Presentation on theme: "Problem – 1/3 of world population live in the countries with water shortage problems; – according to the experts' forecast this figure will increase to."— Presentation transcript:
Problem – 1/3 of world population live in the countries with water shortage problems; – according to the experts' forecast this figure will increase to 2/3 by 2025. Conclusion: considering acute fresh water deficiency, seawater desalination issue has become more and more burning. Water availability and its sanitary state Extreme risk (less than 50%) High risk Average risk Low risk N/a
Water reserve Total water volume on Earth is about 1400 mln km3 Salt waterFresh water 97.47 %2.5 3% Salt waterShare of total water reserve, % Fresh waterShare of total water reserve, % Oceans96,54Glaciers, perennial snow cover1,74 Salt/brackish groundwater0,93Fresh groundwater0,76 Brackish lakes0,006Ground ice, lakes, soil moisture, atmospheric steam, swamps, rivers, living organism fluids 0,03
Known seawater desalination methods - distillation(MSF MD MED MVC); - reverse osmosis (RO); - electrodialysis (ED); - congelation (FR); - ion exchange. Reverse osmosis is a high-demand method in the market Reverse osmosis Multi-Effect Distillation Multistage Flash Distillation Electrodialysis Hybrid technologies Electro-deionisation
Technology shortcomings Given technologies have essential drawbacks: - high energy intensity; - environmental hazards during operation of desalination plants; - high skilled operating staff required.
Seawater desalination market 1. As of the end of 2011 there are 14 865 desalination factories, their aggregate capacities - 67.4 mln m3 per day 2. Annual increase in production capacity is about 11.2 % 3. In money terms the desalination market is estimated at 12 billions US dollars as of 2011 and this figure is increasing annually
Core desalination market segments Market segment Capacity, m 3 / day On-board desalination plant (on sea vessels)1 - 10 Desalination plants for individual use10 - 100 Desalination plants for collective use100 - 3500 Desalination factories> 3500