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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 8 Rescue and Extrication Firefighter II.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 8 Rescue and Extrication Firefighter II."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 8 Rescue and Extrication Firefighter II

2 8–1 Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to operate various kinds of rescue equipment and practice correct extrication procedures at an accident scene following the policies and procedures set forth by the jurisdiction (AHJ).

3 Firefighter II 8–2 Specific Objectives 1.Discuss maintaining emergency power and lighting equipment. 2.Describe characteristics of hydraulic rescue tools. 3.Describe characteristics of nonhydraulic rescue tools. (Continued)

4 Firefighter II 8–3 Specific Objectives 4.Discuss cribbing for rescue operations. 5.Describe the characteristics of pneumatic tools. 6.Discuss lifting/pulling tools used in rescue operations. (Continued)

5 Firefighter II 8–4 Specific Objectives 7.Explain the size-up process for a vehicle incident. 8.Describe items to look for when assessing the need for extrication activities. 9.Discuss stabilizing vehicles involved in a vehicle incident. (Continued)

6 Firefighter II 8–5 Specific Objectives 10.List the three methods of gaining access to victims in vehicles. 11.List the most common hazards associated with wrecked passenger vehicles. (Continued)

7 Firefighter II 8–6 Specific Objectives 12.Explain the dangers associated with Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS) and Side-Impact Protection Systems (SIPS). 13.Describe basic actions taken for patient management. (Continued)

8 Firefighter II 8–7 Specific Objectives 14.Describe patient removal. 15.Describe laminated safety glass and tempered glass. 16.Discuss removing glass from vehicles. 17.Explain considerations when removing vehicle roof and doors. (Continued)

9 Firefighter II 8–8 Specific Objectives 18.Describe common patterns of structural collapse. 19.Describe the most common means of locating hidden victims in a structural collapse. 20.Describe structural collapse hazards. (Continued)

10 Firefighter II 8–9 Specific Objectives 21.Describe shoring. 22.Discuss technical rescue incidents. 23.Service and maintain portable power plants and lighting equipment. (Skill Sheet 8-II-1) (Continued)

11 Firefighter II 8–10 Specific Objectives 24.Extricate a victim trapped in a motor vehicle. (Skill Sheet 8-II-2) 25.Assist rescue teams. (Skill Sheet 8-II- 3)

12 Firefighter II 8–11 Maintaining Emergency Power/ Lighting Equipment Review manufacturers service manual Inspect spark plugs, plug wires If spark plug damaged or service manual recommends, replace Check equipment carburetor Check fuel level, fill if necessary (Continued)

13 Firefighter II 8–12 Maintaining Emergency Power/ Lighting Equipment If fuel old, replace with fresh Check oil level, replenish as needed Start generator; run any tests identified in Operator Manual Inspect all electrical cords (Continued)

14 Firefighter II 8–13 Maintaining Emergency Power/ Lighting Equipment Test operation of lighting equipment Replace light bulbs as necessary Clean work area Document maintenance on appropriate forms/records

15 Firefighter II 8–14 Powered Hydraulic Tools Operated by hydraulic fluid pumped through special high-pressure hoses Most powered by electric motors or two- or four-cycle gasoline engines May be portable May be mounted on vehicle

16 Firefighter II 8–15 Spreaders First tool available to fire/rescue service Capable of pushing, pulling Can produce tons of force at tips May spread as much as 32 inches (800 mm)

17 Firefighter II 8–16 Shears Capable of cutting almost any metal object May be used to cut other materials Capable of producing tons of force Opening spread of approximately 7 inches (175 mm)

18 Firefighter II 8–17 Combination Spreader/Shears Two arms with spreader tips Inside edges of arms equipped with cutting shears Excellent for small rapid- intervention vehicles, departments with limited resources Capabilities less than individual units

19 Firefighter II 8–18 Extension Rams Straight pushing operations May be used for pulling Useful when pushing farther than shears maximum opening distance (Continued)

20 Firefighter II 8–19 Extension Rams Extend from closed length of 3 feet (1 m) to around 5 feet (1.5 m) Open with tons of pushing force; close with ½ opening force

21 Firefighter II 8–20 Manual Hydraulic Tools Disadvantages Slower than powered hydraulic Limited range of operation Labor-intensive Advantages Relatively inexpensive Light weight Can be used in areas inaccessible to powered units

22 Firefighter II 8–21 Porta-Power Tool System Operated by transmitting pressure from manual hydraulic pump through high- pressure hose to tool assembly Advantage Operates in narrow places Disadvantage Assembly/operation time-consuming

23 Firefighter II 8–22 Hydraulic Jacks Designed for heavy lifting applications Excellent compression device for shoring, stabilizing operations Lifting capabilities up to 20 tons (18 tonnes [t])

