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3 Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations: Maya, Aztec, Inca Find these locations and label them on your map.

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Presentation on theme: "3 Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations: Maya, Aztec, Inca Find these locations and label them on your map."— Presentation transcript:

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3 3 Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations: Maya, Aztec, Inca Find these locations and label them on your map.

4 Early Human Migrations

5 A.D A.D. 900

6 Lands of the Mayans The Yucatan Peninsula

7 Tikal, Guatemala

8 Map of Tikal Temple of the Masks

9 Tikal: Temple of the Masks

10 Tikal - Wall Mask of the Rain God

11 Tikal Jungle View at Sunset

12 Chichen-Itza - Pyramid Cities were religious centers. Pyramid style Temples stood in the middle of the city. Worshiped many gods and performed rituals including human sacrifice to their gods.

13 Pakal: The Maya Astronaut

14 The God of Wisdom & Learning Quetzalcoatl: The God of Wisdom & Learning

15 Every Spring and Fall equinox, the sun hits the pyramid just perfectly that a snake is formed on the edge of the staircase. The head is down on the bottom of the staircase. Architects still aren’t exactly sure of how the Mayans figured out how to build this.

16 Chichen-Itza - Observatory Mayan priests studied the stars and planets. Designed an accurate calendar to determine cycles.

17 Mayan Mathematics First number system with a 0

18 Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing System sky king house child city sky king house child city

19 Chichen-Itza - Ball Court Game: Pok-ta-Pok

20 Mayan Cultivation of Maize Chac, God of Rain  Farmers worked in fields surrounding the city. Maize most important crop. Also grew squash, beans, peppers, avocados, and papayas.

21 Mayan Underground Granaries: Chultunes Ground the corn into flour to make tortillas.

22 Mayan Drinking Cup for Chocolate

23 The Great Mystery of the Mayas: Collapse of the Mayan Civilization Suddenly left their cities. Why??  Enormous Population –Lack of Resources (water, food, materials)  Revolution against the Government –Peasant uprising against nobles & priests  Invasions  Natural Disaster (earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanos etc.)  Disease  Calendar Prophesies - Mayans believed they were headed for collapse because their calendar said they were, therefore they thought they should move to new centers

24 Maya Review

25 A.D – A.D.1521

26 Lands of the Aztecs

27 Aztec View of Tenochtitlan Aztec View of Tenochtitlan Island in Lake Texcoco Population 200,000

28 Tenochtitlan: The “Venice” of the Americas

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30 Ruins of the City Center, Tenochtitlan

31 Aztecs Human Sacrifice of Neighboring Tribes to the Sun God

32 Aztec Sun Motifs

33 Heart Sacrifice on an Aztec Temple Pyramid

34 Wall of Skulls, Tenochtitlan

35 Sacrificial Statue, Tenochtitlan

36 Aztec Chinampa or Floating Garden: 15ft. to 30ft. wide

37 Tenochtitlan – Chinampas of maize, squash, & beans

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39 Aztec Medicine Aztec doctors made more than 1,000 medicines from plants. Also set broken bones and practiced dentistry.

40 Aztec Math Aztec Writing

41 Aztec Codex (15c Manuscript)

42 Aztec Sun Stone -- Calendar

43 The Aztecs Were Fierce Warriors

44 Aztec Gold

45 Aztec Trading

46  Montezuma II Aztec Ruler 1519  Hernan Cortes formed an alliance with the peasants and defeated the Aztecs in 1521 Aztec Collapse

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48 A.D A.D.1535

49 Lands of the Incas

50 Cuzco: Ancient Capital of the Inca Stone Architecture with no mortar or cement. Architecture Stonework and earthquake proof structures – trapezoid doors and windows & walls tilted in at 80 degrees instead of 90 degree straight walls.

51 Machu Picchu: rediscovered 1911

52 This city is built into the mountainside with over 3,000 steps connecting the different levels of the city.

53 Machu Picchu

54  Many Gods  Human Sacrifice  Inti – god of sun: most important god  Viracocha – god of Andes people Incan Religion

55 Incan Road System 15,000 miles of roads. Runners used to relay messages over vast empire.

56 Incan Suspension Bridges

57 Incan Terrace Farming

58 Incan Digging Sticks

59 Maize in Incan Pottery & Gold Work

60 Over 100 Different Types of Potatoes Cultivated by the Incans

61 Produce from a Typical Incan Market Peppers, Tomatoes, Peanuts

62 Incan Ceramic Jars PeanutPeanut PotatoPotato SquashSquash Cacao God Cacao Pod

63 Incan Aqueducts

64 The Quipu: An Incan Data Collecting Method

65 Inca Gold & Silver

66  Francisco Pizarro –Guns, cannons, and horses –European diseases Incan Collapse: 1535

67 Incan Mummies

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69 The End


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