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Exploring American History Unit X – Modern America

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1 Exploring American History Unit X – Modern America
Chapter 31– America Looks to the Future Section 2 – George W. Bush in Office

2 George W. Bush in Office The Big Idea
George W. Bush led the country in response to terrorist attacks and through domestic challenges. Main Ideas George W. Bush won the disputed 2000 presidential election. Americans debated the future of the War on Terror that began after terrorists attacked the United States. The nation faced difficult challenges during President Bush’s second term.

3 Main Idea 1: George W. Bush won the disputed 2000 presidential election.
United States at peace and enjoying economic prosperity at time of 2000 election. Democratic candidate: Vice President Al Gore Said he would use budget surplus for education and health care Republican candidate: Texas governor George W. Bush, son of former President George H. W. Bush Promised to return budget surplus to taxpayers in the form of tax cuts Voting was very close It became clear that Florida’s twenty-five electoral votes would determine the outcome of the election. Popular vote in Florida was so close that state law required the votes to be recounted.

4 Election of 2000 Election of 2000 Candidates:
Republican- George Bush Democrat- Al Gore Campaign issues abortion campaign financing reform defense economy/energy education gun control environment Health care taxes Outcome- Closest in American History. Between Nov. 8 and Dec. 13 after the Supreme ordered no further recounts, there were various recounts. 50,996,000 to 50,456,000 votes electoral.

5 Florida, 2000: The Controversy Over the Count (04:53)


7 Bush’s Early Days in Office
Election Results Election Disputes Machine recount found Bush received a few hundred more votes than Gore. Gore supporters demanded a recount by hand to ensure proper counting. Supreme Court ruled that manual recounts could not ensure all votes would be counted in the same way. Florida’s votes went to Bush, making him the first president in more than 100 years to win the electoral vote while receiving fewer popular votes. Bush’s Early Days in Office Caused lasting bitterness between Democrats and Republicans. Bush appointed Colin Powell to key position of secretary of state, the first African American to hold the office. Signed into law $1.35 trillion tax-cut plan Signed into law a reform plan called No Child Left Behind, creating a national set of educational standards and increasing school funding


9 President George Bush 43rd President- 2001- 2005 - Republican
Who was he? Domestic Policies $1.6 Trillion tax cut- primarily to help wealthy. Sept. 11 Terrorist attack on World Trade Center and the Pentagon have push emphasis on foreign affairs. Office of Homeland Security Slow response to financial scandals- Enron Signed corporate-fraud bill - July 2002 2003- cut taxes by $670 billion over 10 years. Over 1/2 benefits go to 10% richest Americans.

10 Challenges for Our Century (04:27)

11 President George Bush Foreign Policies International Terrorism
Taliban in Afghanistan Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda Axis of Evil- Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Operation Iraqi Freedom- March 19, 2003 and the capture of Saddam. High Tariffs on steel. Alienated many allies.

12 Main Idea 2: Americans debated the future of the War on Terror that began after terrorists attacked the United States. On September 11, 2001, terrorists seized four commercial planes, intending to fly them into major targets. Two planes crashed into and destroyed the World Trade Center, an important business center in New York City. One plane crashed into the Pentagon– the headquarters of the Department of Defense located just outside Washington, D.C. A fourth plane crashed in a Pennsylvania field after passengers began fighting back against the terrorists. Thousands of Americans were killed in the attacks, including emergency rescue workers.


14 World Trade Center: Attacked (03:58)

15 The World Trade Center Disaster and Its Aftermath (02:53)

16 Critical Mission Areas
The National Strategy for Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Act of served to mobilize and organize our nation to secure the homeland from terrorist attacks. Critical Mission Areas Intelligence and warning Border and Transportation Security Domestic Counterterrorism Protecting Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. Defending against Catastrophic Threats. Emergency Preparedness and Response.

