Understand the current threat Recognize potential indicators Safety Action Plans Reasonable responses Insure the safety of operators and passengers
Is it Terrorism? What is Terrorism? How does it differ from Criminal Acts?
Incidents Targeting Transportation Pre-dates 9/11 200 attacks from 1997-2000 Historical Incidents and Practices Rail, aviation, bus, maritime Nationally Aviation, Rail, Mass transit
176 attacks, including the four 9/11 attacks; of the 172 remaining attacks Only 1 transportation attack: 4/7/2008 sabotage of a freight rail car in Kansas City; eco-terrorists suspected. The attacks break down roughly like this: 36% against abortion institutions by individuals or extreme anti- abortion groups 28% against businesses and other targets by unknown individuals. There was an increase in “unknown” neo-Nazi and white supremacist attacks in 2008 against African American and Jewish institutions. 21% against institutions by the Earth Liberation Front 14% against institutions by the Animal Liberation Front 3 attacks by KKK and 1 by the Republic of Texas Note: McVeigh targeted US agencies and their employees; other civilians were “acceptable collateral damage” MTI Proprietary: No Publication without Attribution
Public surface transit is valuable, open target: 2,916 attacks and 7,212 deaths since 1970. Since 9/12, 1,728 attacks have killed 3,729 people while 75 air attacks have killed only 157 Public surface transit hit most where it is used the most. 71% of attacks cause no causalities. They fail or are designed to only disrupt. Average median lethality is low. But Jihadist attacks are far more lethal than others, a disturbing development. 25 million children ride a school bus every day. Buses are attacked more but train attacks are more lethal. February 8, 2011 MTI Proprietary: No Publication without Attribution
Explosives dominate but are often not most lethal: Enclosed spaces that contain blast effects increase lethality. Single bombs dominate: Multiple devices can but don’t always increase lethality. Some multiple devices are aimed at responders. Suicide delivery of bombs Is more likely in bus targets and far more lethal in train targets. Infrastructure attacks appear designed to disrupt. Awareness counts: 16.2% of all bomb attacks stopped by the alert operators. February 8, 2011 MTI Proprietary: No Publication without Attribution7
School shootings- 1985 VA -WY lead early in Cokeville 1986 Gone “Postal” Incidental location Passing or at their venue Domestic Violence Mental illness
Predictability Routes with published schedules Bus Barns and motor pools Bus stops Verified callers/ locations for pick up services Unattended vehicles Isolated areas
Weather Visibility -distance and darkness Cyclic Crowds Unmarked bags Driver to passenger ratios and special needs Traffic
Expected Behaviors Time of day, location Type of passenger Type of parcels and packages Other Traffic Drop off and pick up sites
People Passengers Non-passengers Traffic Vehicles- parked or in motion Packages
People On or off bus Places Scheduled stops Requested pick ups Incidental to your route Packages On or off bus
What are they? Part of planning to address Preventive practices Threats Incident Management Mitigation
How was the threat received Called in Note or graffiti In person Driver recognized Nature of the threat Imminent or immediate
Prevention Practices, GPS, two way communication Threats - Validity or credibility Incidents Agencies involved
Dealing with the threat Addressing the Incident Response from -Police - Fire -Transportation agency
Continuity Plans (COOP) Contingency for passengers On bus and waiting for the bus Type of delay (hours, weeks) Interactions with Law Enforcement -Unknown threat/participants -You and your passengers
At an office- How did it get there? Package markings On the bus or along the route Suspicious or unattended Identifiable Don’t touch VBIED
Who do you call? Who is involved? When should you notify someone? Do other employee’s know the plan? Do other agencies know your plan? How do you protect you? How do you care for your passengers?
Implement the whole plan? Partial plan? Who has the ability to make the decisions? What are your limitations? Your responsibility? Your passenger’s role?
People dictate the success of the outcome Have a plan and truly exercise it Involve all of your partners Passengers as well as agencies Follow safe practices Exercise reasonable security measures
QUESTIONS??? Bob Uhrich, TSA 307-995-3609