Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II Please pick up Focus #28 directions and maps. Take the first 20 minutes of class to work with your partner(s) to complete the directions."— Presentation transcript:
1WORLD WAR IIPlease pick up Focus #28 directions and maps. Take the first 20 minutes of class to work with your partner(s) to complete the directions. Colored pencils are on the counter and table – you’ll need at least two.Take out Class Notes #27 – we will finish the notes today before starting poster presentations for “Fighting Overseas”.TURN IN YOUR CAPSTONE TOPIC PROPOSAL!!!We will:*map Axis expansion in Europe and the Pacific and major battles/campaigns of World War II*explain why America moved from isolationism to intervention from 1937 to 1941*analyze how America helped to win World War II
4Unit Schedule & Materials Monday, April 21: continue WW II (Home Front posters due)Wednesday, April 23: complete WW II, unit reviewFriday, April 25: Unit Test and Binder Check (all materials due)Unit Materials (no homework):Focus #26: Roaring Twenties (also a stand-alone grade)Focus #27: Great Depression GraphsFocus #28: WW II MapsClass Notes #24: Roaring TwentiesClass Notes #25: Great DepressionClass Notes #26: New Deal ChartClass Notes #27: Threat of TotalitarianismClass Notes #28: World War II Chart50% recovery credit available for late New Deal program summaries and WW II posters by April 25Quiz #7 retake on April 25 (after the test) for eligible students - you must have completed Focus and Class Notes 24-26
5American Isolationism Americans remained predominantly isolationist in the face of growing external threatsThe Nye Committee (1935) blamed America’s entry into World War I on U.S. industry’s greed for war profitsCongress passed the Neutrality Acts ( ) to restrict any assistance to belligerents (even to nations that were victims of aggression)The America First Committee organized a grass-roots movement to pressure Congress and the President to keep America out of war no matter what – Charles Lindbergh emerged as its primary spokesman – he personally admired Hitler and the Nazi government and spoke openly against the “Jewish influence” in Western civilization
6Preparing the Nation for War 1937 – FDR’s called for a “quarantine” of aggressor nations in the wake of Japan’s invasion of China1939 – Congress amended the Neutrality Acts to allow for “cash and carry” aid for Britain and France after World War II started in Europe1940 – Congress passed legislation authorizing the first peace-time draft in American history, as FDR called on America to become the great “arsenal of democracy”; the U.S. offered Britain “destroyers for bases”; FDR was also re-elected for a precedent-shattering third term1941 – Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act at FDR’s urging, authorizing military assistance to Britain and (as of June 1941) the USSR; FDR and British PM Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter committing the U.S. and UK to shared war aims based on democratic principles
7WW II in Political Cartoons Take five minutes with your partner(s) to analyze the political cartoon provided to you. Identify: *at least three specific details and their meaning *the message of the cartoon Be prepared to explain your cartoon to the class Note the cartoonist – he started his career in editorial cartooning before becoming a noted children’s author in the 1950s and 1960s
18Pearl HarborJapan’s navy attacked the U.S. fleet on December 7, 1941 in an effort to quickly knock the U.S. out of the war before it even entered the conflictMuch of the U.S. fleet was sunk or damaged in this surprise attackWhy did Japan take this risk?
19Before we leave:Remember to bring completed WW II posters by the start of class on Monday, April 21Turn in your Capstone topic proposal if you have not already done so.Have an excellent spring break!!!
20World War II: Fighting Overseas Please pick up a copy of the binder check rubric and unit test preview – we will look at those together before resuming World War IITake out Class Notes #28, Focus #28 maps, and your WW II poster (unless you already presented)We will:*preview the unit test & binder check*analyze how Americans helped to win WW II both overseas and on the home front
21Allied War StrategyOn December 8, 1941, FDR asked Congress to declare war; Germany and Italy then declared war on the U.S.British Prime Minister Winston Churchill visited FDR within days to hammer out U.S.-UK strategy – why “Germany first”?The United Nations alliance was officially created on January 1, 1942 – only the second time the U.S. allied with other nations
22Battle of MidwayIn the months following Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces rapidly conquered Southeast Asia, including the Philippines, where thousands of U.S. soldiers were taken prisonerJapan sought to build on its success by taking the air base at Midway Island, which would allow it to bomb HawaiiU.S. Navy intelligence discovered the plan and U.S. aircraft carriers struck at the Japanese fleet on June 3-4, 1942Midway was the “turning point” in the Pacific, allowing the U.S. to go on the offensive against Japan
23Operation TorchU.S. General Dwight Eisenhower led the first major Allied assault on Axis territory in November 1942 – by May 1943, Axis troops surrendered in Tunisia and North Africa was under Allied controlThis campaign paved the way for an Allied invasion of Italy later in 1943
24Tuskegee Airmen & Other Segregated Units http://10. 120. 2 Although military units were still segregated during the war, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Japanese Americans distinguished themselves in combatTuskegee Airmen (top right) flew air combat missions in EuropeNisei (Japanese American regiments) fought in Europe and served as interpreters in the Pacific theaterImpact: Their brave example led to desegregation of the military in 1947
