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Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to operate various kinds of rescue equipment and practice correct extrication.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to operate various kinds of rescue equipment and practice correct extrication."— Presentation transcript:

0 Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition
Chapter 8 — Rescue and Extrication Firefighter II

1 Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to operate various kinds of rescue equipment and practice correct extrication procedures at an accident scene following the policies and procedures set forth by the jurisdiction (AHJ). Firefighter II

2 Specific Objectives 1. Discuss maintaining emergency power and lighting equipment. 2. Describe characteristics of hydraulic rescue tools. 3. Describe characteristics of nonhydraulic rescue tools. (Continued) Firefighter II

3 Specific Objectives 4. Discuss cribbing for rescue operations.
5. Describe the characteristics of pneumatic tools. 6. Discuss lifting/pulling tools used in rescue operations. (Continued) Firefighter II

4 Specific Objectives 7. Explain the size-up process for a vehicle incident. 8. Describe items to look for when assessing the need for extrication activities. 9. Discuss stabilizing vehicles involved in a vehicle incident. (Continued) Firefighter II

5 Specific Objectives 10. List the three methods of gaining access to victims in vehicles. 11. List the most common hazards associated with wrecked passenger vehicles. (Continued) Firefighter II

6 Specific Objectives 12. Explain the dangers associated with Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS) and Side-Impact Protection Systems (SIPS). 13. Describe basic actions taken for patient management. (Continued) Firefighter II

7 Specific Objectives 14. Describe patient removal.
15. Describe laminated safety glass and tempered glass. 16. Discuss removing glass from vehicles. 17. Explain considerations when removing vehicle roof and doors. (Continued) Firefighter II

8 Specific Objectives 18. Describe common patterns of structural collapse. 19. Describe the most common means of locating hidden victims in a structural collapse. 20. Describe structural collapse hazards. (Continued) Firefighter II

9 Specific Objectives 21. Describe shoring.
22. Discuss technical rescue incidents. 23. Service and maintain portable power plants and lighting equipment. (Skill Sheet 8-II-1) (Continued) Firefighter II

10 Specific Objectives 24. Extricate a victim trapped in a motor vehicle. (Skill Sheet 8-II-2) 25. Assist rescue teams. (Skill Sheet 8-II-3) Firefighter II

11 Maintaining Emergency Power/ Lighting Equipment
Review manufacturer’s service manual Inspect spark plugs, plug wires If spark plug damaged or service manual recommends, replace Check equipment carburetor Check fuel level, fill if necessary (Continued) Firefighter II

12 Maintaining Emergency Power/ Lighting Equipment
If fuel old, replace with fresh Check oil level, replenish as needed Start generator; run any tests identified in Operator Manual Inspect all electrical cords (Continued) Firefighter II

13 Maintaining Emergency Power/ Lighting Equipment
Test operation of lighting equipment Replace light bulbs as necessary Clean work area Document maintenance on appropriate forms/records Firefighter II

14 Powered Hydraulic Tools
Operated by hydraulic fluid pumped through special high-pressure hoses Most powered by electric motors or two- or four-cycle gasoline engines May be portable May be mounted on vehicle Firefighter II

15 Spreaders First tool available to fire/rescue service
Capable of pushing, pulling Can produce tons of force at tips May spread as much as 32 inches (800 mm) Firefighter II

16 Shears Capable of cutting almost any metal object
May be used to cut other materials Capable of producing tons of force Opening spread of approximately 7 inches (175 mm) Firefighter II

17 Combination Spreader/Shears
Two arms with spreader tips Inside edges of arms equipped with cutting shears Excellent for small rapid- intervention vehicles, departments with limited resources Capabilities less than individual units Firefighter II

18 Extension Rams Straight pushing operations May be used for pulling
Useful when pushing farther than shears’ maximum opening distance (Continued) Firefighter II

19 Extension Rams Extend from closed length of 3 feet (1 m) to around 5 feet (1.5 m) Open with tons of pushing force; close with ½ opening force Firefighter II

20 Manual Hydraulic Tools
Disadvantages Slower than powered hydraulic Limited range of operation Labor-intensive Advantages Relatively inexpensive Light weight Can be used in areas inaccessible to powered units Firefighter II

21 Porta-Power Tool System
Operated by transmitting pressure from manual hydraulic pump through high-pressure hose to tool assembly Advantage — Operates in narrow places Disadvantage — Assembly/operation time-consuming Firefighter II

22 Hydraulic Jacks Designed for heavy lifting applications
Excellent compression device for shoring, stabilizing operations Lifting capabilities up to 20 tons (18 tonnes [t]) Firefighter II

