Presentation on theme: "Unit 10: World War I (1914 – 1918). Aug. 1914 – “Remain neutral in thought as well as in action.” Americans were shocked by European events & violence."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 10: World War I (1914 – 1918)
Aug – “Remain neutral in thought as well as in action.” Americans were shocked by European events & violence. 1/3 of 92 million Am. Were 1 st & 2 nd generation immigrants. ¼ & 1/8 were from Ger & Ire Most supported the Allies b/c of Great Britain & their propaganda campaign vs. Germany & Central Powers were monarchies.
US trade with Allies increased 5 X from $750 million to $3.5 billion! German U-Boats were putting these investments at risk. A Preparedness Movement gained support as the Germans stepped up attacks to enforce the blockade.
May 7, 1915 – It was torpedoed in the Irish Sea killing 1200 (128 Americans) Americans were outraged at German “barbarism.” Germany promised no more attacks without warning. March 24, 1916 – the Sussex was hit and U.S. threatened to cut ties with Germany. Sussex Pledge – Germany promised to halt the attacks without warning. It would be short-lived.
President Wilson is re-elected over Republican Charles Evans Hughes by a vote of 49.4% t0 46.2% on the slogan “he kept us out of war.” Hughes was painted as a pro-war candidate, but ironically Wilson would lead us into war. American banks were already loaning huge sums to the Allies because of the submarines.
Jan – Germany issues declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare Telegram intercepted by British & forwarded to U.S. in Jan – It was proposed that Germany promise Mexico land lost in 1848 to attack the Southern U.S. Feb. 3, 1917 – Wilson breaks diplomatic ties with Germany & instructs Congress to arm merchant ships.
March 1917 – Germany sinks three more ships: the Illinois, Memphis, and Vigilancia. Bolsheviks in Russia, or communists, led by V.I. Lenin overthrow the Czar and a republican government is temporarily set up. Russia would soon be embroiled by civil war and drop out of the war against Germany and Austria. Americans no longer had to be concerned about going to war to preserve a monarch. April 6, 1917 – Congress declares war (82-6 in the Senate and in the House).
1. Doc. 2 – Belgian Neutrality 2. How was Germany shown? 3. Doc. 3 - Artist’s view of Alliances? 4. Doc. 4 – Lusitania Ad? 5. Doc. 6 - Zimmerman Note – What was Germany promised? 6. Doc. 6 – Did Germany really want war w/ U.S.? 7. Doc. 7 – When? Purpose? 8. Doc. 8 – When? Purpose? 9. Doc. 8 – Wilson’s purpose? 10. List events that led U.S. to war.
European leaders didn’t know what to expect from the “Yanks.” Could we get an army ready & in Europe in time? Would we fight? How would we even get our army safely “Over There?” Selective Service Act of million registered for the draft & 3 million were selected by a lottery. 11,000 women & 300,000 African Americans also served.
Unrestricted Sub. Warfare was taking its toll as ships were being sunk faster than they were built. U.S. Admiral William Simms devised the convoy system – merchant ships surrounded by war ships with trawlers, destroyers, & cruisers. Between April and December 1917, losses were cut in half.
American Expeditionary Force – General John J. Pershing arrived in France in June 1917, but large numbers of “doughboys” didn’t arrive in until beginning of After Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1917, Russia surrendered and Germany turned all might toward Western Front & launched an all out offensive. By end of March 1918, U.S. soldiers had helped turn the tide with counter offensives. “Lafayette, we are here!”
With each passing week AEF became more involved. At battles like the 2 nd Marne, Cantigny, Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, & St. Mihiel we helped to wear the Germans down at high cost. At Chateau-Thierry in Sept. 1918, ½ of doughboys who fought were casualties of war. Final offensive – the Meuse-Argonne Campaign (Sept. – Oct. 1918) saw 1 million Americans participate in the last offensive of the war & convince Germany it could not win.
Germany surrenders in a railroad car at Compiegne, France. 5 Million Allied troops & 8 Million Central Power troops dead! 10% of American troops were killed. Maybe as many as 10 million civilians also died. The Great War was the most destructive war in human history up to that time. Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to Holland. President Wilson begins to politic for “Peace without victory.”