2Earth’s Layers Earth is divided into three layers. The outer layer is called the crust.Beneath the crust lies the mantle.The core is the innermost layer
3Landforms The solid features formed on Earth’s crust. Other features include bodies of water.Crustal movement and other tectonic activity inside Earth createlandforms; mountains, faults, sinks, and volcanos.Many landforms are shaped by water and wind that carve and erodeland surfaces, carrying and depositing soil, sand and other debris.
4Topographic maps and models are used to represent landforms and help scientists better understand objects and processes.
6archipelagoahr-kuh-pel-uh-goh A group or chain of islands in a large body of waterAegean IslandsBack toLandform Chart
7bayA bay is a body of water that is partly enclosed by land (and is usually smaller than a gulf).Back toLandform ChartThe bay at San Sebastian, Spain.
8Butte near Sedona, Arizona. A butte is a flat-topped rock or hill formation with steep sides.Back toLandform ChartButte near Sedona, Arizona.
9canyonA canyon is a deep valley with very steep sides - often carved from the Earth by a river.Back toLandform ChartView from the North Rim of the Grand Canyon.
10capeA cape is a pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea, ocean, lake, or river.Back toLandform ChartThe Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point.
11peninsulaA peninsula is a LARGER body of land that is surrounded by water on three sidesA peninsula in Croatia.Back toLandform Chart
12channelA channel is a body of water that connects two larger bodies of water (like the English Channel). A channel is also a part of a river or harbor that is deep enough to let ships sail throughBack toLandform ChartSatellite view of the English Channel
13strait and canalCanal- A constructed channel filled with water used for navigation, irrigation, or drainage.Strait- A passageway of water connecting two large bodies of water.Back toLandform Chart
14deltaA delta is a low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river. It is formed from the silt, sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river and are deposited in the delta. A delta is often (but not always) shaped like a triangle (hence its name, delta, a Greek letter that is shaped like a triangle).Back toLandform ChartNile River Delta
15desert A desert is a very dry area. Back to Landform Chart Erg Chebbi, MoroccoBack toLandform Chart
16oasis a fertile or green area in an arid region (as a desert) Back to The Sahara Desert extends into southern Tunisia and covers about 40 percent of the country’s land area. Camels are still used as a means of transportation in some parts of the desert, such as at this oasis near DūzBack toLandform Chart
17duneA dune is a hill or a ridge made of sand. Dunes are shaped by the wind, and change all the timeMesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National ParkBack toLandform Chart
18estuary An estuary is where a river meets the sea or ocean. Back to Rio de la Plata EstuaryBack toLandform Chart
19fjordA fjord is a long, narrow sea inlet that is bordered by steep cliffs.Geirangerfjord in NorwayBack toLandform Chart
20geyserA geyser is a natural hot spring that occasionally sprays water and steam above the ground.Strokkur Geyser, IcelandBack toLandform Chart
21glacier A glacier is a slowly moving river of ice. Back to The Upper Grindelwald Glacier and the Schreckhorn, in Switzerland, showing accumulation and ablation zonesBack toLandform Chart
22gulfA gulf is a part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly surrounded by land (it is usually larger than a bay).Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective.Back toLandform Chart
23hill A hill is a raised area or mound of land. Back to Landform Chart The panoramic view from Connors Hill, near Swifts Creek, VictoriaBack toLandform Chart
24island An island is a piece of land that is surrounded by water. A small island in the Adriatic Sea.Back toLandform Chart
25isthmusAn isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger landmasses. An isthmus has water on two sides.The Isthmus of Panama connects North and South America.Back toLandform Chart
26lagoonA lagoon is a shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast.Nearly half the area of Kiritimati is covered with lagoon, some being freshwater and some seawater.Back toLandform Chart
27lakeA lake is a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides. Really huge lakes are often called seas.One of the many artificial lakes in Arizona at sunset.Back toLandform Chart
28marshA marsh is a type of freshwater, brackish water or saltwater wetland that is found along rivers, pond, lakes and coasts. Marsh plants grow up out of the water.Freshwater marsh in Florida.Back toLandform Chart
29mesaA mesa is a land formation with a flat area on top and steep walls - usually occurring in dry areas.Several mesas near Los Alamos, New MexicoBack toLandform Chart
30mountainA mountain is a very tall high, natural place on Earth - higher than a hill. The tallest mountain on Earth is Mt. Everest.Mount Damavand, in winter, IranBack toLandform Chart
31oceanAn ocean is a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent. Oceans cover more the two-thirds of the Earth's surfaceBathymetric map of the Indian OceanBack toLandform Chart
32plain Plains are flat lands that have only small changes in elevation Moghan plain, East Azarbaijan Province, IranBack toLandform Chart
33plateauA plateau is a large, flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land.Monte Roraima in Venezuela, Brazil and GuyanaBack toLandform Chart
34pondA pond is a small body of water surrounded by land. A pond is smaller than a lake.A garden pond.Back toLandform Chart
35prairieA prairie is a wide, relatively flat area of land that has grasses and only a few trees.Konza Prairie in Kansas in spring with herd of bison in distanceBack toLandform Chart
36riverA river is a large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean.Mississippi river in New OrleansBack toLandform Chart
37seaA sea is a large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. A sea may be partly or completely surrounded by land.Satellite image of the Black SeaBack toLandform Chart
38soundA sound is a wide inlet of the sea or ocean that is parallel to the coastline; it often separates a coastline from a nearby islandPuget Sound and Mt. Rainier of Washington State, USABack toLandform Chart
39source A source is the beginning of a river. Back to Landform Chart River Wey near it’s source at Farringdon, HampshireBack toLandform Chart
40swampA swamp is a type of freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddly land and a lot of water. Many trees and shrubs grow in swamps.A freshwater swamp in Florida.Back toLandform Chart
41tributaryA tributary is a stream or river that flows into a larger river.The Mosel flows into the Rhein at Koblenz.Back toLandform Chart
42tundra A tundra is a cold, treeless area; it is the coldest biome. Arctic tundra on Wrangel Island, Russia.Back toLandform Chart
43valley A valley is a low place between mountains. Back to U-shaped valley in Glacier National Park in Montana, United States.Back toLandform Chart
44volcanoA volcano is a mountainous vent in the Earth's crust. When a volcano erupts, it spews out lava, ashes, and hot gases from deep inside the Earth.Mount St. Helens in May 1980, shortly after the eruption of May 18.Back toLandform Chart
45waterfall When a river falls off steeply, there is a waterfall. Havasu Falls, near Supai, Arizona, is an example of a plunge waterfall.Back toLandform Chart
46reefRidge of sand, rock, or coral that lies at or near the surface of a sea or ocean.Pamalican island with surrounding reef, Sulu Sea, Philippines.Back toLandform Chart
47savanna An area of grassland and scattered trees. Back to Landform ChartAcacia savanna south of Fada N'Gourma, Burkina Faso.