17 Dept. of Homeland Security
Strategic Goals Awareness -- Identify and understand threats, assess vulnerabilities, determine potential impacts and disseminate timely information to our homeland security partners and the American public. Prevention -- Detect, deter and mitigate threats to our homeland. Protection -- Safeguard our people and their freedoms, critical infrastructure, property and the economy of our Nation from acts of terrorism, natural disasters, or other emergencies. Response -- Lead, manage and coordinate the national response to acts of terrorism, natural disasters, or other emergencies. Recovery -- Lead national, state, local and private sector efforts to restore services and rebuild communities after acts of terrorism, natural disasters, or other emergencies. Service -- Serve the public effectively by facilitating lawful trade, travel and immigration. Organizational Excellence -- Value our most important resource, our people. Create a culture that promotes a common identity, innovation, mutual respect, accountability and teamwork to achieve efficiencies, effectiveness, and operational synergies.

18 The Nation Pulls Together
The tragedy brought Americans together. There was an outpouring of support from foreign leaders and U.S. citizens. President Bush promised to find and punish those responsible for the attacks. U.S. officials determined that the hijackers were members of a fundamentalist Islamic terrorist group called al Qaeda, or “the Base.” Led by a wealthy Saudi Arabian exile, Osama bin Laden Group based in Afghanistan where the Taliban, an extreme Islamic government, ruled the country Taliban leaders refused to turn over bin Laden, and the United States prepared for military action.

19 Small Victories (05:31) – al Qaeda

20 The Fight Against Terrorism
In October 2001 the United States began air strikes in Afghanistan. By December U.S. forced had driven Taliban from power and captured many al Qaeda members. Began helping Afghanistan to rebuild and establish a democratic government In 2002 UN inspectors were sent to Iraq to ensure that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein fulfilled his promise to give up weapons of mass destruction– chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons that can kill thousands. Saddam interfered with inspectors’ work. UN members could not agree on how to handle the crisis. On March 23, 2003, the United States and a coalition of allies launched an attack on Iraq. By December 2003 Saddam’s government had collapsed and Saddam was captured. U.S. officials began working with Iraqis to establish a democratic government. Violence continued.

21 Challenges for Our Century (04:27)

22 The military objectives of Operation Iraqi Freedom
First, ending the regime of Saddam Hussein. Second, to identify, isolate and eliminate, Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. Third, to search for, to capture and to drive out terrorists from the country. Fourth, to collect intelligence related to terrorist networks. Fifth, to collect such intelligence as is related to the global network of illicit weapons of mass destruction. Sixth, to end sanctions and to immediately deliver humanitarian support to the displaced and to many needed citizens. Seventh, to secure Iraq's oil fields and resources, which belong to the Iraqi people. Finally, to help the Iraqi people create conditions for a transition to a representative self-government.

23 Operation Iraqi Freedom Reasons
For Generally, Hussein is a proven threat to international security, he is interested in developing chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons and has shown a willingness to use such weapons on Iraq's neighbors but also against Iraq's Kurdish population. Alternatives to invasion won't solve the problem. If Iraq were to acquire Weapons of Mass Destruction it could threaten regional stability and deter any potential military action against Iraq. Winning the war would be easy and the costs would be minimal Removing Hussein would be consistent with the goals of the war on terrorism. The Iraqi people would support this action Toppling Hussein will have little or no negative impacts the region. If Hussein develops chemical, biological or nuclear weapons he could give the weapons to terrorist organization who could use those materials against the United States or its allies. Against Iraq is effectively contained. Inspections will work and were successful in the 1990s. The United States' nuclear capability currently deters Hussein from using WMD on its neighbors. The costs of this war could be prohibitive. Reports indicate that over 200,000 troops could be needed and that the war could cost $80 billion. Invading Iraq will hurt the war on terrorism. A US attack will alienate Muslim countries especially the Arab The conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians centers on cultural and territorial issues that transcend political systems. Iran, fearing that it could be the next state to be attacked, could nuclearize. Fears that Iraq would give WMD to terrorists lack credibility.

24 George W. Bush's Mission Accomplished (04:33)

25 Debates at Home War in Iraq caused fierce debate at home.
Supporters of the war argued that removing Hussein from power was an important part of the war on terror. Critics doubted that Saddam had posed a serious threat to the United States as no weapons of mass destruction were found and no concrete ties to al Qaeda could be proved. Democratic nominee: Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts Argued that Bush rushed into war. Republican nominee: President George Bush Insisted that the war had made Americans safer and brought freedom to millions of Iraqis. Bush won the election with 286 electoral votes to Kerry’s 251.

