Presentation on theme: "Questioning Strategies for Every Classroom: Promoting Higher-Order Thinking and Reasoning for All Learners Curriculum Implementation Module Five (Part."— Presentation transcript:
1Questioning Strategies for Every Classroom: Promoting Higher-Order Thinking and Reasoning for All LearnersCurriculum Implementation Module Five (Part II):January 2012Alexandria City Public Schools
2Essential Questions for Part II How can questioning enhance students’ language acquisition?How can ACPS educators ensure that students can respond successfully to a range of higher-order questions?How can we encourage students to monitor their understanding through the kinds of questions we use in our classrooms?
3Objectives for This Session Explain connections between questioning strategies and students’ use of higher-order reasoning.Describe and design a variety of higher-order questions for use with students.Identify and reinforce classroom behaviors that confirm the presence of higher-order questioning and related critical thinking competencies.
4Sample College Entrance Essay Questions: How Would You Do? 1. Have you ever walked through the aisles of a warehouse store like Costco or Sam’s Club and wondered who would buy a jar of mustard a foot and a half tall? We’ve bought it, but it didn’t keep us from wondering about other things, like absurd eating contests, impulse buys, excess, unimagined uses for mustard, storage preservatives, notions of bigness…and dozens of other ideas both silly and serious. Write an essay somehow inspired by super-huge mustard. (U. of Chicago)
5College Entrance Essay Questions (2) 2.How have your life experiences and background shaped you into an individual who will enrich the University of Maryland community?3.Discuss an aspect of a book that has shaped the way you think. (St. John’s College, Annapolis)
6College Entrance Essay Questions (3) 4.What is your favorite word—and why? (University of Virginia)5. Franz Kafka once said: “A belief is like a guillotine, just as heavy and just as light.” How would you relate this quote to your own convictions? (University of Virginia)
7College Entrance Essay Questions (4) 6.The following Japanese character represents the Zen concept of “Mind that does not stick.” How does this idea apply to your life and experience? (University of Chicago)7. If you could balance on a tightrope, over what landscape would you walk? (University of Chicago)
8College Entrance Essay Questions (5) 8.How do you feel about Wednesday? (University of Chicago)9. You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Please submit page 217. (University of Pennsylvania)
9PLACE YOUR BETS!!!How well do you understand what research tells us about higher-order questions?Each of you will start with an imaginary $ With a partner, determine how certain you are about each of the following statements.For the first round, if you both are absolutely certain that the statement is “TRUE” or “FALSE,” bet your full $100. If you’re not certain, hold some money back.
10QUESTION ONE— True or False? Close to 75% of American teachers’ time is currently devoted to the use of higher-order questions with their students.
11FALSE!Actually, a range of studies suggests it’s just the opposite. Between percent of classroom time is devoted to discrete, factual-recall forms of questioning.
12QUESTION TWO— True or False? The more students move beyond questions that require recall, repetition, and paraphrasing, the greater their levels of understanding and independent transfer.
13TRUE!According to Barry K. Beyer (P. 5 of your handout), “A thoughtful question (one that requires students to go mentally where they have not been before) makes students think [more] deeply…The more students receive modeling and shaping experiences involving…higher order questions, the greater their level of understanding…and their ability to apply and transfer [the content they are studying]…”
14QUESTION THREE— True or False? When students work with higher-order questions, their brain physiology changes.
15TRUE!According to the ground-breaking publication How People Learn (AERA, 1999), teachers’ use of a variety of higher order questions can overcome the brain’s natural tendency to limit information, …creating more synapses between nerve cells…By emphasizing higher order questions, we are, in effect, “strengthening our students’ brains…” (P. 5 of your handout)
16QUESTION FOUR— True or False? The average American teacher’s Wait Time (i.e., time between posing a question and eliciting a response) is 2-5 seconds.
17FALSE!Actually, it’s a second or less! According to the research of Mary Budd Rowe, if we use just 2-3 seconds of Wait Time, we get between 45-50% more students attending to the question. (See Page 6 of your handout…)
18QUESTION FIVE— True or False? Because of the large number of standards assessed by state testing programs, discrete fact-based questions should be emphasized to improve test scores.
