Presentation on theme: "About the Author & Essential Background"— Presentation transcript:
1About the Author & Essential Background Wuthering HeightsAbout the Author&Essential Background
2Emily Bronte (1818-1848) Came from a “family of poets” Family lived in solitude on the gloomy northern moorsOne of six childrenView from Carlton Moors, North York
3Patrick Bronte – Emily’s father Ordained clergyman in the Established Church of EnglandHelped crush the Irish Rebellion of 1789 as a young man and helped stifle the labor rebellion as an adult. He always carried a loaded pistol.He was a tyrant at home and always acted cold toward his children; may have been inspiration for HindleyAs a result, Emily was taught to be the protector of the house; she was excellent with a gun
4Bronte’s Upbringing Mother died of cancer in 1821 Children were raised by their Aunt Branwell in HaworthIsolated location surrounded by moorsTop Withens, near Haworth, believed to be inspiration for Wuthering HeightsThe four Bronte sisters attended the Clergy Daughters school because it was all the family could affordConditions were deplorableMaria and Elizabeth died of TBCharlotte and Emily returned home shortly thereafter
5A product of her environment Emily was isolated and had no close friendsHer father influenced her love of mysticism, religion, and the outdoorsWriting became a means of amusement for the children
6A product of her environment She began to take care of her drug- and alcohol-addicted brother.The last time Emily left her home was to attend Branwell’s funeralHere she caught TB and refused to leave her home or call a doctor. Emily died 2 months later at the age of 30.
7Not outwardly expressive… Emily was quite tall and had an intense, striking gaze—one that seldom met the eyes of a stranger. She felt more liberated and free around her family, but especially on the moors.Emily kept her feelings mysterious, even to Charlotte, who admitted that she was never quite sure how Emily was feeling.Her intensity of feeling is clearly evident in her poetry and in Wuthering Heights. This novel is also known for its lyric and poetic influence (rhythm, description, sound and meter).
8Life with CharlotteMade first attempt to live away from home with sister Charlotte, who was asked to teach at Roe HeadCharlotte noted that Emily suffered from “acute homesickness and a love of the moorland vastness”Returned home as a resultSiblings publish a book of poetry using pseudonymsCharlotte wrote, “we did not declare ourselves women because… we had a vague impression that authoresses are liable to be looked on with prejudice.”
9Writing Wuthering Heights Emily began writing WH in late 1845, finished in 1846, published in 1847.“Wuthering Heights puzzled and offended many of its readers, who found it excessively morbid, violent, and indelicate, and later disapproved still more when it became known that the book was written by a woman.”WH was not critically accepted when it was first published; Victorian society considered it rude and insulting.
10Writing Wuthering Heights After Emily’s death, her sister Charlotte defended her sister. She acknowledged some errors but argued that the novel was not all dark. She emphasized the morally grounded characters and the novel’s ultimate conclusion.Emily saw the main human conflict as one between the individual and the dark, questioning universe, a universe symbolized by man’s threatening and hard-to-control inner nature.Victorians saw men and women as ones to be raised respectably. Women ere also considered frail and useless they could, however, teach or do social work.
11Gothic Novels and Satanic Heroes Victorian society existed with tension (think about all the changes we discussed). While society was becoming more industrialized, it was also deeply-rooted in religious morals.During this time, Gothic novels were popular; these novels included tortured “satanic” heroes.Heathcliff is such a character: dark, angry, and tortured.Heathcliff also resembles the setting of the HeightsHe is dark-skinned, morose, and slovenly.Heathcliff, like the growth of the trees on the moors, has been twisted and stunted because of the storms he has had to endure—Brutal strength has made him survive.Contrasts are also forefront in the Victorian Era and are clearly established in WH—good vs. evil, calm vs. chaos, stability vs. passion
12Notes on the Novel The Novel Many critics read the characters as allegorical personifications of natural forcesThe novel’s effectiveness “stems from its careful marriage of howling melodrama to matter-of-fact every day life”The Society Emily KnewEmily grew up in a poor village where many were newly unemployed by the machines of the industrial revolutionMobs and violent protests filled the streets, striking against the factoriesCharlotte Bronte’s book Shirley revolves around the riots at a textile mill