therapy, need for occupation therapy, medical evaluation, functional vision, and functional hearing. Some students may need a functional behavior assessment and measures of social/emotional functioning or autism assessment. Observations and reports from school staff and parent interviews is also included

4 COMPLEX SUPPORT NEEDS Psychological evaluation
Measures of cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior Academic achievement Social and behavior evaluations Life skills and transition Other evaluations by related service providers Other evaluations such as autism rating scales Information from report used to identify present levels and baselines. This describes the battery of tests that could be given for an initial evaluation for a student with moderate disabilities.

5 Complex Support Needs- Behavior
Functional Behavior Assessment- use when behavior difficulty is indicated in the considerations section Interview of parent, therapists, teachers, and other people who work with the student Observations Review of data Look for patterns Summary Statement- When____ (antecedent to the behavior of concern),student ________ (behavior of concern),in order to (perceived function of the behavior)________. Analyze behavior to determine function A functional behavior assessment can be found on EZ system, and on Pattan’s website. There are three levels of an FBA from informal to complete. An FBA looks for patterns of the targeted behavior, and determines the reinforcement maintaining the behavior . An FBA helps a team determine the function of the behavior. Behaviors occur to get something or to avoid or escape from something. This is the function of a behavior. The summary statement should be listed in the present levels section of the iep.

6 Complex Support Needs-Behavior
Positive behavior support plan-PBSP Start with summary of FBA Look for reinforcer that is maintaining behavior Replacement behaviors Strategies- positive reinforcement, redirect, avoid triggers, behavior shaping Address skills deficits Behavior goals, objectives and strategies (SDIs on IEP) Environmental/ sensory changes and supports needed The positive behavior support plan begins with the summary statement of the FBA. The PBSP is a worksheet which guides the team through the process of how the student’s targeted behavior will be replaced by the desired behavior.

7 Positive Behavior Support Plans
Positive Behavior Support Plans should be written directly into Easy IEP Behavior section. Based on positive ways to change practices Use positive reinforcement to shape behavior Employ techniques to develop and maintain socially appropriate skills while enhancing opportunities for learning Use the least intrusive intervention possible To alter patterns of problem behaviors- behaviors of families, teachers, staff need to change What will we do differently? “If nothing changes……nothing changes”

8 SAMPLE BEHAVIOR GOAL Present Level – When demands are made including academic tasks, routines, and requests, when fatigue or illness is present, when unexpected tasks are involved, when directives are given, or during transitions, the student will cry and withdraw in order to postpone, avoid, or escape activities. The rate of the behavior was recorded at 3 times per day. Goal - Given PA Standard SIS.1.A: Identify and manage one’s emotions and behavior, when becoming stressed or anxious, Student will engage in deep breathing or ask for a sensory activity from his sensory “diet” plan to create calm with independence at 80%. Objectives: When becoming stressed or anxious, follow a behavioral model of deep breathing 5 slow breaths or request for a sensory activity with 80% accuracy over 3 consecutive probes. Objectives: When becoming stressed or anxious, follow a verbal prompt to engage in deep breathing for 5 slow breaths or request a sensory activity with 80% accuracy over 3 consecutive probes. Specially Designed Instruction: Use a most to least hierarchy by providing a behavioral model, then simple, short verbal prompt to independence. Supervision needed during task demands to be aware of changing mood in order to intervene at onset of stress or anxiety with breathing/sensory.