23 Nonhydraulic Jacks Screw jacks
Extended/retracted by turning threaded shaft Check for wear after each use Keep clean, lightly lubricated Bar screw jacks Trench screw jacks (Continued) Firefighter II

24 Nonhydraulic Jacks Ratchet-lever jacks
Rigid I-beam with perforations in web and a jacking carriage with two ratchets on geared side fitting around I-beam Least stable; can be dangerous Can fail under heavy load Firefighter II

25 Cribbing Essential in many rescue operations
Most commonly used to stabilize objects Wood Plastic Storage Firefighter II

26 Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
Air chisels Pneumatic nailers (Continued) Firefighter II

27 Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
Impact tools Air knifes (Continued) Courtesy of Supersonic Air Knife, Inc. Firefighter II

28 Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
Air vacuums Whizzer saws Firefighter II

29 Tripods Create anchor points above manholes, other openings
Allow rescuers to be safely lowered into confined spaces and rescuers/victims to be hoisted out Firefighter II

30 Winches Excellent pulling tools
Usually deployed faster, greater travel/ pulling distances, stronger than other lifting/pulling devices Usually behind front bumper of vehicles (Continued) Firefighter II

31 Winches Most common drives Pull by using chains/ cables Electric
Hydraulic Power take-off Pull by using chains/ cables (Continued) Firefighter II

32 Winches Should be equipped with handheld, remote-control devices
Should be positioned as close to objects being pulled as possible Firefighter II

33 Come-Alongs Portable cable winches operated by manual ratchet levers
Attached to secure anchor points Lever rewinds cable Common sizes 1-10 tonnes ( t) Firefighter II

34 Chains Used with winches and come-alongs
Only alloy steel chains should be used in rescue work Special alloys available for corrosive/ hazardous atmospheres Proof coil chain not suitable for rescue Firefighter II

35 Pneumatic Lifting Bags
Give rescuers ability to lift/displace objects High-pressure bags Low- and medium- pressure bags Lifting bag safety rules Firefighter II

36 Block and Tackle Systems
Convert given amount of pull to working force greater than the pull Useful for lifting/pulling heavy loads (Continued) Firefighter II

37 Block and Tackle Systems
Block — Wooden or metal frame containing one or more pulleys called sheaves Tackle — Assembly of ropes used to multiply pulling force Firefighter II

38 Scene Size-Up Begins as soon as first emergency vehicle approaches accident scene Importance Prevent injury to rescuers Prevents further injury to victims Clarifies required tasks Identifies needed resources Firefighter II

39 Positioning Apparatus
Officer in charge should position according to SOP/situation at hand Position close enough for equipment, supplies to be readily available Should not be so close that it might interfere with other on-scene activities (Continued) Firefighter II

40 Positioning Apparatus
First-arriving engine should be positioned to provide protective barrier U.S. DOT recommends headlights be turned off, unless needed for scene illumination At least one traffic lane should be closed to nonemergency traffic (Continued) Firefighter II

41 Positioning Apparatus
Firefighter II

42 Considerations When Arriving On Scene
What are traffic hazards; what types of control devices needed? How many/what types of vehicles involved? Where/how are vehicles positioned? How many victims/what is their status? (Continued) Firefighter II

43 Considerations When Arriving On Scene
Is there fire or potential? Any hazardous materials involved? Any utilities that may be damaged; if so is this hazardous? Need for additional resources? Firefighter II

44 Assess Immediate Area Around Vehicle
Number of victims in/around Severity of injuries Condition of vehicle Extrication tasks that may be required Hazardous condition Firefighter II

45 Assess Entire Area Around Scene
Other vehicles not readily apparent Victims thrown from vehicle Damage to structures/utilities that present hazard Firefighter II

46 Stabilizing the Vehicle
Is vital to prevent further injury Uses cribbing/shoring devices Prevents sudden/unexpected movement of vehicle NEVER test stability by pushing/pulling (Continued) Firefighter II

47 Stabilizing the Vehicle
Prevent horizontal motion Chock vehicles’ wheels Do not rely on mechanical systems Prevent vertical motion Jacks Pneumatic lifting bags Cribbing (Continued) Firefighter II

48 Stabilizing the Vehicle
Rescuers should avoid placing parts of their bodies under vehicle Vehicles upside down, on side, or on slope should be stabilized using whatever means available Shut down electrical power in vehicle Firefighter II

49 Methods for Gaining Access to Victims in Vehicles
Through normally operating door Through window By cutting away parts of vehicle body Firefighter II