24 Firefighter II 8–23 Nonhydraulic Jacks Screw jacks –Extended/retracted by turning threaded shaft –Check for wear after each use –Keep clean, lightly lubricated –Bar screw jacks –Trench screw jacks (Continued)

25 Firefighter II 8–24 Nonhydraulic Jacks Ratchet-lever jacks –Rigid I-beam with perforations in web and a jacking carriage with two ratchets on geared side fitting around I-beam –Least stable; can be dangerous –Can fail under heavy load

26 Firefighter II 8–25 Cribbing Essential in many rescue operations Most commonly used to stabilize objects Wood Plastic Storage

27 Firefighter II 8–26 Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools Air chisels Pneumatic nailers (Continued)

28 Firefighter II 8–27 Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools Impact tools Air knifes (Continued) Courtesy of Supersonic Air Knife, Inc.

29 Firefighter II 8–28 Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools Air vacuums Whizzer saws

30 Firefighter II 8–29 Tripods Create anchor points above manholes, other openings Allow rescuers to be safely lowered into confined spaces and rescuers/victims to be hoisted out

31 Firefighter II 8–30 Winches Excellent pulling tools Usually deployed faster, greater travel/ pulling distances, stronger than other lifting/pulling devices Usually behind front bumper of vehicles (Continued)

32 Firefighter II 8–31 Winches Most common drives –Electric –Hydraulic –Power take-off Pull by using chains/ cables (Continued)

33 Firefighter II 8–32 Winches Should be equipped with handheld, remote-control devices Should be positioned as close to objects being pulled as possible

34 Firefighter II 8–33 Come-Alongs Portable cable winches operated by manual ratchet levers Attached to secure anchor points Lever rewinds cable Common sizes 1-10 tonnes (0.9-9.1 t)

35 Firefighter II 8–34 Chains Used with winches and come-alongs Only alloy steel chains should be used in rescue work Special alloys available for corrosive/ hazardous atmospheres Proof coil chain not suitable for rescue

36 Firefighter II 8–35 Pneumatic Lifting Bags Give rescuers ability to lift/displace objects High-pressure bags Low- and medium- pressure bags Lifting bag safety rules

37 Firefighter II 8–36 Block and Tackle Systems Convert given amount of pull to working force greater than the pull Useful for lifting/pulling heavy loads (Continued)

38 Firefighter II 8–37 Block and Tackle Systems Block Wooden or metal frame containing one or more pulleys called sheaves Tackle Assembly of ropes used to multiply pulling force

39 Firefighter II 8–38 Scene Size-Up Begins as soon as first emergency vehicle approaches accident scene Importance –Prevent injury to rescuers –Prevents further injury to victims –Clarifies required tasks –Identifies needed resources

40 Firefighter II 8–39 Positioning Apparatus Officer in charge should position according to SOP/situation at hand Position close enough for equipment, supplies to be readily available Should not be so close that it might interfere with other on-scene activities (Continued)

41 Firefighter II 8–40 Positioning Apparatus First-arriving engine should be positioned to provide protective barrier U.S. DOT recommends headlights be turned off, unless needed for scene illumination At least one traffic lane should be closed to nonemergency traffic (Continued)

42 Firefighter II 8–41 Positioning Apparatus

43 Firefighter II 8–42 Considerations When Arriving On Scene What are traffic hazards; what types of control devices needed? How many/what types of vehicles involved? Where/how are vehicles positioned? How many victims/what is their status? (Continued)

44 Firefighter II 8–43 Considerations When Arriving On Scene Is there fire or potential? Any hazardous materials involved? Any utilities that may be damaged; if so is this hazardous? Need for additional resources?

45 Firefighter II 8–44 Assess Immediate Area Around Vehicle Number of victims in/around Severity of injuries Condition of vehicle Extrication tasks that may be required Hazardous condition

46 Firefighter II 8–45 Assess Entire Area Around Scene Other vehicles not readily apparent Victims thrown from vehicle Damage to structures/utilities that present hazard

47 Firefighter II 8–46 Stabilizing the Vehicle Is vital to prevent further injury Uses cribbing/shoring devices Prevents sudden/unexpected movement of vehicle NEVER test stability by pushing/pulling (Continued)

48 Firefighter II 8–47 Stabilizing the Vehicle Prevent horizontal motion –Chock vehicles wheels –Do not rely on mechanical systems Prevent vertical motion –Jacks –Pneumatic lifting bags –Cribbing (Continued)

49 Firefighter II 8–48 Stabilizing the Vehicle Rescuers should avoid placing parts of their bodies under vehicle Vehicles upside down, on side, or on slope should be stabilized using whatever means available Shut down electrical power in vehicle

50 Firefighter II 8–49 Methods for Gaining Access to Victims in Vehicles Through normally operating door Through window By cutting away parts of vehicle body