9 Complex Support Needs- Goals
All goals and objectives are based on baseline data and present levels Must assess and review data to establish baseline percentage And set target percentage Use life skills domains when reevaluation report includes deficits in these areas and low academic development. Literacy and math is used for students with academic readiness

10 Standards Aligned- SAS
Website to provide standards- Lists state standards in many formats Provides standards, assessment anchors, eligible content Assessments, Curriculum Framework, Instruction, Materials and Resources, Sample Lessons Organized by grades or grade bands Strive for standards aligned goals Strive for Standards Aligned Instruction

11 Standards for Kindergarten K-3
Health and Safety Identify personal hygiene practices Recognize Safe/unsafe practices-fire, electrical, pets and animals Identify and engage in physical activities that promote fitness and health Recognize and use basic movement skills and concepts-run, walk, crawl, jump, leap, hop, stretch, reach. throw, over, under, in, through, Interpersonal Skills Standards Self-management skills for life and school success-identify and manage emotions and behavior These are some goals from the k-3 grade band for health and interpersonal skills.

12 Standards for Kindergarten K-3
Literacy 1.1.K.B Employ word recognition techniques, identify letters, segment and blend sounds 1.1.K.C Expand Language 1.1.K.D Demonstrate listening comprehension 1.6.K.A Listen and respond appropriately to others 1.6.K.B Speak clearly enough to be understood, share stories, experiences, and interests 1.8.K.A Ask Questions

13 Standards for Kindergarten K-3
Mathematics 2.1.K.A Demonstrate relationships between numbers and quantities, rote count,1 to 1 correspondence 2.3.K.F Compare objects to determine greater or lesser 2.5.K.B Use appropriate mathematical vocabulary 2.6.K.B Organize objects by attributes 2.8.K.A Demonstrate understanding of equal and not equal 2.9.K.A Identify common 2D shapes 2.11.K.A Order from least to greatest

14 COMPLEX SUPPORT NEEDS Speech and language/communication
Speech and language pathologist administers language assessment Communication matrix used for students at lower levels of functioning Assistive technology evaluation for students needing an alternative communication system High tech devices and low tech picture systems Reevaluation report will have levels and recommendations. Speech pathologist will complete present levels, goals, sdi’s and related services. Do not change entries made by related service providers. Invite them to the IEP meeting. Information about speech and communication

15 Visual Supports Students with autism should have goals or SDIs that speak to following visual supports and structure These are example of student daily schedules that could be part of an autistic support program

16 Visual Structure Visual Instruction sequence to complete the task
Autistic support students are uaually visual learners. Visual Instruction sequence to complete the task

Life Skills Curriculum Functional Alternative curriculum Leads towards independence Vocational skills focus Transition skills included Embed functional skills in core curriculum content Standard aligned IEPS and instruction Life skills curriculum available on OSIS website- elementary and secondary The life skills curriculum was developed to provide a functional curriculum. It can be aligned to the state standards, and embedded in the standard aligned instruction. COPIES OF THE FULL LIFE SKILLS CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY ,AND AN OUTLINE IS AVAILABLE ON THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OSIS WEBSITE.

6 Life Skills Domains Personal Maintenance Interpersonal Communication Vocational Functional Academics Domestic Maintenance Recreation and Leisure Some students have goals for literacy and math depending on their abilities and strengths. Behavior and social skills goals are included when indicated. All domains- present levels and goals, are available on easy IEP Students who are able receive instruction in literacy and math, and have goals and objectives for literacy and math in addition to life skills goals.

Personal Maintenance Care of Self Dressing Hygiene Bathroom And Toileting Skills Mealtime Skills And Etiquette Fitness Safety Healthy Choices Not all Life skills student need instruction in personal maintenance.

Present functional level (from Re-Evaluation Report) Student can follow one-step directions. When uses toilet needs supervision and redirection to maintain focus. Goal-Given Student in bathroom at school or in the community, Student will follow task analysis of hand washing (Health and Safety Identify personal hygiene practices) with gesture prompts at 80% Objective- Student will keep water in sink at 80% Objective- Student will ask to wash hands after messy activities and before eating at 80% Specially Designed Instruction- Set goal for student when beginning task, positive reinforcement for attempts to follow directions, include hand washing on student schedule, follow visual schedule

Present Functional Levels (from Re-Eval Report)- Student cannot sit unsupported, dependent on caregiver for all activities and personal care, wears diapers, does not indicate the need for diaper to be changed, can move arms and legs when given a light physical prompt. Given student in situation where dressing/undressing is required, Student will (Health and Safety use basic movement skills) move arm/leg in or out of clothing with a light touch to the elbow or knee with success at 80% Objectives- straighten arm to push it through a sleeve 80%, straighten leg to push it through pant leg 80% SDI-give a light touch to knee/elbow, praise for attempts, use loose clothing.

