1 Neutrality, Isolationism, Nationalism, Dictators & Broken Promises The Road to World War IINeutrality, Isolationism, Nationalism, Dictators & Broken Promises
2 NeutralityIt is possible to remain neutral in ones direct & deliberate actions- but is it possible in THOUGHT?Why be neutral? What is the motivating force behind neutrality?Does geographic influence neutrality?Is it possible to be involved but stay true to your policy of “neutrality”
3 Have you ever made the choice to remaining neutral in a conflict? Did your choice prevent you from being affected by the conflict? Why or Why Not?Do you think by choosing Neutrality The United States or other nations will be protected from the effects of the conflicts in Europe & Asia?
4 What did World War I leave behind? Economic DepressionDeep Feelings of NationalismA Strong Desire to Expand & Gain TerritoryRise of Dictators
5 Germany & the Soviet Union NOT “so in love with “ the Treaty of Versailles Blamed Germany for the war & punished them harshlyGermany lost their colonies & territoriesSoviets lost parts of Russia
6 Germany & the Soviet Union NOT “so in love with “ the Treaty of Versailles Anger & Resentment are NOT in short supply – on ALL SIDES!Add those feelings to all that World War I left behind (economic & social problems) = TROUBLE BREWING!Democratic Gov’t fails & people turn to AUTHORITARIANS to fix the problems
7 Stalin & The Soviet Union 1922 Russia becomes the USSR (Soviet Union) Communist– Lenin dies in 1924 & Stalin takes overStalin wants Soviet Union to be “The Model Communist State”Totalitarian Gov’t- TOTAL CONTROL OVER CITIZENS- No Rights & No Opposition#1 Economic Goal- Industrial & Agricultural Growth – wanted an Industrial NationNo Private Ownership of Property- Total Gov’t Control - Worldwide spread of Communism
8 Stalin & The Soviet Union 1928 Stalin introduces his “Five Year Plan”ALL Economic Activity was under State control1937 – Soviet Union is the 2nd largest industrial power (U.S. is the 1st)“THE GREAT PURGE” – Stalin responsible for 8 – 13 million people being executed or banished to Siberia
9 Mussolini & ItalyItaly has problems- unemployment & inflation- problems that lead to major STRIKESThe Middle & Upper class freaks out & gets scared- they want a really strong leaderMussolini = Totalitarian leader of Fascist PartyHe appealed to the strong National Pride & played on the fears of economic collapse & communism“Il Duce” aka The LEADERHe was an Extreme Patriot & broke with Socialist Party over WWI
10 Mussolini & Italy Fascist Party Strong Sense of Nationalism Power in the hands of a single leader & a small groupInterest of State is more important than individualsCRUSH ALL OPPOSITION
11 Hitler & Germany POST- WWI Germany Hitler joins the National Socialist German Workers’ Party aka NAZI PARTYProblems in Germany- War debt, unemployment & Hitler was a last hope for desperate peopleGreat Speaker, Promised to pull Germany out of chaos – fix the problemsJanuary 1933 Hitler was appointed ChancellorGot rid of the Weimar RepublicEstablished the 3rd Reich
12 Hitler & Germany Hitler - “Der Fuhrer” aka The Leader NO ties to the Socialist PartyWrote Mein Kampf – his plan for the Nazi PartyGerman version of FascismExtreme Nationalism
13 Hitler & Germany What did he WANT? Unite all of the German Speaking countries into one “German Empire”Racial Purification- “The Master Race” “The Aryan Race” – No inferior RacesNational ExpansionHitler wanted more space- thought it was Germany’s RIGHT!Wanted expansion even if it meant going to war
14 Militaristic Leaders & Japan The Military LeadersNationalistic & Imperialistic – they want to expand & get more landLaunch a surprise Attack on Manchuria, CHINA 1931League of Nations sent into Manchuria to investigate & they condemn JapanBUT- Japan just decides to just QUIT the League of Nations
15 Militaristic Leaders & Japan League of Nations FAILED & the Dictators of Europe NOTICED & followed Japan’s leadMussolini goes after Ethiopia- League tries a boycott but doesn’t do any good1936- Ethiopia fell to ItalyHitler sent troops into the Rhineland & rebuilt the German Army – violations of TREATY
16 Francisco Franco & Spain 1936 Franco led a revolt against the elected Spanish RepublicCivil war broke out1939 Franco becomes Spain’s Fascist DictatorWestern Democracies remained Neutral- only sent food & clothing- BUT NOT THE OTHER DICTATORS!!!Hitler & Mussolini backed Franco- sent money, men & suppliesFormal Alliance between Hitler & Mussolini- “Rome/Berlin” Axis
17 Look at the statement and use what you know so far to try to prove or disprove it. “Despite the obvious negative attributes, the Totalitarian Dictators of Europe and Asia did make positive contributions to their countries success & Post- WWI recovery”
18 America’s position on all of this! NEUTRALITYAmerica’s position on all of this!Attitude of England & France also – ignore the problem & maybe it’ll go away!
19 Kellogg Briand Pact Signed by 62 countries post WWI – 1928 War is NOT to be used as an instrument of National PolicyTHE PROBLEM- There was NO action plan if someone broke the pactAmericans & many others want to avoid war – ISOLATIONIST– most people thought getting into WWI was a mistake
20 Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy Thought Neutrality was IMPOSSIBLE!Found a way around Neutrality Act in when Japan attacked ManchuriaThere was no formal declaration of war by Japan on ChinaSo…. Roosevelt did not need to enforce the Neutrality ActHe supplied China
21 What might have happened if the United States & others had NOT chosen a policy of Isolationism & Neutrality at the beginning & instead involved themselves in by trying to stop the spread of Totalitarianism in Europe & Asia at the start…?