476 AD = 1066 AD= 1215 AD = 1632-1649**=
Silk roads across Asia to the Mediterranean basin Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa Northern European links with the Black Sea Western European sea and river trade South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia Importance of trade patterns Exchange of products and ideas
Paper, compass, silk, porcelain (China) Textiles, numeral system (India and Middle East) Scientific transfer—Medicine, astronomy, mathematics
Judaism—Concentrated in Europe and the Middle East Christianity—Concentrated in Europe and the Middle East Islam—Parts of Asia, Africa, and southern Europe Hinduism—India and part of Southeast Asia Buddhism—East and Southeast Asia
Growth of literacy was stimulated by the Gutenberg printing press. The Bible was printed in English, French, and German. These factors had an important impact on spreading the ideas of the Reformation and Renaissance
Merchant wealth challenged the Church’s view of usury. German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church. The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict. Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict.
Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition) Views—Salvation by faith alone, Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God Actions—95 theses, birth of the Protestant Church John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition) Views—Predestination, faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic Actions—Expansion of the Protestant Movement
King Henry VIII (the Anglican tradition) Views—Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome Actions—Divorced; broke with Rome; headed the national church in England; appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England
Anglican Church became a national church throughout the British Isles under Elizabeth I. The Reformation contributed to the rise of capitalism.
Catholic Church mounted a series of reforms and reasserted its authority. Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world. Inquisition was established to reinforce Catholic doctrine.
Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in Europe Support for the diffusion of Christianity Political and economic competition between European empires Innovations in navigational arts (European and Islamic origins) Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator
Portugal—Vasco da Gama Spain—Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortez, Francisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan England—Francis Drake France—Jacques Cartier
Migration of colonists to new lands Influence of Catholics and Protestants, who carried their faith, language, and cultures to new lands Conversion of indigenous peoples
Expansion of overseas territorial claims and European emigration to North and South America Demise of Aztec, Maya, and Inca Empires Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America Forced migration of some Africans into slavery Colonies’ imitation of the culture and social patterns of their parent country
European trading posts along the coast Trade in slaves, gold, and other products
Colonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies, China) Influence of trading companies (Portuguese, Dutch, British)
Western Hemisphere agricultural products such as corn, potatoes, and tobacco changed European lifestyles. European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles of American Indians (First Americans). European diseases like smallpox killed many American Indians (First Americans).
Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African slaves. Slavery was based on race. European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment. The triangular trade linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Slaves, sugar, and rum were traded.
Gold and silver (exported to Europe and Asia) Impact on indigenous empires of the Americas Impact on Spain and international trade
developed advanced and complex societies before the arrival of the Europeans-(math- calendar) established extensive trade with Pacific Rim nations were strongly influenced by their contact with Asian and African civilizations were relatively large, but not well organized
Mercantilism: An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient; based on the theory that colonies existed only for the benefit of the mother country
European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies, and resources. A new economic system emerged New money and banking systems were created Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country.
Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature Formulation of the scientific method Expansion of scientific knowledge
Characteristics of Centralization of power Concept of rule by divine right Absolute monarchs Philip II of Spain- Hapsburg ruler Louis XIV—France, Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power…and “other Louies” to come
Review long standing traditions of NON- absolutism in England England first settled by Angles, Saxons, and Jutes ▪ “Angle”-land = ENGLAND ▪ Terms like “Anglo-Saxon” refer to the characteristics and culture of this place
1066 AD: William the Conqueror (Wm, descendant of VIKINGS) launches the Norman Invasion (from the coast of Normandy, France) and defeats English King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. His heirs will establish FRENCH things like ▪ Parliament (from French parle) ▪ Jury trials (from jure)
1215 AD: Magna Carta King John I was forced to sign a document acknowledging: A. King MUST obey the laws B. Nobles have “some rights” *this does NOT mean all citizens are treated equally! Not for a LONG time yet C. Parliament has to be asked before the king raises taxes
English Civil War Issues 1632-1649 : Tudor monarchs (Henry, Eliz I) dealt with Parliament…Eliz I dies in 1603….. James I (of King James Bible and Jamestown fame) is technically a Protestant, but has High Church Anglican/Practically Catholic leanings and loves thinking he has DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS..absolute-ish power to rule England
English Civil War Issues…James I is the first of the STUART line (Catholic Scots) of English monarchs Charles I : Absolute rule Divine right of kings (did not want to agree to the Petition of Right) Jails people without a trial (VERY anti-English history and traditional rights)
Parliament … Convenes the “Long Parlliament” from 1640- 1653) : (Roundheads and Oliver Cromwell fight for Parliament) a long standing representative assembly of landed, English Lords
Charles I dissolves Parliament (he does not believe he should have to “get permission from Parliament) Continues to imprison political enemies without trials (cavaliers fight for the king) “does not play nicely with Parliament”
Parliament: Arrests Charles I, tries and convicts of treason and executes in 1649
1632-1649: English Civil War Roundheads arrest, try, and convict KING CHARLES I of Treason and ……Chop his head off Est. power of Parliament over the monarch English Bill of Rights to protect the traditional rights of English citizens
Oliver Cromwell sets up a republic/commonwealth of PURITANism in England Not “fun” (closes taverns, theaters, brothels, etc.) People are glad they are Puritans, but not THAT glad to be ruled by authoritarian Cromwell…..
Cromwell dies in 1658 Parliament asks Charles II (son of Charles I) to accept the throne and “restore the monarchy” with a few stipulations “Restoration” is Ch II taking throne and agreeing to not behave like an absolute monarch …”
Restoration: fires up more colonization in the North America New colonies: North Carolina, South Carolina, “Glorious Revolution” is when James II of England fears being overthrown and runs off to France…his daughter (Mary) and her husband (William) are Protestant and come to the throne as “William and Mary”
Applied REASON and LOGIC to the human world, not just the natural world Stimulated religious tolerance…after MANY years of witch hunts, burnings at the stake and groundless accusations of heresy! Fueled democratic revolutions around the world
Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan—The state must have central authority to manage behavior John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government— People are sovereign; monarchs are not chosen by God Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws—The best form of government includes a separation of powers.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract—Government is a contract between rulers and the people Voltaire—wrote Candide; Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state; freedom of speech
Political ideas of the Enlightenment fueled revolutions in America and France Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas. The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.