Presentation on theme: "Beach Pollution Source Identification Field Cases: Racine, WI Julie Kinzelman, City of Racine Beach Management Workshop April 14 – 15, 2005, Egg Harbor,"— Presentation transcript:
Beach Pollution Source Identification Field Cases: Racine, WI Julie Kinzelman, City of Racine Beach Management Workshop April 14 – 15, 2005, Egg Harbor, WI
Potential Pollution Sources Indirect or Non-Point Source –Run-off (Urban, Agricultural, Industrial, Landscape) –Boaters –Bathers –Algae –Sediments Direct or Point Source –CSO, SSO –Storm Water Discharge/Storm Water Outfalls –Rivers and Creeks
Spatial Distribution Studies Identify Direct and Indirect Pollution Sources Determine Relative Contribution of Bacterial Indicators Aid in Targeting Remediation Efforts
* Number of advisory days per season/Per cent of season ANNUAL BEACH ADVISORIES – RACINE, WI YEARNORTH BEACH* ZOO BEACH* BEACH SEASON (DAYS) 19945/6%21/25% /59%42/48% /5%2/2% /19%30/32% /16%4/4% /16%19/20% /66%39/41% /20%21/25% /31%22/25% /32%26/27% /22%16/16%99
Runoff can also impact groundwater E. coli = 479 MPN/100 mL (E1) E. coli = 184 MPN/100 mL (E2) E. coli = 184 MPN/100 mL (N)
Indirect or Non-Point Source Onboard Boater Waste
BOATERS 1305 boat slips (63% occupied in 2003) Over 8000 gallons of waste pumped directly into sewer system
Indirect or Non-Point Source Bathers
Bather Shedding On average you have 0.14 grams of feces “with you” at all times When you are ill your feces contains millions of germs that can be rinsed off while swimming Swimming is a shared experience!
Indirect or Non-Point Source Algae (Cladophora)
Algae contains bacterial indicators (maybe pathogens) Bacteria may be transient or persistent If indicators are persistent in algae they may contribute to bacterial burden
2004 Algae Study CONCENTRATION OF BACTERIAL INDICATORS IN ALGAE DateE. coli cfu/gEnterococci cfu/g Stranded Mats Submerged Mats Stranded Mats Submerged Mats 6/15/ /16/ /21/ /23/ /28/ /29/ /30/
Indirect or Non-Point Source Sediments
Fecal Contamination Everybody poops! Gull feces contains ~3.4 million E. coli per gram (pathogens?) Dog feces can contain extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli which can be acquired by humans (Johnson et al 2001) E. coli may persist in beach sands
E. coli has a significant presence in beach sands BEACH SAND E. COLI CONCENTRATION (CFU/G DRY WGT.) SITENMINMAXMEDIANMEAN FORESHORE SUBMERED
Highest levels of E. coli were found in the area between the lifeguard between the berm crest and lifeguard stand E. coli content in beach sands may be influenced by the moisture content
Direct or Point Source CSOs and SSOs
Racine has separate storm and sanitary sewers Breakdowns or aging infrastructure could cause infiltration of untreated sewage into storm sewer system
Direct or Point Source Storm Water Discharge
English St. storm water outlet
What goes in must come out…
Not only bacteria but chemicals and nutrients...
Direct or Point Source Rivers and Creeks
Root River – Racine, WI
Racine has 7 monitoring stations
Root River E. coli Densities – 2004 SITEMEAN E. coli MPN/100 ml RANGE Johnson Park (R1) – 14,136 Horlick Dam (R2) – 12,997 Cedar Bend (R3)37050 – 12,997 Washington Park Storm Outlet (R4) 38,8560 – 198,628 Water Street Storm Outlet (R5) 18, – 173,287 State Street Bridge (R6) – 11,199 Chartroom (R7)
Probable sources of E. coli The English Street outfall is a local source Root River Discharge Regional Influences
Test choice depends on level of discrimination Screening tools can distinguish between human and non-human sources More complex tests can discriminate between host source, i.e. human, gull, dog, cow, etc. What question are you really trying to answer?
Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) Organisms - E. coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium Library Dependent or Library Independent
Antibiotic Resistance Analysis (ARA)
ARA as Rapid Screening Tool Suscept. Resist.
Preparing samples for ARA – Racine, WI
What question are you trying to answer? For storm water it may be enough to know if it is human or non-human For runoff in rural areas you may want a more discriminatory test (septic discharge or agricultural runoff) In mixed sources it may be better to screen first and then discriminate Is cost an issue?
Sources Identified in Racine, WI Local influences are predominant Beach sands and storm water discharge Some potential for riverine influences under right conditions Regional influences unlikely E. coli in beach sands likely due to gulls Storm water may have mixed human and non-human sources – too early to tell
Source Identification Leads to Remediation
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS WI DNR WI DHFS University of Surrey, RCPEH Root-Pike Watershed Initiative Network USGS UW-Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences S.C. Johnson, A Family Company City of Racine Dept. of Public Works City of Racine Parks & Recreation Dept. City of Racine Health Dept. Laboratory