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Focus on: Baath power in Syria & Iraq Islamic Revolution in Iran (& theories of revolution) Iran-Iraq War Next time: The Peace Process The 1970s-90s.

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Presentation on theme: "Focus on: Baath power in Syria & Iraq Islamic Revolution in Iran (& theories of revolution) Iran-Iraq War Next time: The Peace Process The 1970s-90s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Focus on: Baath power in Syria & Iraq Islamic Revolution in Iran (& theories of revolution) Iran-Iraq War Next time: The Peace Process The 1970s-90s

2 Baath Power in Syria & Iraq competition for regional dominance Similarities – rural advancement, authoritarian, use of military and Baath party, absolute power and personality cult, socialist economic policies RURAL ORIGINS OVER URBAN POLITICIANS & MERCHANTS Ibn Khaldun – badu/hadar. town versus desert dichotomy. Baath Party Motto (Unity, Freedom, Socialism)

3 SYRIA Regime and consolidation of power in Corrective Movement Previous Baath too adventurous (Black September) Domestic Politics 1973 constitution Muslim President? State-led reforms Regional Influence from 1973 War Internal Challenge Primarily Sunni Islamic Front Foreign Policy (Lebanon, Iran-Iraq War) Domestic Policy (Rural privilege, corruption & repression) Hafiz Al-Asad

4 SYRIA in LEBANON – a special relationship Taif Agreement (1989) Attempt to end civil war and bring about national reconciliation – out of two governments, one? Remember National Pact and demographic issues Equal #s of Parliament & Cabinet seats among Christians and Muslims Many presidential powers Prime Minister Disarmament & disbanding militias to be facilitated by Syrian assistance The Rebellion of Michel Aoun ( ) War of liberation against the Syrians

5 Islamic Revolution in Iran Precedents White Revolution and its effects Modern capitulations (oil) Revolution is: the collapse of one political order and its replacement by another rapid, basic transformations of societys state and class structures, and of its dominant ideology… carried through, in part, by class- based upheavals from below. (Skocpol)

6 REVIEW: White Revolution (started in 1963) Top-down, bloodless Major social, economic, and political reforms ON ONE HAND: Land reform granting private ownership, increased educational support and access, greater secularization, womens enfranchisement, social welfare, subsidies for industrial growth THE OTHER HAND: Maintain majorly corrupt regime with uneven distribution of income and widespread political repression Opposition by religious establishment in the mid 1970s Land reform included land taken from religious leaders and hurt their economic interests Positive impacts, but very selective Resented by religious leaders

7 What happened? We already know about MRS takes throne (1941); CIA overthrow of Mossadeq (1953); MRS back on throne; White Revolution (1962) Ulema and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Early to mid 1970s Guerrilla Fighting, economic downturn, Carter, Khomeini propaganda Revolutionary Demands Abolish SAVAK New elections for Majlis Immediate transition to Constitutional Limited Monarchy (mostly symbolic institution) stakes get higher Events of 1979

8 Inverse Relationship between POPULAR RESISTANCE…




12 Revolutions Rational Theories actions of large groups or organizations must be reducible to actions of individuals collective action problem (tendency to free-ride) Structural Theories Revolutions arent made. They come. Structural conditions facilitate revolution Social Mobilization Theories Agency Importance of Khomeini as mobilizing force (charismatic leader) Culture & Ideology

13 "Familiarize the people with the truth of Islam so that the young generation may not think that the men of religion in the mosques of Qum and al-Najaf believe in the separation of church from state, that they study nothing other than menstruation and childbirth and that they have nothing to do with politics." -Ayatollah Khomeini The Purpose of our lives is never to cease the struggle. We are like wavesour calmness is in our fading away -A slogan of Iranian college students in the 1970s

14 IRAQ Husayn Domestic Issues ethnic and sectarian antagonism Role of oil in consolidation of power Foreign policy Iran-Iraq War

15 Politics of Culture in IRAQ Cultural Wholes versus the Cultural Arena Cultural arena can be broken down into two perspectives – structure and agency. Culture as a system of symbols and meanings Symbols Culture as practice Tool Kit The goal is HEGEMONY

16 Flag of 1958 Revolution Iraqi Flag 1959 – 1963 under Qasim

17 Nisb el-Hurriya (Freedom Monument)

18 Iraqi Flag under Baath Rule 1968 – 1991 Iraqi Flag under Baath Rule

19 Project for the Rewriting of History under Bath Party Goes beyond simple political indoctrination Sought to negate Iraqist nationalisms inclusive legacy and build a new Iraqi man and Society Reject or ignore existing power relations (tribalism, sectarianism, social class) Get rid of Iraqist nationalist legacy from historical record Strictly limit religion to the private sphere Develop new Iraq-centered concept of Pan-Arabism Ideological Contradiction Could not adopt exclusive Pan-Arabism (alienation of Kurds, Shiis, communists) Could not embrace Iraqist nationalism (negated Pan-Arabism)

20 Shuubiya Controversy and the Iran-Iraq War Arabized Persian Shia (core of Abbasid bureaucracy, worked to undermine empire from within and caused its downfall) Message to Sunni minority – Shia are untrustworthy Message to Shia – enjoying benefits of the state required renunciation of cultural heritage

21 Monument of the Unknown Unknown Soldier

22 Hands of Victory (Swords of Qadisiyah)

23 Shatt al-Arab Martyrs Monument

24 Iran – Iraq War ( ) Arab-Persian frontier Kurdish Rebellion in Northern Iraq Irans open borders violating 1975 Algiers Agreement Khomeinis call for overthrow of Saddams regime Islamism vs. Secular Nationalism Saddam strategy to strike early before new government could consolidate its power Outside sources of support

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