25D-Day/NormandyBy spring 1944, the Germans were on the defensive – the Soviet Red Army was pushing back on the Eastern Front after its victory at Stalingrad (winter ) and the British and Americans were pushing up the Italian “boot”General Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander in Europe) designed and led Operation Overlord to open a third front in Europe by invading FranceD-Day (June 6, 1944) was the largest amphibious invasion in history and successfully established an Allied foothold in France
27Island-Hopping in the Pacific Starting with the Battle of Guadalcanal in , the U.S. began an island hopping campaign to gradually push the Japanese back and reclaim lost territoryBy fall 1944, General Douglas MacArthur led U.S. forces back to the Philippines and the U.S. Navy won a decisive victory over Japan at Leyte Gulf
28Battles of Iwo Jima & Okinawa By early 1945, the U.S. began to prepare for an invasion of the Japanese home islandsThe first step was to seize control of Iwo Jima and Okinawa as key air basesJapanese resistance was fierce; more than 13,000 Americans died taking the two islandsFar left: U.S. Marines raise the flag on Mt. Suribachi (Feb. 1945)Left: Mt. Suribachi today; it took nearly a month to capture the island of Iwo Jima
29Hiroshima & NagasakiIn July 1945, President Harry Truman ordered the dropping of atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki – was he right to do so?The Enola Gay dropped “Little Boy” on Hiroshima on August 6, followed on August 9 with the dropping of “Fat Man” on Nagasaki – over 200,000 Japanese died in the attacksBy August 15, the Japanese government agreed to unconditional surrender and formally did so on September 2 aboard the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay
30Before we leave..Complete all unit materials for the binder check and unit test on Friday, April 25.Make sure to prepare for the unit test by reviewing the terms provided and developing your essay outline.
31World War II: The Home Front Please take out Class Notes #28, Focus #28 maps, binder check guide, and the unit test previewWe will:*analyze how Americans helped to win WW II both overseas and on the home front*review for the unit testUnit Test & Binder Check on Friday!Turn in Capstone topics by Friday!
32The Nuremberg TrialsThe Allies placed high-level Nazi leaders on trial for “war crimes,” the first time this had ever happened in history12 Nazi leaders were sentenced to death and executedBy the time Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945, the Allies had already uncovered evidence of the Holocaust – the systematic murder of over 11 million people (including 6 million Jews) at the hands of the Nazis
33Women in the MilitaryWACS, WASPS, and WAVES filled critical non-combat roles during the war and freed up men for combat dutyOver 350,000 women served in the military during the warAbout 5 million men volunteered for service; another 10 million men were drafted under the Selective Service Act of 1940
34A. Philip Randolph & the Double-V Campaign Labor leader A. Philip Randolph fought for equal pay for African American workers in war industriesHe led the “Double-V” campaign that pledged a march on Washington in 1941; FDR signed an executive order to guarantee equal pay in war industriesMany African Americans equated the fight against the Axis to the fight against racism and discrimination at home
35The Manhattan ProjectIn 1939, Albert Einstein wrote to FDR warning that Germany was working on a super-weaponThe Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) started the Manhattan Project in 1942 at super-secret sites across the country; the first bomb was successfully tested in New Mexico in July 1945
36Office of Price Administration (OPA) & Rationing To prevent inflation, the OPA froze prices on most goods and set up a rationing system for high-demand goods such as gasoline, meat, sugar, and coffeeThe OPA kept inflation below 30% during the war and most Americans were willing to tighten their belts as part of the war effort
37War Production Board (WPB) The WPB guided conversion of industry to war production, allocated raw materials, and regulated the workplace to improve productivityThe WPB also organized nationwide drives to conserve key resources such as scrap iron, tin cans, paper, and cooking fat
38Industrial Production & Workers By 1944, 18 million Americans worked in war industries (6 million were women); wages rose 10%Unemployment fell to about 1% as many Americans moved South and West to work in war industries
39Japanese-American Internment http://10. 120. 2. 41/SAFARI/montage/play In February 1942, FDR issued Executive Order 9066, which ordered the evacuation of Japanese Americans to internment camps, citing national security needsOver 110,000 citizens and residents were rounded up and sent to “relocation centers”In 1944, the Supreme Court decided in Korematsu v. United States that the government’s policy was justified on the basis of “military necessity”Reparations payments were authorized in 1990 ($20,000 for every person sent to a camp)
40GI Bill of RightsIn 1944, Congress passed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, better known as the GI Bill of RightsNearly 8 million veterans went back to school or training on the GI Bill, which paid for their educationThe act also provided federal loan guarantees for buying homes and farms and starting new businesses
41Before we leave…Remember to review for the unit test and prepare your binder materials to turn in on FridayThe quiz #7 retake will be offered after the test on FridayPrepare your essay outline for use on the unit test