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Introduction to Orgo  Organic chem – the study of C based compounds (must have both C & H)  Why Carbon ?  It’s versatile!  4 valence electrons (4.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Orgo  Organic chem – the study of C based compounds (must have both C & H)  Why Carbon ?  It’s versatile!  4 valence electrons (4."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Introduction to Orgo  Organic chem – the study of C based compounds (must have both C & H)  Why Carbon ?  It’s versatile!  4 valence electrons (4 covalent bonds)  Form simple or complex compounds  C chains form backbone of most biological molecules (straight, bent, double bond, rings)

4 Hydrocarbons  Hydrocarbons ONLY consist of C & H  Importance – store energy  Hydrophobic

5 Organic Shorthand

6 Isomers  Isomers – same number of atoms per element, different arrangement  3 types:  Structural – differ in covalent partners  Geometric – differ in arrangement around a double bond  Enantiomers – mirror images of each other  Different structure means different function!

7 Functional Groups  Functional groups – parts of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions  replace H in hydrocarbons  Most are hydrophilic  Variation of life is due to molecular variation

8 Functional Groups

9 Isomers Structural Isomers Geometric Isomers Enantiomers cis trans

10 10/29 – Do Now  Draw the following compounds using organic shorthand.  Draw out all hydrogens and carbons for the following compounds. What is the chemical formula? C 4 H 9 OH C 4 H

11 Practice Problem  Draw the following compound (Retinol – Vitamin A) using organic shorthand.

12 Isomers  Isomers – same number of atoms per element, different arrangement  3 types:  Structural – differ in covalent partners  Geometric – differ in arrangement around a double bond  Enantiomers – mirror images of each other  Different structure means different function!

13 Cyanide is an organic compound. 1. True 2. False

14 What kind of isomers are these? 1. Structural 2. Geometric 3. Enantiomers

15 This is a fatty acid. What type of isomer would you expect to see? 1. Structural 2. Geometric 3. Enantiomers

16 Functional Groups  Functional groups – parts of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions  replace H in hydrocarbons  Most are hydrophilic  Variation of life is due to molecular variation

17 Functional Groups

18 Macromolecules  Huge biological molecules!  4 classes:  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic Acids  Polymers – long molecule made of monomers

19 Polymerization  Building dimers or polymers  Condensation rxn AKA dehydration synthesis:  Monomer-OH + monomer-H  dimer + H 2 O  Breaking down dimers or polymers  Reverse rxn called hydrolysis  Dimer + H 2 O  monomer-OH + monomer-H

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21 The breaking down of foods during digestion is an example of dehydration synthesis. 1. True 2. False

22 The breaking down of foods during digestion is an example of dehydration synthesis. 1. True 2. *False

23 Amino acids (shown below) are linked together to form proteins. This is an example of dehydration synthesis. 1. True 2. False

24 Amino acids (shown below) are linked together to form proteins. This is an example of dehydration synthesis. 1. *True 2. False

25 Carbohydrates  Cells get most of their energy from carbs  Carbs are sugars, most end in “ -ose ”  Multiple of molecular formula: CH 2 O  Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6  Carbonyl group  Multiple hydroxyl groups

26 Carbohydrates  Monosaccharides  Monomers: simple sugars w/ 3-7 carbons  Ex. (C 6 H 12 O 6 ): Glucose, Fructose, Galactose  Disaccharide – formed by 2 monosaccharides forming a glycosidic linkage by dehydration synthesis  Ex:  glucose + glucose  maltose + H 2 O  glucose + fructose  sucrose + H 2 O  glucose + galactose  lactose + H 2 O

27 Carbohydrates

28  Polysaccharides : 100’s – 1000’s of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages  Storage polysaccharides  Starch  Plants – stored in plastids  Made entirely of glucose - helical  Glycogen  Animals – stored in liver & muscle (in vertebrates)  Made entirely of glucose - branched  Structural polysaccharides  Cellulose – plant cell walls  Made of glucose – linear  Chitin  Exoskeleton of arthropods & fungi cell walls

29 A compound has the molecular formula C 5 H 10 O 5. Is it a carbohydrate? 1. Yes 2. No

30 A compound has the molecular formula C 5 H 10 O 5. Is it a carbohydrate? 1. *Yes 2. No

31 Two monosaccharides are joined together by hydrolysis to form a disaccharide. 1. True 2. False

32 Two monosaccharides are joined together by hydrolysis to form a disaccharide. 1. True 2. *False

33 Which of the following is only made in animals? 1. Collagen 2. Glycogen 3. Starch

34 Which of the following is only made in animals? 1. Collagen 2. *Glycogen 3. Starch

35 Which of the following is only made by fungi? 1. Collagen 2. Glycogen 3. Starch 4. Chitin

36 Which of the following is only made by fungi? 1. Collagen 2. Glycogen 3. Starch 4. *Chitin

37 11/6 - Do Now  Grab your clickers!  Take out your carbohydrates lab.  Draw the dehydration synthesis reaction that joins the following two molecules:

