2Atoms Atoms are the building blocks of matter. An electron is negative and orbits the nucleus.A proton is positive and is inside the nucleus.A neutron is neutral and is inside the nucleus.Subatomic particles are broken into 3 quarks ea.
3Atomic ModelsDemocritus was first to propose the idea of an atom (smallest piece).Dalton said each element had its own atoms.Rutherford discovered the nucleus.Bohr stated that electrons were on orbits.The current model (wave/electron cloud) is based on Rutherford and Bohr’s.
5Periodic TableAristotle (Greek) said there were only 4 elements: fire, earth, air, and water.A periodic table charts all elements in families based on properties and is in order of atomic number.Atomic number equals protons (also matches the number of electrons)Atomic mass equals protons plus neutrons.
8Energy Kinetic is energy of motion. (mass x velocity) Potential energy is energy of position or stored.The sun is the original source of all energy.Energy can never be destroyed nor created only transferred.Sources: fossil fuels, wind, water, solar, mechanical, and chemical.Renewable are sun, wind, and waves.Non-renewable are coal, gas, and oil.
9Renewable Energy Passive interior heat Solar panels Window design Solar water heaterBackup heat source
11Astronomy Our sun is a medium-sized star The seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth’s axis.The moon appears to go through phases, because one side is always lit.The phases of the moon are: new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, last quarter, and waning crescent.
13Tides…Tides are caused by the gravitational pull between the earth, sun, and moon.A neap tide is when the moon is perpendicular from the sun and is the lowest of high tides.A spring tide is when the moon is in line with the sun and is the highest of high tides.There are two high and two low tides every 24 hours.
14Happy Earth Day!Don’t forget to “power down” tonight at 9pm for 60 seconds in honor of our earth!
16Planets Terrestrial/rocky planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Gas/Jovian planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and NeptunePlanet X is assumed to be on the other side of Pluto.Venus is the earth’s sister planet.Mars is the red planet.Mercury has the shortest year.
18More on Space…Revolution - an object travels around another. Equals one year.Earth year is days.Rotation is one spin on its axis. Equals one day.Earth day is 24 hours.A solar eclipse is when the moon is in the middle of the earth and sun.A lunar eclipse is when the earth is in the middle between the moon and sun.
20Random Space Facts…John Glen was the first astronaut to circle the earth.Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to the moon.Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first to step on the moon.The space station is a joint effort to create living quarters in space.
21Scientific Investigation Constants is what remains the same in experimental set-ups.Inference - a proposed explanation for an observation.Predictions -what you think will happen based on past observations.
23Scientific Method cont. Hypothesis -an educated guess. And is written in “If…..then….” format.Independent Variable - the thing that “I” change in the experiment.The Dependent Variable- what is affected by the I.V.
24Scientific Method cont… Qualitative data uses the 5 senses “quality” (describes)Quantitative data uses numbers. “quantity” (charts and graphs)Stating the problem is the first step in the scientific method.You experiment to test your hypothesis.
25Scientific Method cont… You organize data to analyze your results by making graphs, charts, etc…State a conclusion after the experiment.A good experiment is done at least 3 times.A control is a set up that is as close to nature as possible.
26Now practice your skills… (do not write) If I am testing laundry detergent on two grass stained shirts what is my I.V?What is my D.V?What would my control setup be?What are the constants? Read…
27MeasurementMass is the amount of matter in an object. Measured in grams with a triple beam balance.Volume is the amount of space an object takes up. Measured in mL or cc using a graduated cylinder.Length is measured in m using a meter-stick or ruler.Density is measured in g/mL or g/cc. Density never changes.
29Life ProcessesAll organisms need food, water, air, shelter, energy, and space to survive.A food chain shows relationships between living organisms.A food web is two/more food chains hooked together.A pyramid shows relative amounts of energy available at each level.Decomposers – organisms that break down other organisms. Ex. Bacteria.
30More on life…Producers (autotroph) bottom of any web, chain, or pyramid and make their own food.Consumers (heterotrophs) –eat other living things.1st level consumer– herbivores (eat plants and algae)2nd level consumer –carnivores, eat the herbivores.3rd level consumer – they are at the top of the food chain.
32More facts… Ammonia is given off by dead plants and animals. Predators kill and eat other animals.Prey are the hunted.Omnivores eat animals and plants.Herbivores eat only plants.Carnivores eat only animals.Scavengers feed off of dead animals.
336th Grade Matter… Physical properties: color, shape, texture. Chemical properties: rusting, flammability, combustibility.Chemical reaction and a chemical change are the same.Reaction occurs when both physical and chemical properties are changed.
35More on matter… A compound two or more elements combined. Ex. water A mixture is two or more compounds mixed and can be separated easily. Ex. Salad, cereal, kool-aid.An element is the simplest pure substance and cannot be broken down.
36Random Facts…?Water cycle includes evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and infiltration.Producers release oxygen for consumers and consumers release carbon dioxide for producers.Nitrogen is 78% of the air we breathe.Nitrates are N and O and used by plants.