19FALSE!Studies such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Trends in International Science and Mathematics Studies (TIMSS), and PISA (Programme for Interational Student Assessment) all confirm the following: Teaching less better produces higher test performance. If students understand a core curriculum deeply (as a result of such strategies as answering higher order questions with supporting evidence), aggregate and disaggregated test results improve.
20So What Does the Research Tell Us? Teachers who use higher-order questions improve student learning.Predominant use of higher-order questions promotes both student recall of key information and gains on standardized tests.Higher-order questions improve student literacy by promoting higher levels of text analysis than factual/recall questions.
21Current Brain Research Tells Us That… The brain asks “Why?” It compels us to seek authenticity and purpose.The brain searches for patterns and connections.The brain downshifts when it perceives physical, emotional, or social threat.
22In addition, current research tells us that the brain… Tends to limit information, creating a “gestalt” through neural pruning.“Grows dendrites” and experiences “neural branching” when it is engaged in compelling and engaging thinking processes.Experiences creativity and divergent thinking when it is in a condition of “flow.”
23Questioning and the Brain—Higher-Order Questions… Help to overcome the brain’s inclination to limit information.Encourage creativity and divergent thinking as mental habits.Reinforce neural branching, rather than neural pruning.
24The “Big Ideas” of Higher Order Questioning “Thoughtful questions”Brain-based learning and higher order questionsWait Time I and IIPromoting purposeful, strategic, and self-regulating learners: Correlations with higher order questionsEnhancing students’ use of higher order reasoning skills (e.g., comparison) and processes (e.g., problem solving)Design characteristics of higher order questionsThe need to model how to “unpack” HOQsHOQs and improving standardized test results
25Reflection Checkpoint THINK: As you review the research conclusions on page 25, what are your initial reactions?PAIR: With a partner, discuss the implications of this research for your school, department, and grade level(s).SHARE: As a faculty, what do these conclusions mean for us and our students?
26How Can We Identify and Describe Higher Order Questions? Deal with the most important topics or issues (i.e., the big ideas) of a discipline, subject, or topic.Have no obvious, single, or prescribed correct answer.Require analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation.Encourage personalized responses supported by evidence (i.e., there may be alternative justifiable answers…).Require students to produce or construct meaning or new knowledge.Advance students toward a deeper understanding of the subject, topic, or issue they are studying.
27What Can We Observe in Classrooms That Emphasize Higher Order Questions? Observe the following teaching episode.How many examples can you find of the question types identified on Pages 28-29? (comparing/classifying; identifying attributes and components; ordering; identifying relationships and patterns; representing; identifying errors; inferring; predicting; elaborating; evaluating and establishing criteria; verifying; and finding patterns…)
28A Think-Pair-Share Activity THINK: Review the questioning techniques presented on pages What level of use do you observe in your own classroom—or that of another educator (e.g., Kay Toliver)?PAIR: Find a partner to reflect on your ratings and conclusions.SHARE: What do you both agree are areas of need that you would like to see emphasized in your current classroom, school, and/or district?
29What Types of Questions Can Teachers Use? (Pages 25-26) Application: applying essential knowledge and skills to new (and unanticipated) settings and situations--e.g., How could you apply these grammar and usage rules to improve your essay?Analytical: dissecting key information and analyzing important concepts, themes, and processes--e.g., How are these characters alike and how are they different?Synthesis: formulating summaries, making references, and/or creating something new based upon acquired knowledge and skills--e.g., What predictions can you make about what may happen next in the story?
30What Types of Questions Can Teachers Use? (Pages 25-26) Interpretive: open-ended questions requiring students to formulate and support with evidence an original opinion or interpretation--e.g., What does Frost mean when he says: “I have miles to go before I sleep”?Evaluative: formulating and supporting judgments or critiques based on clear evaluation criteria--e.g., How would you rank these choices? What are your criteria?Essential: interpretive questions that prompt students to explore, debate, and discuss the big ideas at the heart of a topic or content area--e.g., How do concepts of heroism vary across cultures and civilizations?
31Application ActivityExamine each of the question types on pagesCreate at least one example of each question type.When you are finished, share your examples with one or more participants near you.FULL-GROUP DEBRIEFING: To what extent are we currently using a range of question types in our departments, grade levels, and school?
32Essential Questions Have no single right answer. Raise other important questions.Address philosophical and conceptual foundations of disciplines.Recur naturally.Provoke and sustain student inquiry.Help students “uncover” key ideas.