38 Lipids  No polymers!  Hydrophobic (mostly hydrocarbons)  Store energy efficiently (2x more than carbs!)  Types :  Fats & oils  Phospholipids  Steroids  Waxes

39 Fats & Oils  Fat = dehydration synthesis of:  Glycerol C 3 H 5 (OH) 3  Fatty acid: 16 or 18 carbon hydrocarbon chain w/ carboxyl group  Glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains = triglyceride + 3 H 2 O  Function:  Energy storage  Insulation  Protective cushioning around organs

40 Saturated Fats  No double bonds between carbons  Saturated with hydrogens  Solid at room temperature  Mostly animal fat  Ex: butter, lard, adipose

41 Unsaturated Fats  1 or more double bonds between carbons  Bent or kinked chains  Liquid at room temperature  Mostly plant or fish fat  Ex: olive oil, cod liver oil, corn oil

42 Phospholipids  Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate  Phosphate head = hydrophilic  Fatty acid tails = hydrophobic  Form a bilayer in water  Makes up cell membranes

43 Phospholipids

44 Steroids  4 fused carbon rings with various functional groups  Ex: cholesterol  Component of cell membrane & many hormones

45 11/12 – Do Now  Take out your lipids HW from the weekend.  Grab your clickers!  Fill out the the Venn Diagram comparing carbs and lipids. Carbs Lipid s

46 Which of the following is a class of molecules that encompasses all of the other molecules listed? 1. Triglycerides 2. Waxes 3. Lipids 4. Fatty acids 5. Sterols 6. Phospholipids

47 Which of the following is a class of molecules that encompasses all of the other molecules listed? 1. *Triglycerides 2. Waxes 3. Lipids 4. Fatty acids 5. Sterols 6. Phospholipids

48 One molecule of fat is made by joining three molecules of _________ to one molecule of _________. 1. Glycerol, fatty acid 2. Sterols, phosphate 3. Phosphate, sterols 4. Fatty acid, glycerol

49 One molecule of fat is made by joining three molecules of _________ to one molecule of _________. 1. Glycerol, fatty acid 2. Sterols, phosphate 3. Phosphate, sterols 4. *Fatty acid, glycerol

50 Which of the following is most likely to have all single bonds in its fatty acid chain? 1. Coconut oil 2. Sunflower oil 3. Canola oil 4. Olive oil

51 Which of the following is most likely to have all single bonds in its fatty acid chain? 1. *Coconut oil 2. Sunflower oil 3. Canola oil 4. Olive oil

52 Which of the following statements about saturated fats is true? 1. They contain 1+ double bonds in the hydrocarbon tail. 2. They contain the maximum number of hydrogens in the hydrocarbon tail 3. They make up the majority of plant oils. 4. They are healthier for you then unsaturated fats.

53 Which of the following statements about saturated fats is true? 1. They contain 1+ double bonds in the hydrocarbon tail. 2. *They contain the maximum number of hydrogens in the hydrocarbon tail 3. They make up the majority of plant oils. 4. They are healthier for you then unsaturated fats.

54 Little Debbie Swiss Rolls Hostess Cupcakes

55 11/14 – Do Now  Get your clickers!  Answer the following questions: 1.Which two amino acids are shown as the reactants? 2.Draw the product. 3.What type of reaction is this? 4.What is the name of the newly formed bond? 5.Predict the following: The long chain made by the joining of MANY amino acids using the newly formed BONDS is called a _____________. +

56 Proteins  Functions: enzymes, structural support, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, defense  Monomer = amino acid  Short C chain  Amino group  Carboxylic acid group  “R” group determines type  Cells use 20 different amino acids to build 1000’s of different proteins  Amino acids linked by peptide bonds via dehydration synthesis to form polymers – polypeptides  Chaperonins assist in protein folding

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58 Protein Structure  1 0 Structure - Sequence of amino acids (length vary) - Determined by genes  2 0 Structure  How polypeptide folds or coils  Α helix  β pleats  3 0 Structure - 3D (fold onto itself)  H bonds  Hydrophobic interaction  Disulfide bridges  4 0 Structure – bonds to other polypeptides  2 or more polypeptide chains bonded together