51 Firefighter II 8–50 Potential Hazards of Wrecked Passenger Vehicles Oil- and air-filled struts Fuel, other flammable liquids High pressure tires Contents of trunk or vehicle interior

52 Firefighter II 8–51 Dangers Associated with SRS, SIPS Accidental activation of SRS or SIPS –Reserve energy supply causes systems to deploy even after battery disconnected –Activities can activate systems –Prevention –Some systems in SIPS design do not require power from vehicles electrical system

53 Firefighter II 8–52 Choose easiest route to gain access Rescuer with emergency medical training should enter vehicle to stabilize/protect patient Actions for Patient Management (Continued)

54 Firefighter II 8–53 Actions for Patient Management Rescuers inside vehicle should wear PPE Treatment can be simultaneous with preparation for removal from vehicle Vehicle must be removed from around patient

55 Firefighter II 8–54 Patient Removal Package patient properly Cover sharp edges Widen openings Pad edges

56 Firefighter II 8–55 Laminated Safety Glass Characteristics Manufactured from two sheets bonded to sheet of plastic between Most commonly used for windshields, rear windows (Continued)

57 Firefighter II 8–56 Laminated Safety Glass Characteristics Produces long, pointed shards with sharp edges Stays attached to laminate and moves as unit when broken Keeps shards of glass from flying about

58 Firefighter II 8–57 Tempered Glass Characteristics Most commonly used in side windows, rear windows Designed so small lines of fracture spread throughout and glass separates into many small pieces Eliminates long, pointed pieces; can still cause lacerations

59 Firefighter II 8–58 Removing Laminated Glass Can seriously weaken vehicle body; leave intact if possible More complicated, time-consuming than removing tempered glass –Best method is with saw –Hand tools can be used (Continued)

60 Firefighter II 8–59 Removing Laminated Glass In older vehicles, total windshield removal should be performed before roof laid back or removed –Requires several rescuers –Passengers inside should be covered with a tarp

61 Firefighter II 8–60 Removing Tempered Glass Methods –Strike window with sharp, pointed object in lower corner –Use spring-loaded center punch –Use standard center punch or Phillips screwdriver –With pick-head axe or Halligan tool (Continued)

62 Firefighter II 8–61 Removing Tempered Glass Controlling broken glass –Apply sheet of self-adhesive contact paper –Apply aerosol spray adhesive

63 Firefighter II 8–62 Removing the Roof Designations A, B, C assigned to vehicle door posts from front to back –A-post is front post area –B-post is between front and rear doors on four-door; nearest handle on two-door –C-post is post nearest handle on rear door of four-door; rear roof post on two-door (Continued)

64 Firefighter II 8–63 Removing the Roof Removal methods –Cut all roof posts; remove roof entirely –Cut front posts, cut relief notches in roof at top of rear door openings, fold roof back –Plastics do not bend; remove entire roof –Unibody vehicles are prone to collapse

65 Firefighter II 8–64 Removing Doors Can be opened from handle side May be removed by inserting spreader in crack on hinge side May be removed by cutting hinges, breaking latch mechanism, compromising door locks (Continued)

66 Firefighter II 8–65 Removing Doors Plastic door panels may have to be removed to gain access to metal frame Interior plastic molding may need to be removed

67 Firefighter II 8–66 Displacing Dashboard May be necessary to free patients pinned under steering wheel and/or wedged under dashboard Steps

68 Firefighter II 8–67 Rescue From Collapsed Buildings Difficulty in reaching victim in structural collapse depends upon conditions In some cases, uninjured/slightly injured occupants can make their way to surface of rubble These should be helped first (Continued)

69 Firefighter II 8–68 Rescue From Collapsed Buildings Next, rescue those lightly trapped by debris Rescuing the heavily trapped/seriously injured requires the services of technical rescue team

70 Firefighter II 8–69 Pancake Collapse Possible in any building where failure of exterior walls results in upper floors and roof collapsing on top of each other Least likely to contain voids in which live victims can be found

71 Firefighter II 8–70 V-Shaped Collapse Occurs when outer walls remain intact and upper floors/ roof structure fail in middle Offers good chance of habitable void spaces along both outer walls

72 Firefighter II 8–71 Lean-To Collapse Occurs when one outer wall fails while opposite wall intact Side of floor or roof assembly supported by failed wall drops to floor, forming triangular void

73 Firefighter II 8–72 A-Frame Collapse Occurs when floor/roof assemblies on both sides of center wall collapse Offers good chance of habitable void spaces on both sides of center wall

74 Firefighter II 8–73 Cantilever Collapse When one or more walls of a multistory building collapse leaving floors attached to/ supported by remaining walls (Continued)

75 Firefighter II 8–74 Cantilever Collapse Offers good chance of habitable voids forming above/below supported ends of floors Least stable of all patterns; most vulnerable to secondary/subsequent collapse

