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TESOL Instructional practices

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1 TESOL Instructional practices
The SIOP Model TESOL Instructional practices SIOP & research

2 OUTLINE What is SIOP? What are its components?
What struggle teachers with most? What are essential Lesson Plan components? What are research findings on which SIOP is based? SIOP & research

3 Food for thought “ …educators have begun to realize that the mastery of academic subjects is the mastery of their specialized patterns of language use, and that language is the dominant medium through which these subjects are taught and students’ mastery o them tested.” (Lempke, 1988, p.1) SIOP & research

4 What is SIOP? S = Sheltered I = Instructional O = Observation
P = Protocol SIOP was started by Echevarria & Short to assist teachers in improving their adaptations for ELLs in L2 taught classes. SIOP & research

5 What is SIOP? Sheltered instruction is
one of the instructional models that uses English only. Not a set of additional or replacement instructional techniques for the content area classroom with native speakers. An instructional form to extend time ELLs have for language support services while providing content area information required for graduation. Wide-spread and exists in many variations SIOP & research

6 What is SIOP? SIOP includes specific lesson planning and delivery suggestions and teacher observation protocols Sheltered instruction includes strategies such as Cooperative learning, Explicit, targeted vocabulary development Slower speech with clear enunciation and fewer idiomatic expressions Visuals, demonstrations and hands-on learning Text adaptations Homework adaptations Supplementary materials SIOP & research

7 What is SIOP? SIOP is research based and validated through multiple studies. SIOP is used in SC school districts to meet ELL students’ needs. improve academic English in all content areas by being engaged in content area learning in L2 SIOP & research

8 SIOP Components or Features
(1) Content objectives must be clearly stated, displayed and reviewed with students (2) Language objectives must be clearly stated, displayed and reviewed with students. (3) Content concepts must be appropriate for age and educational background of ELLs. (4) Supplementary materials must be used to a high degree. Manipulatives, realia, pictures, visuals, multimedia, demonstrations SIOP & research

9 SIOP Components or Features
(5) Adaptations of content to all levels of student proficiency must be provided Graphic organizers Outlines (culture-sensitive for linearly and circularly processing students) Leveled study guides Highlighted texts Taped texts Adapted texts (Dr. Costner’s presentation) Jigsaw text reading Marginal notes Texts in ELLs’ L1 SIOP & research

10 SIOP Components or Features
(6) Provide Meaningful activities that integrate Lesson concepts with language practice opportunities. Here the SIOP protocol and lesson planning guides are helpful. (7) Concepts are explicitly linked to to students’ background experiences Provide background and discuss orally (video, read aloud Partner reading that includes checking off a list to indicate what you know and do not know or what is confusing (8) Provide explicit links between past learning and new concepts SIOP & research

11 SIOP Components or Features
(9) Emphasize key vocabulary and make it a multisensory learning experience (see, say, write, act) Highlight word patterns and their meanings (Ida Ehrlich (2001). Instant Vocabulary, Penguin Books) Differentiate between function/processing words and content words Word sorts with and without pictures for content vocabulary preselect key vocabulary (5 by 5) Personal dictionaries (multilingual0 Word walls with content vocabulary and images Concept definition maps Generate words that carry a particular pattern (groups) Self-assessment of word knowledge Vocabulary games (see website: Word study books SIOP & research

12 SIOP Components or Features
(10) Use speech that is appropriate for students’ proficiency levels Sentence complexity Vocabulary Gestures Pace Enunciations Repetitions supported with gestures Idiom use (11) Provide clear explanations of academic tasks in simple language SIOP & research

13 SIOP Components or Features
(12) Use a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear Gestures Model task, process or assignment (do what you say students are to do) Preview material for optimal learning Allow alternative forms for expressing understanding of information Use multimedia and other technologies Repeated exposure to words, concepts, and skills Sentence strips to review events/facts/ problems solving steps with and without images Concrete, realistic models and hands-on working in small increments Graphic organizers Audiotapes for comprehension as oral language usually develops faster than written language SIOP & research

14 SIOP Components or Features
(13) Provide ample opportunities for students to use/apply learning strategies: metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategies, Mnemonic devices Acronyms for test taking, study and writing tasks Graphic organizers Directed- Reading Thinking activities (DRTA) Listening and reading comprehension strategies Rehearsal strategies See also CALLA (O’ Malley & Chamot, 1987;1994) SIOP & research