Domestic Maintenance Care Of Environment Keeping Desk Area Clean and Neat Care Of Belongings Shopping- Planning, Make List Cooking and Meal Preparation Domestic Skills-cleaning and Organization Simple Repairs- Replacing Batteries Leads To Independence Can Lead To Vocation Skill The overarching goal of life skills is to teach the student to be independent when they graduate. This domain provides skills that are needed for self-maintenance and also can lead to vocational skills.

Vocational Fine Motor Skills Work Habits Task Completion Following Directions Work Related Skills And Behavior Career Awareness High School Work Site Program Transition Planning Work related skills and behaviors are taught along with specific work skills. It is very important that students learn how to remain on task, come to work when scheduled, follow through on the job without taking unscheduled breaks, speak and dress appropriately, and are able to work at the direction of a supervisor.

Given student sitting at the work table and presented with 10 objects with 2 different attributes (2.6.K.B- organize objects by one or more attribute) Student will sort objects into 2 groups, with verbal prompts correctly at 80%. Objectives- Student will sort objects by 2 colors at 80, Student will sort objects by 3 colors at 80%, Student will sort objects by size at 80%, Student will sort objects by their function at 80%. SDIs- Increase attributes as Student gains the skill of sorting , use containers to hold the objects, ask Student to describe the attribute, Student needs to know when task begins and ends, use shapes, letters, and numbers. This goal could be appropriate for MDS, AS or LSS student. As student gains skills in the area, make the attributes closer. For example to begin use totally different objects, moving to objects that are similar but differ in color or size. Increase to 3 attributes.

Recreation And Leisure Games- Following Rules And Turn Taking Games- Computer And Video Games Hobbies Spectator Etiquette Good Sportsmanship Team Player Entertainment- The Arts Sharing Adaptations To Toys And Computer Not all life skills students will work full time when they exit high school. They may have a lot of leisure time, and need to learn how to use this time. Students also need opportunities to learn how to relate to friends.

Present functional level from RER- Student cannot sit unsupported but with good positioning can move arms and legs to interact with environment and people. Goal- Given Student positioned side lying on the mat, Student will extend arm or leg (Health and Safety use basic movement skills) to interact with a toy positioned within easy reach with successful interactions at 80%. Objectives- Student will move arms to hit a toy to make a noise at 80%, Student will move legs to kick a ball to a friend or adult at 80%

Interpersonal Communication Speaking And Listening Requesting And Refusing Commenting Social Interactions Appropriate Interactions Alternative Communication Systems Pictures, Signs, gestures, Devices, Motor Behaviors, All Day Every Day- Everyone’s Job Everyone Models Communication Every Child Communicates For many students this is the most important domain. Everyone must be able to communicate.

Present Level: Student’s functional communication skills continue to be significantly below expected norms, characterized by restricted ability to understand/express learning content and to interact at appropriate levels, with educators and peers. Although he is seen to be affectionate toward others, his initiation of social interactions for a desired purpose is limited and/or very subtle and should be fostered. Goal: Given PA Standard A ( listen critically and respond to others in small and large group situations), Student will answer questions and initiate interactions with proficiency at 80%. Objective: Will respond appropriately to who, what, when, where or which questions, in varied school settings, using his communication device with voice output and or/verbalizations. 4/5 attempts- across 3 activities or situations daily Will initiate social interactions, with educators or peers, for a desired purpose, using his communication device with voice output and or/verbalizations. 4/5 attempts- with faded prompts across 3 activities daily Specially Designed Instruction :Modeling, Verbal Prompts, Augmentative Communication Device, Pictures/visual cues, Phrase questions with embedded choices, Structured educator/peer interaction opportunities.