26 Election 2004 Bush v. Kerry The Two Sides- International Policy
Republicans- Bush - Cheney Authorized war to oust Saddam Hussein regime Initially opposed U.N. involvement; now warming to idea Announced new policy of pre-emption in June 2002 More than $1 billion proposed for reconstruction Co-sponsored "Road map" plan for peace process Democrats - Kerry - Edwards Supported the war; later said Bush misled nation Involve other nations more in Iraqi rebuilding, security Denounces threat of pre-emption; would seek global consensus Boost international efforts to secure peace, beat al Qaeda Improve social, economic, political conditions in region

27 Election 2004 Bush v. Kerry The Two Sides- Taxes and Spending
Republicans- Bush - Cheney Supports investing some Social Security taxes in stocks Allocated funds to help states pay increased security costs Signed two tax cut bills so far; more tax cuts unlikely Reduce deficit by holding spending increases to 4 percent Says 2001, 2003 tax cuts have helped keep economy going Democrats - Kerry - Edwards Opposes privatizing Social Security Give priority to giving states fiscal aid to resolve crises Repeal tax cuts for wealthy; increase child tax credit Undo deficit trend with eye on corporate loopholes, spending Assist small businesses; train workers; infrastructure jobs

28 Main Idea 3: The nation faced difficult challenges during President Bush’s second term.
After the 2004 election, four of the president’s cabinet members stepped down. Condoleezza Rice became the first African American woman to be appointed secretary of state. Alberto Gonzales became the first Hispanic attorney general. In 2005 two vacancies opened on the Supreme Court, and President Bush nominated replacements. Bush’s administration faced major domestic challenges in August 2005 when Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast region. New Orleans was hardest hit, where thousands of residents who weathered the storm in the city were left with few or no resources and no way to evacuate. Many criticized the local, state, and federal governments for what they believed was an inadequate response to the crisis. The Bush administration worked to step up the response to states hardest hit by the disaster.

29 Election 2004 Bush v. Kerry The Two Sides- Civil Rights
Republicans- Bush - Cheney Has both opposed and supported affirmative action Backs constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage Supports "don't ask, don't tell" policy Opposes gay adoptions Opposes expanding federal law to cover sexual orientation Democrats - Kerry - Edwards Supports affirmative action policies Against gay marriage, backs benefits, rights for gay couples Favors allowing gay men and women to serve openly in military Supports adoption by gay men and lesbians Expand federal hate crimes legislation, assure equal

30 Election 2004 Bush v. Kerry The Two Sides- Social Issues
Republicans- Bush - Cheney Opposes except cases of rape, incest or to save woman's life Supports death penalty Reduce illegal drug usage by 10 percent over two years Protect gunmakers from lawsuits Signed NCLB; federal budget has not fully funded legislation Has cited Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia as model justices Democrats - Kerry - Edwards Supports a woman's right to an abortion; planning resources Opposes death penalty More police; aggressively target traffickers; fund treatment Close gun show loophole; require child safety locks Bar vouchers; fully fund NCLB, special ed., school building Appoint judges committed to law, civil and abortion rights

31 Election 2004 Bush v. Kerry The Two Sides-Energy and Environment
Republicans- Bush - Cheney Favors opening refuge for gas and oil exploration, drilling Proposed $1.7 billion to develop hydrogen-powered fuel cells Supports market-based solution to improve air quality Supports 1.5 mpg increase for SUVs, light trucks by 2007 Democrats - Kerry - Edwards Opposes oil exploration in Arctic refuge Promotes clean, renewable fuel sources, especially ethanol Set goals, incentives to reduce dependence on fossil fuels Push new gas requirements, hybrid cars, hydrogen fuel

32 Election 2004 Bush v. Kerry The Two Sides- Health Care
Republicans- Bush - Cheney Supports reducing drug costs for low-income patients Introduce private sector competition to reduce costs Supports adding drug benefit to Medicare Favors improving current system over government-based system Would place limits on patient lawsuits against HMOs Democrats - Kerry - Edwards Close loopholes; financial incentives to lower drug costs Fund all health care by rescinding tax cuts, cutting waste Tighten rules on drug companies; focus on seniors, vets Let people buy into govt. system, fund by reversing Tax cuts Allow patients to sue HMOs, collect money for damages

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