50 Potential Hazards of Wrecked Passenger Vehicles
Oil- and air-filled struts Fuel, other flammable liquids High pressure tires Contents of trunk or vehicle interior Firefighter II

51 Dangers Associated with SRS, SIPS
Accidental activation of SRS or SIPS Reserve energy supply causes systems to deploy even after battery disconnected Activities can activate systems Prevention Some systems in SIPS design do not require power from vehicle’s electrical system Firefighter II

52 Actions for Patient Management
Choose easiest route to gain access Rescuer with emergency medical training should enter vehicle to stabilize/protect patient (Continued) Firefighter II

53 Actions for Patient Management
Rescuers inside vehicle should wear PPE Treatment can be simultaneous with preparation for removal from vehicle Vehicle must be removed from around patient Firefighter II

54 Patient Removal Package patient properly Cover sharp edges
Widen openings Pad edges Firefighter II

55 Laminated Safety Glass Characteristics
Manufactured from two sheets bonded to sheet of plastic between Most commonly used for windshields, rear windows (Continued) Firefighter II

56 Laminated Safety Glass Characteristics
Produces long, pointed shards with sharp edges Stays attached to laminate and moves as unit when broken Keeps shards of glass from flying about Firefighter II

57 Tempered Glass Characteristics
Most commonly used in side windows, rear windows Designed so small lines of fracture spread throughout and glass separates into many small pieces Eliminates long, pointed pieces; can still cause lacerations Firefighter II

58 Removing Laminated Glass
Can seriously weaken vehicle body; leave intact if possible More complicated, time-consuming than removing tempered glass Best method is with saw Hand tools can be used (Continued) Firefighter II

59 Removing Laminated Glass
In older vehicles, total windshield removal should be performed before roof laid back or removed Requires several rescuers Passengers inside should be covered with a tarp Firefighter II

60 Removing Tempered Glass
Methods Strike window with sharp, pointed object in lower corner Use spring-loaded center punch Use standard center punch or Phillips screwdriver With pick-head axe or Halligan tool (Continued) Firefighter II

61 Removing Tempered Glass
Controlling broken glass Apply sheet of self-adhesive contact paper Apply aerosol spray adhesive Firefighter II

62 Removing the Roof Designations A, B, C assigned to vehicle door posts from front to back A-post is front post area B-post is between front and rear doors on four-door; nearest handle on two-door C-post is post nearest handle on rear door of four-door; rear roof post on two-door (Continued) Firefighter II

63 Removing the Roof Removal methods
Cut all roof posts; remove roof entirely Cut front posts, cut relief notches in roof at top of rear door openings, fold roof back Plastics do not bend; remove entire roof Unibody vehicles are prone to collapse Firefighter II

64 Removing Doors Can be opened from handle side
May be removed by inserting spreader in crack on hinge side May be removed by cutting hinges, breaking latch mechanism, compromising door locks (Continued) Firefighter II

65 Removing Doors Plastic door panels may have to be removed to gain access to metal frame Interior plastic molding may need to be removed Firefighter II

66 Displacing Dashboard May be necessary to free patients pinned under steering wheel and/or wedged under dashboard Steps Firefighter II

67 Rescue From Collapsed Buildings
Difficulty in reaching victim in structural collapse depends upon conditions In some cases, uninjured/slightly injured occupants can make their way to surface of rubble These should be helped first (Continued) Firefighter II

68 Rescue From Collapsed Buildings
Next, rescue those lightly trapped by debris Rescuing the heavily trapped/seriously injured requires the services of technical rescue team Firefighter II

69 Pancake Collapse Possible in any building where failure of exterior walls results in upper floors and roof collapsing on top of each other Least likely to contain voids in which live victims can be found Firefighter II

70 V-Shaped Collapse Occurs when outer walls remain intact and upper floors/ roof structure fail in middle Offers good chance of habitable void spaces along both outer walls Firefighter II

71 Lean-To Collapse Occurs when one outer wall fails while opposite wall intact Side of floor or roof assembly supported by failed wall drops to floor, forming triangular void Firefighter II

72 A-Frame Collapse Occurs when floor/roof assemblies on both sides of center wall collapse Offers good chance of habitable void spaces on both sides of center wall Firefighter II

73 Cantilever Collapse When one or more walls of a multistory building collapse leaving floors attached to/ supported by remaining walls (Continued) Firefighter II

74 Cantilever Collapse Offers good chance of habitable voids forming above/below supported ends of floors Least stable of all patterns; most vulnerable to secondary/subsequent collapse Firefighter II