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60 Protein Conformation  Structure of a protein is directly related to function  Protein conformation is determined when it is synthesized, and it is maintained by chemical interactions  Protein conformation also depends on environmental factors: pH, salt concentration, temp…etc  Protein can be denatured – unravel and lose conformation, therefore biologically inactive.  When conditions change again, protein can be renatured (restored to normal) hill.com/sites/ /student _view0/chapter3/protein_denatura tion.html

61 11/18 – Do Now  Happy Monday!  Please get your clickers!  Take out your lipids & proteins lab.  Add proteins to your Venn Diagram! Draw & fill in the following: CarbsLipids Proteins

62 All of the following are true about both amino acids and monosaccharides EXCEPT: 1. They are monomers. 2. The are linked to other amino acids & monosaccharides (respectively) by dehydration synthesis. 3. They are organic molecules. 4. They are always arranged in a ring.

63 All of the following are true about both amino acids and monosaccharides EXCEPT: 1. They are monomers. 2. The are linked to other amino acids & monosaccharides (respectively) by dehydration synthesis. 3. They are organic molecules. 4. *They are always arranged in a ring.

64 All amino acids contain all of the following groups EXCEPT: 1. amino 2. hydroxyl 3. carboxyl 4. central carbon between 2 functional groups

65 All amino acids contain all of the following groups EXCEPT: 1. amino 2. *hydroxyl 3. carboxyl 4. central carbon between 2 functional groups

66 All proteins have a primary structure. 1. True 2. False

67 All proteins have a primary structure. 1. *True 2. False

68 The helix that forms in a protein chain as a result of hydrogen bonds & other weak forces is an example of: 1. Primary structure 2. Secondary structure 3. Tertiary structure 4. Nonlinear structure

69 The helix that forms in a protein chain as a result of hydrogen bonds & other weak forces is an example of: 1. Primary structure 2. *Secondary structure 3. Tertiary structure 4. Nonlinear structure

70 In the stable form of a protein, what is generally oriented to the interior of the protein molecule? 1. Hydrophilic portions 2. Hydrophobic portions 3. Large portions 4. Random portions

71 In the stable form of a protein, what is generally oriented to the interior of the protein molecule? 1. Hydrophilic portions 2. *Hydrophobic portions 3. Large portions 4. Random portions

72 Nucleic Acids  2 types:  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  Found in nucleus of eukarya  Double stranded helix  Provides directions for its own replication  Also directs RNA synthesis  Though RNA controls 1 0 structure of proteins  RNA (ribonucleic acid)  Single stranded, variety of shapes  Transfers information from nucleus to cytoplasm (where proteins are made) DNA  RNA  Proteins

73 Structure of Nucleic Acids  Monomers – nucleotides composed of 3 parts:  Pentose (ribose or deoxyribose)  Phosphate group  Nitrogenous base  Pyrimidines – 6 membered rings of C & N  Cytosine (C)  Thymine (T)….DNA only  Uracil (U)… RNA only  Purines – 6 membered ring fused to 5 membered ring of C & N  Adenine (A)  Guanine (G)

74 Nucleotide Structure

75 Bonding of Nucleotides

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77 Write the complementary DNA strand for the following: 1. CGTAAGCGCTAATTA 2. TCTTAAATGATCGATC 3. AATGAATAGCTAGCTT 4. GGCATTCGCGATCATG 5. CGTTAGCATGCTTCAT

78 Write the complementary DNA strand for the following: 1. CGTAAGCGCTAATTA GCATTCGCGATTAAT 2. TCTTAAATGATCGATC AGAATTTACTAGCTAG 3. AATGAATAGCTAGCTT TTACTTATCGATCGAA 4. GGCATTCGCGATCATG CCGTAAGCGCTAGTAC 5. CGTTAGCATGCTTCAT GCAATCGTACGAAGTA

79 Write the complementary RNA strand for the following: 1. CGTAAGCGCTAATTA 2. TCTTAAATGATCGATC 3. AATGAATAGCTAGCTT 4. GGCATTCGCGATCATG 5. CGTTAGCATGCTTCAT

80 Write the complementary RNA strand for the following: 1. CGTAAGCGCTAATTA GCAUUCGCGAUUAAU 2. TCTTAAATGATCGATC AGAAUUUACUAGCUAG 3. AATGAATAGCTAGCTT UUACUUAUCGAUCGAA 4. GGCATTCGCGATCATG CCGUAAGCGCUAGUAC 5. CGTTAGCATGCTTCAT GCAAUCGUACGAAGUA

81 ATP  Not a macromolecule, but still important for life!  Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – primary energy transferring molecule in the cell  ATP   ADP + P i + Energy


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