Presentation on theme: "Describe the purpose of having state and local governments in addition to the national government. What topics might be most important to Wisconsin’s state."— Presentation transcript:
Describe the purpose of having state and local governments in addition to the national government. What topics might be most important to Wisconsin’s state and local governments and why? What topics are meaningful and of interest to you as a Wisconsinite and why?
Three branches: Legislative (senate and assembly) Executive (governor) Judicial (courts) Local Units: 72 counties 190 cities 404 villages 1,257 towns 425 school districts
Became the WI Territory in 1836 1846 U.S. Congress authorized the people in the territory to form a constitution and state gov’t in order to be admitted into the Union. First proposal was rejected due to provisions of banking, voting rights, property rights of married women, and homesteading. Second draft was ratified in 1848 (30 th state) All aspects of WI are subject to the U.S. Constitution Tenth Amendment “Powers not delegated to the U.S…are reserved to the State…”
Legislative branch enacts laws that give the greatest benefit to the greatest number while protecting individual rights. All members may introduce bills All members may also offer amendments (changes)
Executive branch carries out the law Governor’s State of the State address – tells the legislature the condition of the state, and recommend suggestions. Once enacted, the governor actively implements the policy through oversight of agencies “faithfully executed” Judicial branch interprets the law
Passed by the legislature and signed by the governor. If vetoed, it can only become a bill if approved a second time by two-thirds vote in each house of the legislature. Opinions/concerns of WI citizens are the major source for ideas Write a letter to a newspaper, legislator, governor or hire a lobbyist State agencies will also voice concerns and recommendations Challenges faced as our population grows and changes
Within limits of statutory law, each unit (counties, cities, villages, and towns) has the power to tax and to make legally binding rules governing its own affairs. Each local unit operates differently in regards to personnel and operations Board of supervisors (counties), Village president, City mayor/common council, town meetings
What voting requirement has become law under the administration of Scott Walker? What is “declarant alien” voting – we were the first state to include it in our constitution? Describe the process for an immigrant to declare their intention to become a naturalized citizen. 3 steps Why did Wisconsin adopt an amendment in 1908 cancelling the right of declarants to vote? Why might this part of our voting history be considered important to know (aside from for your test)?
1900-1925 – seek answers to problems caused by an increasingly industrial and technological society. In other states, social movements tried to address these changes Greenback Party and Populist Party 1900 – “Progressives” gained control of the Republican Party. Following the Civil War, Republicans controlled state governments Interests and actions of government and business converged (personally and pragmatically) Progressive Republicans – business and government was to serve the people. Appealed to citizens who wanted honest government and moderate economic reforms – expand democracy and improve public morality. Robert La Follette
“Fighting Bob” became a nationwide symbol of progressive reform making the state and emblem of progressive experimentation. Wisconsin Idea UW Faculty – helped draft laws and served as experts on gov’t commissions. University President Charles Van Hise Charles McCarthy The Progressive movement began as a small faction of the Republican Party Factions within factions – leaders who enlisted different groups to progressive causes.
James Davidson (1906-11): State control of corporation stock issues Extension of the power of the railroad commission to regulate transportation Fixing of railroad fares Stricter regulation of insurance companies Francis McGovern Workers’ Compensation Law Regulate factory safety Formation of cooperatives State income tax State life insurance fund Limited working hours for women and children Forest and waterpower conservation acts.
La Follette never gained complete control over the state’s Republican Party or even WI Progressives. Orderly change, rather than fundamental shift in economic and social order. Many of the reforms were moderate/acceptable WI citizens either viewed reforms as excessive state interference or wanted more sweeping changes (Socialist Party) 1930s – Depression/Unemployment FDR’s New Deal Edwin Witte (Social Security 1935) trained by Progressive Wisconsin economics professor John R. Commons (unemployment compensation). Kennedy’s “New Frontier” and Johnson’s “Great Society”
Early 20 th century was also the era of Socialism in Milwaukee “Sewer socialism” – back-to-basics strategies Cleaning up neighborhoods and factories with new sanitation systems, municipally-owned water and power systems, community parks, and improved education. Replace the capitalist system with a planned economy of state-owned industries Protect workers from business monopolies Improve conditions for the working class and achieve a more efficient administration of government Socialists did not advocate a violent revolution Come by ballots Social-Democratic Party in 1897 After the violence and chaos of the eight-hour day campaign in 1886, Milwaukee’s laboring classes turned to political action. Joined with labor to form a new political party, the Social-Democrats Milwaukee became the first Socialist city in the United States.
Victor Berger = symbol of Milwaukee Socialism. Austrian immigrant Developed a program of political action that was a variety of moderate reform, under the name of Socialism. Drew on Milwaukee’s German population and active labor movement. Emphasized the need for honest government Popular appeal in a city long notorious for corruption and administrative inefficiency. 1910 – Socialists won major electoral victories in Milwaukee Emil Seidel – nation’s first Socialist mayor Got most other city offices and a majority of seats on the city council and the county board. Victor Berger – first socialist Congressman. 1916 – Milwaukee citizens elected another Socialist mayor – Daniel Hoan. Remained in office until 1940 Socialists continued to exert a powerful influence in Milwaukee.
1918 – won a seat in Congress House of Representatives refused to permit him to take his seat. Violated the federal Espionage Act – supported the anti- war statement of the 1917 Socialist Convention in St. Louis Wisconsin’s governor called a special election to fill Berger’s seat in 1919 Voters again elected him to Congress – but he was still refused to be seated. Ran again in 1920 but was defeated by Republican William Stafford 1922 – ran for Congress and won House allowed Berger to take his seat (3 successive terms)
Socialists and Progressives were suspicious of each other Socialists wanted nothing to do with the Republican Party, the parent party of the Progressives They saw them as weak on reform Both proved by example that honest, efficient government could work on the state and local level. Socialists got support from Milwaukee voters for their city-wide reform programs. Professionals supported a Socialist mayor – reputation as the best-governed city in the United States.