Presentation on theme: "3 Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations: Maya, Aztec, Inca Find these locations and label them on your map."— Presentation transcript:
3 Major Pre-Columbian Civilizations: Maya, Aztec, Inca Find these locations and label them on your map.
Early Human Migrations
A.D A.D. 900
Lands of the Mayans The Yucatan Peninsula
Map of Tikal Temple of the Masks
Tikal: Temple of the Masks
Tikal - Wall Mask of the Rain God
Tikal Jungle View at Sunset
Chichen-Itza - Pyramid Cities were religious centers. Pyramid style Temples stood in the middle of the city. Worshiped many gods and performed rituals including human sacrifice to their gods.
Pakal: The Maya Astronaut
The God of Wisdom & Learning Quetzalcoatl: The God of Wisdom & Learning
Every Spring and Fall equinox, the sun hits the pyramid just perfectly that a snake is formed on the edge of the staircase. The head is down on the bottom of the staircase. Architects still aren’t exactly sure of how the Mayans figured out how to build this.
Chichen-Itza - Observatory Mayan priests studied the stars and planets. Designed an accurate calendar to determine cycles.
Mayan Mathematics First number system with a 0
Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing System sky king house child city sky king house child city
Chichen-Itza - Ball Court Game: Pok-ta-Pok
Mayan Cultivation of Maize Chac, God of Rain Farmers worked in fields surrounding the city. Maize most important crop. Also grew squash, beans, peppers, avocados, and papayas.
Mayan Underground Granaries: Chultunes Ground the corn into flour to make tortillas.
Mayan Drinking Cup for Chocolate
The Great Mystery of the Mayas: Collapse of the Mayan Civilization Suddenly left their cities. Why?? Enormous Population –Lack of Resources (water, food, materials) Revolution against the Government –Peasant uprising against nobles & priests Invasions Natural Disaster (earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanos etc.) Disease Calendar Prophesies - Mayans believed they were headed for collapse because their calendar said they were, therefore they thought they should move to new centers
A.D – A.D.1521
Lands of the Aztecs
Aztec View of Tenochtitlan Aztec View of Tenochtitlan Island in Lake Texcoco Population 200,000
Tenochtitlan: The “Venice” of the Americas
Ruins of the City Center, Tenochtitlan
Aztecs Human Sacrifice of Neighboring Tribes to the Sun God
Aztec Sun Motifs
Heart Sacrifice on an Aztec Temple Pyramid
Wall of Skulls, Tenochtitlan
Sacrificial Statue, Tenochtitlan
Aztec Chinampa or Floating Garden: 15ft. to 30ft. wide
Tenochtitlan – Chinampas of maize, squash, & beans
Aztec Medicine Aztec doctors made more than 1,000 medicines from plants. Also set broken bones and practiced dentistry.
Aztec Math Aztec Writing
Aztec Codex (15c Manuscript)
Aztec Sun Stone -- Calendar
The Aztecs Were Fierce Warriors
Montezuma II Aztec Ruler 1519 Hernan Cortes formed an alliance with the peasants and defeated the Aztecs in 1521 Aztec Collapse
Lands of the Incas
Cuzco: Ancient Capital of the Inca Stone Architecture with no mortar or cement. Architecture Stonework and earthquake proof structures – trapezoid doors and windows & walls tilted in at 80 degrees instead of 90 degree straight walls.
Machu Picchu: rediscovered 1911
This city is built into the mountainside with over 3,000 steps connecting the different levels of the city.
Many Gods Human Sacrifice Inti – god of sun: most important god Viracocha – god of Andes people Incan Religion
Incan Road System 15,000 miles of roads. Runners used to relay messages over vast empire.
Incan Suspension Bridges
Incan Terrace Farming
Incan Digging Sticks
Maize in Incan Pottery & Gold Work
Over 100 Different Types of Potatoes Cultivated by the Incans
Produce from a Typical Incan Market Peppers, Tomatoes, Peanuts
Incan Ceramic Jars PeanutPeanut PotatoPotato SquashSquash Cacao God Cacao Pod
The Quipu: An Incan Data Collecting Method
Inca Gold & Silver
Francisco Pizarro –Guns, cannons, and horses –European diseases Incan Collapse: 1535