Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION (Cont’d)"— Presentation transcript:
1 INTRODUCTION (Cont’d) Streptococcus anginosus as a Culprit of Osteomyelitis: A Review of 11 CasesTristan Timbrook, BA, Allen T. Griffin, MD, Julie Harting, Pharm.D, and Diana Christensen, MDDivision of Infectious Diseases, University of LouisvilleABSTRACTINTRODUCTION (Cont’d)RESULTS (Cont’d)DiscussionThe present study documents 11 cases of osteomyelitis due to the S. anginosus group. Illustrated herein is the difficulty in treating this group in the setting of osteomyelitis in terms of the need for prolonged treatment ( > 10 weeks), the need for extensive debridement (> 3 surgeries on average), even amputation, and the propensity for abscess formation and bacteremia. This study is unique given the limited literature describing the phenomenon of S. anginosus osteomyelitis. Despite the virulence illustrated here with this group of bacteria, penicillin still appears to be an effective antibiotic against these pathogens.Future research needs to better characterize S. anginosus outcomes in the setting of osteomyelitis and other infections in terms of strain-typing, minimal inhibitory concentrations, and serum bactericidal levels.abscess.7 As a sequela of hematogenous dissemination, S. anginosus has been found occasionally to infect the cervical8 and lumbar spines9,10 as well as the iliac11 and femur bones.12 Finally, isolated cases of contiguous osteomyelitis in the setting of prosthetic material13,14 and a diabetic foot infection15 have been described. Given that S. anginosus as an etiology of osteomyelitis has been infrequently reported, the objective of the present study was to describe a series of patients with osteomyelitis due to S. anginosus in terms of demographics, comorbidities, anatomic site of infection, laboratory values, and course.Seventy-five percent of these cases were complicated by abscess formation while S. anginosus bacteremia was present in 30%. All anginosus isolates were sensitive to penicillin and vancomycin (Table 1). Common coinfecting pathogens were Prevotella species (42%), Bacteroides fragilis (25%), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (25%).The average length of treatment was 10.9 weeks (SD=7.4). Each patient required an average of three surgeries (SD=2.8) to fully debride infected tissue. Four of the five foot osteomyelitis cases required partial amputations of the foot while one of the cranial osteomyelitis cases required the entire skull cap to be removed. No patients died. All patients were treated with intravenous therapy. The most common antibiotic utilized was penicillin G in dosages ranging from 24 to 30 million units per day.Background: The Streptococcus anginosus group is comprised of three species of bacteria that are loosely classified within the viridans streptococci. Like other viridans streptococci, the anginosus group has a penchant to create hematogenous complications by adhering to damaged endovasculature and prosthetic devices. Quite distinct, however, is the proclivity for abscess formation. While a variety of sites in the human body claim anginosus as an etiologic agent of infection, osteomyelitis is unusual, particularly when not originating hematogenously. The objective of the present study was to describe a series of 11 patients with osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus anginosus in terms of demographics, comorbidities, anatomic site of infection, laboratory values, and outcomes.Methods: We reviewed our database of skin, soft tissue infections, and osteomyelitis for cases of osteomyelitis caused by Streptococcus anginosus. Cases were excluded from review if no bone infections were documented. Data collected and described included patient age, comorbidities, anatomic site of infection, route of infection (hematogenous versus contiguous), inflammatory markers, confecting pathogens, susceptibility pattern of the anginosus isolate, length of treatment, and need for amputation.Results: Eleven patients with osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus anginosus were identified. All cases arose from a contiguous anatomic site, with the exception of one case that was hematogenous. Five instances were related to foot osteomyelitis while three, two, and one case, respectively, were related to mandibular, cranial, and vertebral osteomyelitis. Seventy-five percent of patients had associated abscess formation. All required extensive debridement with an average of three surgeries (SD=2.8) per patient to control infection. The mean length of antibiotic treatment was 11 weeks (SD=7.4). All anginosus isolates were sensitive to penicillin.Conclusions: Osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus anginosus is rarely reported. Our case series illustrates the proclivity of Streptococcus anginosus for associated abscess formation in the context of osteomyelitis, the need for multiple debridements to control infection, and the importance of prolonged treatment.MATERIALS AND METHODSStudy DesignThis study was retrospective review of osteomyelitis cases in our database at the University of Louisville hospital in Louisville, KY. Instances of S. anginosus osteomyelitis were selected from 300 patients entered into the database from June 1, 2010 to August 1, 2012.Inclusion Criteria:18 years of age or olderConfirmed diagnosis of osteomyelitisExclusion Criteria:S. anginosus not identified as an infecting organismCategories of data collected in the osteomyelitis database and used for analysis were age, sex, comorbidities, site of infection, route of infection (contiguous or hematogenous), laboratory data, S. anginosus minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) (Table 1), presence of orthopedic hardware, presence of abscess formation, presence of S. anginosus bacteremia, coinfecting pathogens, and patient course. Factors included in patient course included length of antibiotic treatment, number of surgeries, and requirement for amputation.Statistics:Data were analyzed descriptively in terms of number (percentages), means, and standard deviations.CONCLUSIONTable 1. Demographic and laboratory data for 11 cases of osteomyelitis related to Streptococcus anginosus.