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Unit 10: World War I (1914 – 1918).  Aug. 1914 – “Remain neutral in thought as well as in action.”  Americans were shocked by European events & violence.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 10: World War I (1914 – 1918).  Aug. 1914 – “Remain neutral in thought as well as in action.”  Americans were shocked by European events & violence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 10: World War I (1914 – 1918)

2  Aug – “Remain neutral in thought as well as in action.”  Americans were shocked by European events & violence.  1/3 of 92 million Am. Were 1 st & 2 nd generation immigrants.  ¼ & 1/8 were from Ger & Ire  Most supported the Allies b/c of Great Britain & their propaganda campaign vs. Germany & Central Powers were monarchies.

3  US trade with Allies increased 5 X from $750 million to $3.5 billion!  German U-Boats were putting these investments at risk.  A Preparedness Movement gained support as the Germans stepped up attacks to enforce the blockade.

4  May 7, 1915 – It was torpedoed in the Irish Sea killing 1200 (128 Americans)  Americans were outraged at German “barbarism.” Germany promised no more attacks without warning.  March 24, 1916 – the Sussex was hit and U.S. threatened to cut ties with Germany.  Sussex Pledge – Germany promised to halt the attacks without warning. It would be short-lived.

5  President Wilson is re-elected over Republican Charles Evans Hughes by a vote of 49.4% t0 46.2% on the slogan “he kept us out of war.”  Hughes was painted as a pro-war candidate, but ironically Wilson would lead us into war.  American banks were already loaning huge sums to the Allies because of the submarines.

6  Jan – Germany issues declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare  Telegram intercepted by British & forwarded to U.S. in Jan – It was proposed that Germany promise Mexico land lost in 1848 to attack the Southern U.S.  Feb. 3, 1917 – Wilson breaks diplomatic ties with Germany & instructs Congress to arm merchant ships.

7  March 1917 – Germany sinks three more ships: the Illinois, Memphis, and Vigilancia.  Bolsheviks in Russia, or communists, led by V.I. Lenin overthrow the Czar and a republican government is temporarily set up. Russia would soon be embroiled by civil war and drop out of the war against Germany and Austria.  Americans no longer had to be concerned about going to war to preserve a monarch.  April 6, 1917 – Congress declares war (82-6 in the Senate and in the House).

8 1. Doc. 2 – Belgian Neutrality 2. How was Germany shown? 3. Doc. 3 - Artist’s view of Alliances? 4. Doc. 4 – Lusitania Ad? 5. Doc. 6 - Zimmerman Note – What was Germany promised? 6. Doc. 6 – Did Germany really want war w/ U.S.? 7. Doc. 7 – When? Purpose? 8. Doc. 8 – When? Purpose? 9. Doc. 8 – Wilson’s purpose? 10. List events that led U.S. to war.

9  European leaders didn’t know what to expect from the “Yanks.” Could we get an army ready & in Europe in time? Would we fight?  How would we even get our army safely “Over There?”  Selective Service Act of million registered for the draft & 3 million were selected by a lottery.  11,000 women & 300,000 African Americans also served.

10  Unrestricted Sub. Warfare was taking its toll as ships were being sunk faster than they were built.  U.S. Admiral William Simms devised the convoy system – merchant ships surrounded by war ships with trawlers, destroyers, & cruisers.  Between April and December 1917, losses were cut in half.

11  American Expeditionary Force – General John J. Pershing arrived in France in June 1917, but large numbers of “doughboys” didn’t arrive in until beginning of  After Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1917, Russia surrendered and Germany turned all might toward Western Front & launched an all out offensive.  By end of March 1918, U.S. soldiers had helped turn the tide with counter offensives. “Lafayette, we are here!”

12  With each passing week AEF became more involved. At battles like the 2 nd Marne, Cantigny, Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, & St. Mihiel we helped to wear the Germans down at high cost.  At Chateau-Thierry in Sept. 1918, ½ of doughboys who fought were casualties of war.  Final offensive – the Meuse-Argonne Campaign (Sept. – Oct. 1918) saw 1 million Americans participate in the last offensive of the war & convince Germany it could not win.

13  Germany surrenders in a railroad car at Compiegne, France.  5 Million Allied troops & 8 Million Central Power troops dead! 10% of American troops were killed.  Maybe as many as 10 million civilians also died.  The Great War was the most destructive war in human history up to that time.  Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to Holland.  President Wilson begins to politic for “Peace without victory.”


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