Using Quantum Numbers to Describe Electrons De Broglie Schrodinger Clouds probable location for electrons λ=λ= h mυ
Quantum Numbers n Four numbers (variables) that describe the shape of the cloud and location of electrons. n Described using the variables: n, l, m, s.
“n” = the Principle Quantum Number(Energy Quantum #) n Corresponds to periodic table’s horizontal row. n = 1 n = 2 n = 3
“n” = the Principle Quantum Number(Energy Quantum #) n Higher number, more energy/ bigger cloud n 2n 2 is how many electrons may have that energy
“l” sublevel of n Shape n Found within “n” (4 sublevels/orbital types) n “s” has 1 orbital (spherical shaped). n Each orbital can have at most two electrons.
“l” sublevel of n Shape n “p” sublevel is barbell shaped n three orbitals: px, py, pz
“l” sublevel of n Shape “d” shape n 5 orbitals :z 2, xy, xz, yz, x 2 - y 2 n Each orbital can have how many electrons? n How many total electrons can the d orbitals have?
“l” sublevel of n Shape n “f” sublevel n seven orbitals n How many total electrons possible in “f”?
“m” Quantum Number n Determines the orientation in space (which orbital is being filled)
“s” spin Quantum Number n s = 1/2 is clockwise (up) n s = -1/2 is counter-clockwise (down)
Quantum Number n Keep in mind are probabilities of finding electrons in certain places doing certain things(spin). n n = what energy level (1, 2, 3, 4...) n l = what sub-level (s, p, d, or f) n m = which orbital (s=1; p=3; d=5; f=?) n s = which spin (only two possibilities up or down)
Pauli Exclusion Principle n No two electrons ever have the same four quantum numbers in the same atom. n Just as no two houses have the same address.
Quantum #’s can be viewed as Addresses n Each town has two mains streets, one running north-south and the other running east-west N S W E n They are numbered according to how far they are from the intersection of these two streets. 100, 200, 300- for first block, second block, etc.
Quantum #’s can be viewed as Addresses N S W E 100W 200W Main St
Quantum #’s can be viewed as Addresses n Even #s are on one side of the street and odd #s are on the other side. W E 1602 1508 1511 1627
Quantum #’s can be viewed as Addresses n So an address tells you four things n which block its on, n How far down the street it is n which side of the street it’s on n which house it is.
Quantum #’s can be viewed as Addresses n 833 W. Electron Ave. 700W Electron Ave 833 876
Quantum #s n n - tells the size and energy n l - tells the shape n m - tells how the shape fits on the x, y, z axes n s- tells about spin.