Functional Academics- Literacy Survival Signs and Icons Environmental Signs Personal Information Reading Menus and Store Directories Reading Newspapers and Magazines Reading Store Ads Writing Reading Directions and Schedules Using the Internet Goals in functional academics vary according to the student’s abilities. Some students become fluent readers but have comprehension deficits. Some students do not become fluent readers. Some students do not have strong verbal skills and struggle to comprehend what they hear and see. All students are instructed in functional literacy and also receive reading interventions.

Present level- Readiness inventory showed that Student can identify 8 letters, and can repeat and imitate sounds. Goal- Given Student during researched-based literacy activity, Student will listen and repeat sounds ( 1.1.K.B-employ word recognition techniques and segment and blend sounds) with correct responses at 80%. Objectives- Student will repeat single sounds 80%, Student will repeat two sounds slowly and fast at 80% SDIs- Seat Student close to the instructor, be sure student is ready to attend, provide many repetitions, praise for successful attempts, use hand signals

Present level of functioning-Student does not consistently respond to sounds or when his name is called. Hearing is better on his left side. Goal- Given Student at the beginning of an activity, Student will show a response to hearing his name called (1.6.K.A-Listen and respond appropriately) with a change in motor behavior or facial expression at 80% Objectives Student will respond to his name 20%, Student will respond to his name 50%, Student will respond to his name 80% SDIs- Call Student’s name in many environments and settings, pair auditory with a visual or tactile cue, fade visual/tactile cues as student’s responses increase, always says student’s name to get his attention before beginning an activity

Functional Academics- Math Counting, Concepts, and Math Language Money Time Measurement Functional Fractions Word Problems Checks and Banking Credit and EBT Cards Calculator and Computer Kitchen Math Learning to use and manage time and money is a very important functional math skills.

Occupational and Physical Therapy Need for related services determined by provider evaluation Related service provider enters results of evaluation, eligibility for services and recommendations in re-evaluation report. Present levels, recommendations for accommodations, and level of services are entered into IEP by provider. Do not change anything added by provider. Invite provider to IEP meeting. PT/OT does not always have goals. Related services provided to assist a child with a disability to benefit from his/her education Occupational Therapy-fine motor (hand) Sensory Integration Physical Therapy-gross motor(mobility) Provided in environment where needed Monitor program and consult with staff

Research Based, Direct Instruction Programs Placements Tests Reading Mastery Levels K-5 and Corrective Reading Phonemic Awareness, Phonics and Decoding Uses ABA Techniques Reading Fluency Stresses Mastery

Research Based Math Programs Placement Tests for Entry Direct Instruction Uses ABA Techniques Distar Arithmetic Counting Concepts, Numeration, Place Value Operations, Word Problems Connecting Math Concepts Levels 3,4,5 Extends Operations

36 Reading and Math Interventions
Faith B. Fisher, M.Ed., President Fisher Educational Services, LLC

37 Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research
STAR Intervention Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research ABA Based K-2 AS Support Classrooms 3-5 AS Support Classrooms Principles and Practices STAR Teaching strategies Discrete trial training Pivotal response training Functional routines Paired with curriculum content Receptive language Expressive language Spontaneous language Pre-academic skills Play & social concepts The STAR program is based on principles of ABA. Many parents know about ABA from their EI program. The STAR program has been very successful for our AS students, and is supported by University of Pennsylvania who provide training and onsite coaching and support.