ªN=11(No./%)______________________________________________________________________Demographic dataAge, Mean (SD) (13.9)Male Sex (63.6)ComorbiditiesHypertension (72.7)Diabetes (54.5)Smoking (54.5)Peripheral arterial disease 5 (45.5)Peripheral neuropathy 4 (36.4)Coronary artery disease 2 (18.2)Cancer (18.2)Chronic renal disease 1 (9.1)COPD (9.1)Bisphosphonate usage 1 (9.1)Cirrhosis (0)Route of InfectionArising contiguously (90.9)Arising hematogenously 1 (9.1)Site of InfectionDiabetic foot (45.5)Mandible (27.3)Cranium (18.2)Vertebrae (9.1)LaboratoryWBC (cells/mm³), Mean (SD) (5.9)ESR (mm/hr), Mean (SD) (50.4)CRP (mg/dl), Mean (SD) (10.5)Procalcitonin (ng/ml), Mean (SD) 2.8 (3.5)S. anginosus MICPenicillin, Mean (SD) (0.03)Vancomycin, Mean (SD) (0.24)ªAll values are given as No. (%) unless otherwise specified. SD, standard deviation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WBC, white blood cell count; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP, C-reactive protein; procalcitonin; MIC, minimal inhibitory concentration.In conclusion, the present study documents cases of osteomyelitis due to S. anginosus and illustrates the virulence of this pathogen in terms of the tendency to produce bacteremia and abscess formation in the setting of osteomyelitis. Furthermore, the importance of prolonged treatment and need for extensive debridement are illustrated.REFERENCESMandell Bennett, Dolin (eds.). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (7th ed.); Elsevier.Jacobs JA, Pietersen HG, Stobberingh EE, et al. Bacteremia involving the "Streptococcus milleri" group: analysis of 19 cases. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19(4):704-3.Singh KP, Morris A, Lang SD, et al. Clinically significant Streptococcus anginosus (Streptococcus milleri) infections: a review of 186 cases. N Z Med J 1988;101(859):813-6.Karaman E, Hacizade Y, Isildak H, et al. Pott's puffy tumor. J Craniofac Surg 2008;19(6):Han JK, Kerschner JE. Streptococcus milleri: an organism for head and neck infections and abscess. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001;127(6):650-4.Bannon PD, McCormack RF. Pott's puffy tumor and epidural abscess arising from pansinusitis. J Emerg Med 2011;41(6):Coman G, Pânzaru C, Diculencu D, et al. Pyogenic infections with different locations caused by Streptococcus anginosus alone or in association with anaerobic bacteria. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 1995;99(3-4):215-9.Fabie F, Arrue P, Thorn-Kany M, et al. Cervical spine infection with Streptococcus anginosus. Case report. Neurochirurgie 1999;45(5):Faraj A, Krishna M, Mehdian SM. Cauda equina syndrome secondary to lumbar spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus milleri. Eur Spine J. 1996;5(2):134-6.Barham NJ, Flint J, Mifsud RP. Osteomyelitis complicating Streptococcus milleri Endocarditis. Postgrad Med J 1990;66:314-5.Calza L, Manfredi R, Briganti E, et al. Iliac osteomyelitis and gluteal muscle abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius. J. Med Microbiol 2001;50:480-2.Archibald LK, Harrelson JM, Reller LB. Osteomyelitis of the femur complicating Streptococcus milleri endocarditis. Orthopedics 2005;28(7):707-8.Dronda F, Bach A. Osteomyelitis around a knee prosthesis due to Streptococcus anginosus. Rev Clin Esp 1992;190(5):284-5.Gil-Garay E, Fernandez-Baillo N, Martinez-Pineiro L. Osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis due to Streptococcus anginosus. A case report. Int Orthop 1993;17(1):51-3.Shlaes DM, Lerner PI, Wolinsky E, et al. Infections due to Lancefield group and related Streptococci (S. milleri, S.anginosus). Medicine.1981;60(3):INTRODUCTIONRESULTSThe Streptocococcus anginosus (S. anginosus) group includes three species of bacteria which are classified within the viridans streptococci.1 Similar to other viridans streptococci, the anginosus group often spreads hematogenously, adhering to damaged endovasculature and prosthetic devices, causing complications. Uniquely, S. anginosus has a propensity to form visceral abscesses.2 Incidence of osteomyelitis as a result of this group of organisms is quite uncommon. In a review of 186 cases of S. anginosus infection, for example, only a single case of bone infection was documented.3 Both the pediatric4,5 and adult literature6 have elucidated the rare finding of S. anginosus as an agent of cranial osteomyelitis due to abscess extension from the paranasal sinuses while other literature has documented the occurrence of mandibular osteomyelitis related to contiguous spread from an oralEleven patients with osteomyelitis due to the S. anginosus group were identified. All 11 cases arose from a contiguous anatomic site, with the exception of a single case of hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis that developed subsequent to gynecologic surgery. In addition to the case of vertebral osteomyelitis, five instances were related to foot osteomyelitis in the context of a progressive diabetic foot ulcer while there were three cases of mandibular osteomyelitis associated with tooth decay, bisphosphonate usage and radiation exposure, or radiation exposure alone, respectively. Finally, two instances of post-surgical cranial osteomyelitis due to S. anginosus were identified. The most common comorbidities in these patients were diabetes mellitus, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, and peripheral neuropathy (Table 1).