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Beach Pollution Source Identification Field Cases: Racine, WI Julie Kinzelman, City of Racine Beach Management Workshop April 14 – 15, 2005, Egg Harbor,

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Presentation on theme: "Beach Pollution Source Identification Field Cases: Racine, WI Julie Kinzelman, City of Racine Beach Management Workshop April 14 – 15, 2005, Egg Harbor,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Beach Pollution Source Identification Field Cases: Racine, WI Julie Kinzelman, City of Racine Beach Management Workshop April 14 – 15, 2005, Egg Harbor, WI

2 Potential Pollution Sources Indirect or Non-Point Source –Run-off (Urban, Agricultural, Industrial, Landscape) –Boaters –Bathers –Algae –Sediments Direct or Point Source –CSO, SSO –Storm Water Discharge/Storm Water Outfalls –Rivers and Creeks

3 Spatial Distribution Studies Identify Direct and Indirect Pollution Sources Determine Relative Contribution of Bacterial Indicators Aid in Targeting Remediation Efforts

4 * Number of advisory days per season/Per cent of season ANNUAL BEACH ADVISORIES – RACINE, WI YEARNORTH BEACH* ZOO BEACH* BEACH SEASON (DAYS) 19945/6%21/25% /59%42/48% /5%2/2% /19%30/32% /16%4/4% /16%19/20% /66%39/41% /20%21/25% /31%22/25% /32%26/27% /22%16/16%99

5 Indirect or Non-Point Source Runoff

6 Impervious Surface Runoff Impervious surface run-off may impact surface waters.

7 Pre-Rainfall

8 Post-Rainfall

9 Landscape Runoff

10 Runoff can also impact groundwater E. coli = 479 MPN/100 mL (E1) E. coli = 184 MPN/100 mL (E2) E. coli = 184 MPN/100 mL (N)

11 Indirect or Non-Point Source Onboard Boater Waste

12 BOATERS 1305 boat slips (63% occupied in 2003) Over 8000 gallons of waste pumped directly into sewer system

13 Indirect or Non-Point Source Bathers

14 Bather Shedding On average you have 0.14 grams of feces “with you” at all times When you are ill your feces contains millions of germs that can be rinsed off while swimming Swimming is a shared experience!

15 Indirect or Non-Point Source Algae (Cladophora)

16 Algae contains bacterial indicators (maybe pathogens) Bacteria may be transient or persistent If indicators are persistent in algae they may contribute to bacterial burden

17 2004 Algae Study CONCENTRATION OF BACTERIAL INDICATORS IN ALGAE DateE. coli cfu/gEnterococci cfu/g Stranded Mats Submerged Mats Stranded Mats Submerged Mats 6/15/ /16/ /21/ /23/ /28/ /29/ /30/

18 Indirect or Non-Point Source Sediments

19 Fecal Contamination Everybody poops! Gull feces contains ~3.4 million E. coli per gram (pathogens?) Dog feces can contain extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli which can be acquired by humans (Johnson et al 2001) E. coli may persist in beach sands

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21 E. coli has a significant presence in beach sands BEACH SAND E. COLI CONCENTRATION (CFU/G DRY WGT.) SITENMINMAXMEDIANMEAN FORESHORE SUBMERED

22 Highest levels of E. coli were found in the area between the lifeguard between the berm crest and lifeguard stand E. coli content in beach sands may be influenced by the moisture content

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24 Direct or Point Source CSOs and SSOs

25 Racine has separate storm and sanitary sewers Breakdowns or aging infrastructure could cause infiltration of untreated sewage into storm sewer system

26 Direct or Point Source Storm Water Discharge

27 English St. storm water outlet

28 What goes in must come out…

29 Not only bacteria but chemicals and nutrients...

30 Direct or Point Source Rivers and Creeks

31 Root River – Racine, WI

32 Racine has 7 monitoring stations

33 Root River E. coli Densities – 2004 SITEMEAN E. coli MPN/100 ml RANGE Johnson Park (R1) – 14,136 Horlick Dam (R2) – 12,997 Cedar Bend (R3)37050 – 12,997 Washington Park Storm Outlet (R4) 38,8560 – 198,628 Water Street Storm Outlet (R5) 18, – 173,287 State Street Bridge (R6) – 11,199 Chartroom (R7)

34 Probable sources of E. coli The English Street outfall is a local source Root River Discharge Regional Influences

35 Spatial Distribution Study 2004

36 Definitive Source Identification Bacterial Source Tracking

37 Test choice depends on level of discrimination Screening tools can distinguish between human and non-human sources More complex tests can discriminate between host source, i.e. human, gull, dog, cow, etc. What question are you really trying to answer?

38 Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) Organisms - E. coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium Library Dependent or Library Independent

39 Antibiotic Resistance Analysis (ARA)

40 ARA as Rapid Screening Tool Suscept. Resist.

41 Preparing samples for ARA – Racine, WI

42 What question are you trying to answer? For storm water it may be enough to know if it is human or non-human For runoff in rural areas you may want a more discriminatory test (septic discharge or agricultural runoff) In mixed sources it may be better to screen first and then discriminate Is cost an issue?

43 Sources Identified in Racine, WI Local influences are predominant Beach sands and storm water discharge Some potential for riverine influences under right conditions Regional influences unlikely E. coli in beach sands likely due to gulls Storm water may have mixed human and non-human sources – too early to tell

44 Source Identification Leads to Remediation

45 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS WI DNR WI DHFS University of Surrey, RCPEH Root-Pike Watershed Initiative Network USGS UW-Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences S.C. Johnson, A Family Company City of Racine Dept. of Public Works City of Racine Parks & Recreation Dept. City of Racine Health Dept. Laboratory

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