75 Locating Hidden Victims
Hailing — Calling out to elicit response from hidden victims Seismic/short-distance radar devices Electronically enhanced acoustic listening devices (Continued) Firefighter II

76 Locating Hidden Victims
Search cameras Thermal imaging cameras Search dogs Firefighter II

77 Environmental Hazards
Damaged utilities Atmospheric contamination Hazardous materials contamination Darkness (Continued) Firefighter II

78 Environmental Hazards
Noise Fire Temperature extremes Adverse weather conditions Firefighter II

79 Physical Hazards Unstable debris Confined spaces Exposed wiring/rebar
Heights Firefighter II

80 Shoring Means by which unstable structures or parts of structures can be stabilized Prevents sudden movement of objects too large to be moved in timely manner (Continued) Firefighter II

81 Shoring Not intended to move heavy objects
May involve air bags/jacks, cribbing, system of wooden braces Firefighter II

82 Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
Caused by trench construction Sometimes would-be rescuers are killed Knowing how to make structure safe for entrance and taking time to do so offer best chance of survival (Continued) Firefighter II

83 Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
Rescue operations depend on making site as safe as possible Rescuers should not be sent into trench unless trained/equipped (Continued) Firefighter II

84 Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
Rescue apparatus, nonessential personnel, equipment, spectators should be kept away Safety precautions should be taken Firefighter II

85 Confined Space Rescues
Large enough and configured so that employee can bodily enter/perform assigned work Limited/restricted means of entry/exit Not designed for continuous employee occupancy (Continued) Firefighter II

86 Confined Space Rescues
Several common types Should only be performed by firefighters with specific training Atmospheric hazards Physical hazards Command post, staging area outside hot zone (Continued) Firefighter II

87 Confined Space Rescues
Do not enter staging area until IAP developed/communicated Attendant must track personnel, equipment entering/leaving space Equipment Lifeline (Continued) Firefighter II

88 Confined Space Rescues
O-A-T-H Method O — One tug; OK A — Two tugs; Advance T — Three tugs; Take-up H — Four tugs; Help Air monitoring devices Accountability system Firefighter II

89 Rescue From Caves, Mines, Tunnels
Most firefighters not trained/equipped to perform Must be done by those familiar with specific environment Firefighter II

90 Rescues Involving Electricity
Safety precautions Electrical wires on ground can be dangerous without being touched Ground gradient Rescuers should stay away from downed wires distance equal to one span between poles Firefighter II

91 Water and Ice Rescue Swimming pools, ponds, low-head dams Rescues
Victim stranded, floundering, has been submerged for short time Recoveries Victim submerged for long period of time and likely deceased (Continued) Firefighter II

92 Water and Ice Rescue All appropriate PPE should be worn Methods REACH
THROW ROW GO Firefighter II

93 Ice Rescue Considerations
Because ice is thick, not necessarily strong Victims almost certainly suffering hypothermia Victims may not be able to help Victim’s chances of survival depend on how quickly out of water/into warmth Firefighter II

94 Ice Rescue Protocols Instruct victim NOT to try to get out of water until rescuer says so REACH THROW GO Firefighter II

95 Industrial Extrication
Can be among most challenging rescue situations Once mechanism stabilized, power should be shut off If problem outside capability of team, outside expertise required Firefighter II

96 Elevator Rescue Usually not a true emergency
Usually involves elevators stalled between floors Firefighters should reassure passengers and wait for a mechanic (Continued) Firefighter II

97 Elevator Rescue Only an elevator mechanic should perform adjustments to mechanical system Elevator rescue may be necessary; should only be performed by trained personnel Communication with passengers essential Firefighter II

98 Escalator Rescue Stop switches usually on nearby wall, at base of escalator, at point close to handrail in newel base Activating switch stops stairs Should be stopped during rescues Escalator mechanic should be requested when removing victims Firefighter II

99 Summary Firefighters must be capable of performing basic rescue and extrication operations as a member of a team. (Continued) Firefighter II

100 Summary Firefighters must be willing to pursue specialized training in each of the rescue areas, including fireground search and rescue operations, vehicle extrication operations, and a variety of technical rescue operations. Firefighter II

101 Review Questions 1. Describe powered hydraulic tools used in rescue incidents. 2. What are air chisels and pneumatic nailers commonly used for? 3. List four safety rules when using pneumatic lifting bags. (Continued) Firefighter II

102 Review Questions 4. Why is stabilizing vehicles involved in incidents important? 5. What are the common means of locating hidden victims in the rubble of a structural collapse? Firefighter II

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