Research Based Interventions Language for Learning Language for Thinking Language for Writing Other Available Interventions Star Program Lexia Achieve 3000 Learning Ally- Books on Tape

Students in Complex Support Programs benefit from participation in all school activities and events IDEA gives all children with disabilities the right to a Free And Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Planning must occur to provide appropriate inclusion of students in Complex Support Programs in regular education as much as possible Non-disabled peers Core curriculum

40 PDE’s Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Recognizing that the placement decision is an Individualized Education Program (IEP) team decision, our goal for each child is to ensure IEP teams begin with the general education setting with the use of supplementary aids and services before considering a more restrictive environment. “Inclusion is a right, not the privilege of a select few.”

Data collection is regularly scheduled in Life Skills classrooms Goals and Objectives Observable Measurable Criteria for meeting target Includes condition and prompts Probes taken weekly or biweekly Aligned to standards Skills embedded in grade level content Data collection is crucial for progress monitoring. Data collection is only possible if the goals are written in to be clearly measureable and observable. The goals should have an observable behavior with criterion for achieving the goal. Some students need cues and prompts to meet their goals.

Progress Reporting Informal Notes to Parents in Communication Book Annual IEP Meeting or Parent Request Report Card Conferences Progress Report From EasyIEP Gradebook Report Card, 4 Times A Year Marks Are Given For Goals In Domains A-achieved B-made Progress C-maintained D-regressed Until December 2011, life skills students received hand written report cards, that were not part of an electronic record. Starting the second reporting cycle of the school year. Life skills students received the same gradebook report card that all other students do. The report card is accompanied by the progress report from easyiep.

43 COMPLEX SUPPORT - ABA ABA - Applied Behavior Analysis
Basis of instruction strategies Many positive repetitions needed to learn Positive reinforcement to correct answer increases learning and likelihood that the learner will want to repeat skill Incorrect responses followed by several correct responses Reinforcements of correct associations/responses- academics Behavior shaping-reinforcement for attempt or response close to desired response Many skills are learned as response to a stimulus

44 COMPLEX SUPPORT- ABA ABA- Applied Behavior Analysis
Basis for positive behavior support plan Behavior is caused by an antecedent and maintained by the consequence Identifying/eliminating the antecedent helps to reduce the behavior Removing the consequence can reduce the occurrence of a behavior Ignoring a negative behavior can remove the consequence that is maintaining the behavior Rewarding a desired behavior will increase the occurrence of the desired behavior Data is taken to identify antecedents and consequences, and to track progress.

45 Complex Support- Program
IEPs Complete and Compliant with signatures Materials and equipment included on IEP in general terms, not by specific brand name Include researched validated programs ALL goals and objectives observable and measurable Criteria for goal attainment and prompt levels Positively stated – what student will do State and local assessments not given at this level May need to customize goals, objectives and SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION- Do not list only testing accommodations for SDIs. Transition goals not needed at this age ESY- data driven decision, for the current year- EI students will not attend ESY for the current year Include transportation- all complex needs students require special transportation

46 Complex Support- Program
Program Practices Instruction delivered in various settings/groups Instruction promotes independence and generalization Prompts/reinforcements faded Specially designed instruction customized as needed Data collected all goals, objectives, in all settings Including community based instruction Data is kept in organized system ABA is used throughout day and reflected in SDIs Communication, instruction, behavior management

47 Complex Support- Program
Communication Primary method of communication listed on IEP and used throughout day by all staff Assistive communication systems developed for students without effective verbal communication Signs, gestures, body movements, pictures, devices Staff trained and able to use signs and devices- include in supports for staff on IEP Staff models language and encourage students Ask questions Speak in full sentences

48 Complex Support, Contacts
Office of Specialized Instructional Services (F) Coordinator for LOW INCIDENCE (LSS/MDS) Programs Liz Thompson, elthompson, Coordinator for Autistic Support Jane Cordero,jcordero, Director of School Health Services (PT and OT) Tracey Williams, twilliams2, Coordinator of Speech, Hearing, and Vision Support Susanne Kelly, sukelly, Transportation

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