Presentation on theme: "Problem – 1/3 of world population live in the countries with water shortage problems; – according to the experts' forecast this figure will increase to."— Presentation transcript:
Problem – 1/3 of world population live in the countries with water shortage problems; – according to the experts' forecast this figure will increase to 2/3 by Conclusion: considering acute fresh water deficiency, seawater desalination issue has become more and more burning. Water availability and its sanitary state Extreme risk (less than 50%) High risk Average risk Low risk N/a
Water reserve Total water volume on Earth is about 1400 mln km3 Salt waterFresh water %2.5 3% Salt waterShare of total water reserve, % Fresh waterShare of total water reserve, % Oceans96,54Glaciers, perennial snow cover1,74 Salt/brackish groundwater0,93Fresh groundwater0,76 Brackish lakes0,006Ground ice, lakes, soil moisture, atmospheric steam, swamps, rivers, living organism fluids 0,03
Known seawater desalination methods - distillation(MSF MD MED MVC); - reverse osmosis (RO); - electrodialysis (ED); - congelation (FR); - ion exchange. Reverse osmosis is a high-demand method in the market Reverse osmosis Multi-Effect Distillation Multistage Flash Distillation Electrodialysis Hybrid technologies Electro-deionisation
Technology shortcomings Given technologies have essential drawbacks: - high energy intensity; - environmental hazards during operation of desalination plants; - high skilled operating staff required.
Seawater desalination market 1. As of the end of 2011 there are desalination factories, their aggregate capacities mln m3 per day 2. Annual increase in production capacity is about 11.2 % 3. In money terms the desalination market is estimated at 12 billions US dollars as of 2011 and this figure is increasing annually
Core desalination market segments Market segment Capacity, m 3 / day On-board desalination plant (on sea vessels) Desalination plants for individual use Desalination plants for collective use Desalination factories> 3500