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Causes of WW I A Summary by CW Miller Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck iws.ccccd.edu images.google.com WW I Tanks
Militarism Causes of WW I Alliances Imperialism Nationalism
Militarism maintaining a large army in preparation for war European nations built their militaries to expand and hold colonies (imperialism) Major European competitors were: Britain Germany Russia France WW I Each country believed that its own army was for defense – that its neighbors’ armies were for attack. This meant that each nation came to regard its neighbor with fear and suspicion.
“As nations competed for colonies they strengthened their armies and navies to protect their interests” Britain developed the dreadnought in order to keep ahead of Germany Germany built a navy to rival the British who had the world’s greatest Navy Militarism- a policy of aggressive military preparedness Germany had created the most powerful army in Europe by 1914 France and Russia, like Germany, increased their military by conscripting men for their armies Arms Race
Nationalism pride in one’s own country based on shared customs and common history Cultural pride is often stronger than national pride Serbia wanted a Serbian empire of Serbian ethnics Austria-Hungary, had a strong national pride and could not let “upstart” Serbia defy it.
1879 The Dual Alliance Germany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia Austro-Serbian Alliance Austria-Hungary made an alliance with Serbia to stop Russia gaining control of Serbia The Triple Alliance Germany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia Triple Entente Britain, Russia and France agreement 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary 1907 Triple Entente This was made between Russia, France and Britain to counter the increasing threat from Germany 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente This was an agreement between Britain and Russia 1904 Entente Cordiale This was an agreement, but not a formal alliance, between France and Britain European nations tried to create a balance of power through rival alliances
The spark that lit the powder keg Europeans took sides in the conflict by honoring their alliances. On a state visit to Serbia Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife, Sofia were assassinated by a nationalist group called the Black Hand Austria-Hungary, looking for an excuse to crush the nationalists in Serbia, forced war upon on Serbia spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
WW I Begins In an attempt to not have two fight a war on two fronts Germany wanted to quickly defeat France on the Western Front then move the German Army to fight the Russians on the Eastern Front. Ignoring Belgian neutrality, German troops invaded Belgium August 3,1914. Britain, pledged by treat to protect Belgian neutrality declared war on Germany on August 4, Italy, previously allied with both sides, declared itself on the side of the allies. An Italian Front opened on the border of northern Italy and the southern border of Austria-Hungary
A Different Kind of War New weapons and technology made WW I different from previous wars. New weapons increased the destruction of war Defending against the new weapons, particularly the machine gun, caused the troops on the Western Front to bog down into trench warfare for nearly three years. In earlier wars, battles were fought by professional soldiers on battlefields apart from civilians. The area covered by the war, the long range weapons, and attacks on civilians caused 13,000,000 civilian casualties
The Great War The pan-European war extended to Asia via Japan and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire, in an attempt to hold on to its European ports, allied with the Central Powers. Japan, desirous of German colonies in Asian came into the war as an ally of Great Britain
The United States and WW I At the beginning of WW I the United States was not involved. The United States stated its neutrality and reserved the right to interact with all countries. Reasons for U.S. Neutrality The United States was not threatened by any parties in the war. The citizens of the United States had friends and relatives in countries on both sides of the war. The United States traded with countries on both sides, although it traded more with the Allied Powers. Many citizens and legislators wanted to be isolated from Europe.
The United States Enters the War The United States declared war on Germany in April, 1917 because: 1.After promising to not sink neutral ships Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. 2.A German U-boat sunk the passenger ship, Lusitania, killing 120 Americans. 3.German Ambassador Zimmerman attempted to get Mexico to side against the U.S. with promises of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Russia and WW I Russia had sided with Serbia at the beginning of WW I due to family ties and treaty. During WW I a series of strikes and a revolution broke out in Russia. Russia was still under an authoritarian Czar Peasants were very poor, starving, and paying high taxes Rights and freedoms were seriously lacking The loss of great number of soldiers made the war unpopular
Russia and WW I A revolt occurred in Russian and the Emperor was forced to abdicate. A power struggle continued among the revolutionaries. Within a few months the far left Bolsheviks, headed by Lenin, took control of the government. Lenin made a separate peace with Germany in March 1918 weakening the allies.
The End of WW I The entrance of the United States into the war (American Expeditionary Force,) deflected the last push of the Germans on the Western Front and brought WW I to a close. An Armistice was signed and took effect at 11:00 a.m., on the eleventh of November, ( )
Sources Alliance Chart. February 4, 2006.http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/causes.htm. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Wife Online Image. February 6, Dreadnought Online Image. February 4, 2006.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battleship Farah, Mounir A. and Andrea Berens Karls. World History The Human Experience, Columbus, Ohio:McGraw-Hill Glencoe, 1999 Frazee, Charles A. PhD. World History Volume Two. Hauppauge, New York: Barron’s Educational Services, 1997 German Soldiers. ca Online Image. army02.htm. February 4, 2006http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-enemy/german- army02.htm. Imperialism in Asia Online Image. February 4, Map of Europe. %20war%20map%2002.htmhttp://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/great%20war/great%20war%20%20pages/great %20war%20map%2002.htm. February 4,2006. Otto von Bismarck Online Image. February 4, Recruiting Office Crowd Online Image. February 4, 2006.http://www.siena.edu/mahar/101WWIimages.htm. Speilvogel, Joseph J. PhD. World History Journey Across Time. Columbus, Ohio: Mcgraw-Hill Glencoe, 2006 Stuckey, Salvacci and Linda Kerrigan Salvacci. Call to Freedom. Austin, Texas: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2000