15 SIOP Components or Features
(14) Consistently use scaffolding techniques to assist and support student understanding and information retention Paraphrasing Think-alouds Reinforce contextual definitions Provide correct pronunciation by repeating student responses Slow down speech, increase pauses, speak in phrases SIOP & research

16 SIOP Components or Features
(15) Use a variety of questions or tasks that promote HOTS (16) Provide frequent opportunities for discussion and interaction Games Communication through technology Performing, acting Pair dialogue and sharing of information Show and tell SIOP & research

17 SIOP Components or Features
(17) Support language and content objective through grouping configurations. (18) Provide sufficient wait time for student responses. 50-50 television show model Phone a friend (19) Provide ample opportunity for students to clarify key concepts in L1 SIOP & research

18 SIOP Components or Features
(20) Provide hands-on materials and manipulatives for students to practice using the new content in context. (21) provide activities that allow students to apply content and language knowledge together. (22) Integrate all language skills into content area instruction. (23) Content objectives must be clearly supported by lesson delivery. SIOP & research

19 SIOP Components or Features
(24) Language objectives must be clearly supported by lesson delivery. (25) Students are engaged % of the time. (26) Pace lesson delivery according to students’ ability levels. SIOP & research

20 SIOP Lesson Plan Components
Standards Theme Measurable Content objectives Measurable language objectives Explicit listing of key vocabulary Explicit listing of supplemental materials SIOP & research

21 SIOP Lesson Plan Components
Lesson Plan Sequence with Motivation, pre-knowledge activation Modeling of new content Practice scaffolded from intense to minimal guidance Review of content by students Post lesson assessment of objectives Extension/homework REFLECTIONS on what worked and did not work and what, therefore to focus on next SIOP & research

22 ELL research findings The National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth (NLP) conducted a summary of research on ELL instruction, second language acquisition, crosslinguistic and sociocultural factors, ELL assessment and professional development conducted by (August & Shanahan, 2006), the following research-based statements can be made: SIOP & research

23 ELL research findings (1) ELLs benefit from instruction in the key components of reading as defined by the National Reading Panel (NICHD, 2000); This includes explicit instruction in Phonemic awareness, letter-sound awareness, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension SIOP & research

24 ELL research findings (2) Explicit instruction in these 5 areas is necessary but not sufficient to teach ELLs to read, write and spell proficiently in English.Oral language proficiency for social and academic purposes is necessary also. (3) Oral proficiency and literacy in the student’s L1 will facilitate development of literacy in L2 (English). Literacy in L2 can also be developed in L2 without literacy proficiency in L1. SIOP & research

25 ELL research findings (4) Individual student characteristics and history of migration play a significant role in L2 literacy development. (5) Home language experiences can contribute to L2 (English) literacy development. However, there is limited research on the influence of socio-cultural factors on L2 acquisition processes. SIOP & research

26 ELL research findings Researchers from the National Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence (CREDE), a federally funded research center until recently, conducted a second major review of L2 literacy development. The focus was Oral language development Literacy development from linguistic and cross-linguistic angles Academic achievement SIOP & research

27 ELL research findings Both groups came to similar conclusions:
L2 literacy development is influenced by numerous variables that influence each other. Among them are socio-economic status, L1 literacy base, and L2 oral performance. SIOP & research

28 ELL research findings (2) Certain L1 literacy skills transfer to L2 even if these two language s differ in print, pronunciation, and writing conventions. Among them are phonemic awareness morphological awareness listening and reading comprehension language learning strategies SIOP & research

29 ELL research findings (3) Oral performance and literacy (tasks involved in managing print) can develop simultaneously. (4) Academic literacy skills in L1 positively support literacy development in L2. (5) ELLs need enhanced, explicit vocabulary instruction. SIOP & research

30 ELL research findings (6) High quality instruction for ELLs is similar to high quality instruction for other native speakers; but ELLs need instructional accommodations (mandated by law!) and other additional support to succeed at the academic level (7) teaching the 5 major components fo reading (NICHD, 2000) to ELLs is necessary but not sufficient for developing academic literacy. ELLs need to develop oral language proficiency as well. SIOP & research

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