33Sample Essential Questions How can we observe and determine the significance of universal natural patterns in our universe?Why did classical Greek playwrights contend that tragedy derives from human ignorance about our own flaws and character defects? To what extent do you agree with their assertion?To what extent is mathematics a language? How can we become fluent in it?To what extent is history objective? To what extent is it a story whose events are shaped by the historian telling it?What would happen if there were no…Internet? Painting? Performing arts? Competitive sports?
34A Seminar Experience… Form table groups of four-five participants. Appoint a (1) seminar facilitator, (2) recorder, and (3) group presenter.Have your facilitator select one of the following essential questions for your group to explore.Think individually about the essential question chosen for your seminar. (2 minutes)Then, begin to discuss it together. (10 minutes)Prepare to have your designated presenter summarize your ideas and reactions to the full faculty. (2 minutes)
35Choose Your Essential Question… 1. Throughout history, why have all world civilizations had some form of competitive sports or athletics?2. How should an “ideal” high school look and operate? To what extent do modern high schools reflect these characteristics?3. To what extent do children today think differently as a result of the technology and media to which they are exposed?
36Application ActivityTry your hand at creating several essential questions for your particular content area.Share your work with a partner. Help one another to ensure that your questions meet the criteria for effective essential questions.Discuss how “student-friendly” each question is.Post your edited questions on a flip chart page as part of a gallery walk.
37The Six Facets of Understanding Explanation:Supporting claims and assertions with evidence.Interpretation:Constructing meaning from events or text, supporting conclusions, and creating new products and processes as a result.Application:Using what you have learned in new or unanticipated situations and real-world settings.Perspective: Analyzing the points of view associated with controversial events or issues.Empathy: Walking in the shoes of another; experiencing events and situations as another person might.Self-Knowledge: Monitoring self-awareness, regulating one’s own thinking and learning, and assessing the extent to which we understand—or fail to understand—something.
38Application ActivityReview the sample question prompts on your handout. Try your hand at writing one or two questions for each facet.With a partner, discuss which of the six facets of understanding have particular relevance or usefulness for your content area(s).Be prepared to share your work and reactions with the rest of the faculty.
39Provoking vs. Enabling Questions Provoking: Elicit student debate, inquiry, and investigation.Example: Was the Civil War civil? To what extent is history in the eye of the beholder?Enabling: Reinforce students’ ability to understand how to use a skill or procedure.Example: When writing, how can we ensure we address the needs of our audience?
40The Power of Wait Time…The research on Wait Time I and II has been around now for close to three decades…In spite of what we know to the contrary, educators—on average—still pause one second or less after posing a question. In your opinion, what accounts for our collective resistance to using wait time?
41Wait Time I and II Wait Time I 3-5-seconds before “calling.” Reinforces time for reflection and recall.Expands engagement and buy-in.Wait Time IIAfter calling on student.Allows for elaboration.Encourages reflection and comprehension monitoring.
42Techniques for Helping Students Respond to Higher-Order Questions (Pages 27-28) In addition to Wait Time I and II, there are many other strategies educators can use to help students respond effectively to higher order questions.Consider the recommendations presented here. How many of these strategies are in use in your classroom, school, or district?
43Techniques for Helping Students Respond to Higher Order Questions: Which Ones Can You Use? 1. Wait Time I & II2. Student identification of question type(s)3. Discuss value of using strategies to respond to HOQs4. Use probes to help students “unpack” their thinking5. Use essential questions to create schema6. Use debriefing sessions7. Have students design HOQs8. Teacher modeling of HOQ responses9. Emphasize the value of evidence10. Encourage students to use a range of evidence11. Create word walls and other visual displays for HOQs12. Include HOQs on exams and quizzes13. Use academic prompts (FAT-P)14. Culminating performance tasks & projects focused on HOQs15. Student-created HOQs for future classes
44A Planning Template for Higher Order Questions (Pages 28-29) Consider the recommendations and questions presented in the planning template on pagesHow might you use this planning guide in your current school or district?
45Action Planning and Next Steps How will you use the resources and strategies presented in this session?Be prepared to share a specific action step with the rest of the group.
46Thank you for your participation today… We hope you’ve enjoyed the workshop…