76 Firefighter II 8–75 Locating Hidden Victims Hailing Calling out to elicit response from hidden victims Seismic/short-distance radar devices Electronically enhanced acoustic listening devices (Continued)

77 Firefighter II 8–76 Locating Hidden Victims Search cameras Thermal imaging cameras Search dogs

78 Firefighter II 8–77 Environmental Hazards Damaged utilities Atmospheric contamination Hazardous materials contamination Darkness (Continued)

79 Firefighter II 8–78 Environmental Hazards Noise Fire Temperature extremes Adverse weather conditions

80 Firefighter II 8–79 Physical Hazards Unstable debris Confined spaces Exposed wiring/rebar Heights

81 Firefighter II 8–80 Shoring Means by which unstable structures or parts of structures can be stabilized Prevents sudden movement of objects too large to be moved in timely manner (Continued)

82 Firefighter II 8–81 Shoring Not intended to move heavy objects May involve air bags/jacks, cribbing, system of wooden braces

83 Firefighter II 8–82 Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins Caused by trench construction Sometimes would-be rescuers are killed Knowing how to make structure safe for entrance and taking time to do so offer best chance of survival (Continued)

84 Firefighter II 8–83 Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins Rescue operations depend on making site as safe as possible Rescuers should not be sent into trench unless trained/equipped (Continued)

85 Firefighter II 8–84 Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins Rescue apparatus, nonessential personnel, equipment, spectators should be kept away Safety precautions should be taken

86 Firefighter II 8–85 Confined Space Rescues Confined space –Large enough and configured so that employee can bodily enter/perform assigned work –Limited/restricted means of entry/exit –Not designed for continuous employee occupancy (Continued)

87 Firefighter II 8–86 Confined Space Rescues Several common types Should only be performed by firefighters with specific training Atmospheric hazards Physical hazards Command post, staging area outside hot zone (Continued)

88 Firefighter II 8–87 Confined Space Rescues Do not enter staging area until IAP developed/communicated Attendant must track personnel, equipment entering/leaving space Equipment Lifeline (Continued)

89 Firefighter II 8–88 Confined Space Rescues O-A-T-H Method –O One tug; OK –A Two tugs; Advance –T Three tugs; Take-up –H Four tugs; Help Air monitoring devices Accountability system

90 Firefighter II 8–89 Rescue From Caves, Mines, Tunnels Most firefighters not trained/equipped to perform Must be done by those familiar with specific environment

91 Firefighter II 8–90 Rescues Involving Electricity Safety precautions Electrical wires on ground can be dangerous without being touched Ground gradient Rescuers should stay away from downed wires distance equal to one span between poles

92 Firefighter II 8–91 Water and Ice Rescue Swimming pools, ponds, low-head dams Rescues –Victim stranded, floundering, has been submerged for short time Recoveries –Victim submerged for long period of time and likely deceased (Continued)

93 Firefighter II 8–92 Water and Ice Rescue All appropriate PPE should be worn Methods –REACH –THROW –ROW –GO

94 Firefighter II 8–93 Ice Rescue Considerations Because ice is thick, not necessarily strong Victims almost certainly suffering hypothermia Victims may not be able to help Victims chances of survival depend on how quickly out of water/into warmth

95 Firefighter II 8–94 Ice Rescue Protocols Instruct victim NOT to try to get out of water until rescuer says so REACH THROW GO

96 Firefighter II 8–95 Industrial Extrication Can be among most challenging rescue situations Once mechanism stabilized, power should be shut off If problem outside capability of team, outside expertise required

97 Firefighter II 8–96 Elevator Rescue Usually not a true emergency Usually involves elevators stalled between floors Firefighters should reassure passengers and wait for a mechanic (Continued)

98 Firefighter II 8–97 Elevator Rescue Only an elevator mechanic should perform adjustments to mechanical system Elevator rescue may be necessary; should only be performed by trained personnel Communication with passengers essential

99 Firefighter II 8–98 Escalator Rescue Stop switches usually on nearby wall, at base of escalator, at point close to handrail in newel base Activating switch stops stairs Should be stopped during rescues Escalator mechanic should be requested when removing victims

100 Firefighter II 8–99 Summary Firefighters must be capable of performing basic rescue and extrication operations as a member of a team. (Continued)

101 Firefighter II 8–100 Summary Firefighters must be willing to pursue specialized training in each of the rescue areas, including fireground search and rescue operations, vehicle extrication operations, and a variety of technical rescue operations.

102 Firefighter II 8–101 Review Questions 1.Describe powered hydraulic tools used in rescue incidents. 2.What are air chisels and pneumatic nailers commonly used for? 3.List four safety rules when using pneumatic lifting bags. (Continued)

103 Firefighter II 8–102 Review Questions 4.Why is stabilizing vehicles involved in incidents important? 5.What are the common means of locating hidden victims in the rubble of a structural collapse?

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