Presentation on theme: "EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment1 EUROFORENET A business and bio-diversity perspective Ladislav Miko Director DG Environment - EC."— Presentation transcript:
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment1 EUROFORENET A business and bio-diversity perspective Ladislav Miko Director DG Environment - EC
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment2 Outline Some points about bio-diversity policy Renewable energy in the EU Forest-based energy rationale Environmental aspects of bio-energy
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment3 Policy basis for business & biodiversity Agenda 21 (1992), calls for strengthening the role of business and industry; Lisbon Strategy (2000) : the EU Heads of State agreed to make the EU “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge driven economy” Gothenburg Summit (2001): the Heads of States and Governments of the EU committed to “halting biodiversity decline by 2010”; Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, (Curitiba, Brazil, 2006): called for private sector engagement in the biodiversity agenda.
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment4 Biodiversity in the EU Problems : fragmentation of ecosystems & extinction threat to many plant and animal species, both in the EU and beyond. Natura 2000 covers 27 Member States, includes over 27,000 individual sites and a surface area of over 1 km2 - largest network of protected sites in the world. Minimizing the ecological footprint of the European economy applies not only within our borders, but also outside of Europe, especially concerning energy. 2006 EU Biodiversity Communication on “halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010 and beyond”, with an Action Plan that includes commitments to engage business in partnerships for biodiversity.
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment5 High level Conference on B@B (Lisbon 12-13 Nov. 2007) Main points of attention : Need to promote greater awareness of importance of biodiversity Urgency to promote biodiversity conservation in SME’s Mainstreaming biodiversity into corporate responsibility schemes; Strengthening methods and tools for biodiversity assessments, Encouraging private investment in conservation and sustainable biodiversity businesses, Promoting public/private partnerships that strengthen the engagement of business in halting biodiversity loss. A technical facility to work on biodiversity with business, NGOs and national organisations. See http://www.countdown2010.net/business
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment6 Why develop renewable energy ? The development of renewable energy is a central aim of the European Commission's energy policy for 2 main reasons: Reducing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions – (EU committed to reduce by 8% its GHG emissions by 2008-2012- Kyoto Protocol) Improving the security of energy supply and reducing the Community's growing dependence on imported energy sources. Renewable energy sources (RES) are expected to be economically competitive with conventional energy sources in the medium to long term. 2020 OBJECTIVE : 20 % of gross Energy consumption from RES
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment7 Biomass for bio-energy at EU level Comparison between the current trend and the Biomass Action Plan scenario (in Mtoe). COM(2005)628 / EurObserv’ER 2006
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment8 Three main bio-energy pathways: 1.Cellulosic biomass/wood to heat and power ("direct biomass use") 2.Direct conversion of wood and fiber to biofuel (2 nd generation biofuel – Biomass to liquid / still experimental) 3.Conventional crops to biofuel (1st generation biofuel / actually used) GHG efficiency of Bio-energy Production The use of wood for combined heat and power production provides the highest reduction of CO2 emissions The lowest CO2 reduction is achieved by 1 st generation biofuel. Source: JRC/EUCAR/CONCAWE “Well to Wheels Study”
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment9 ROOM to MOVE ? (Pan-european area, excl. Russia Mm³/y – source : STORA ENSO) (Pan-european area, excl. Russia Mm³/y – source : STORA ENSO)
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment10 Measures / potential capacities Existing forests : Adapting management to raise output, subject to analysis utilisation rate according to site potential and deadwood requirements Facilitate extra output removing more logging residues facilitating pre-commercial thinnings Revalorisation of coppicing + several M m³/y by 2010, much more in medium term New forests : Classic afforestation : native species, long rotation ( no result by 2010/2020 ) Dedicated E-plantations (very effective in short term but possible competition for land )
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment11 Advantages of forest-based energy Local developments that do not need large investments in infrastructures and installations No interference with food production. No competition for land and water use with existing agricultural activities. Limited intensification of agricultural sector, such as plowing up grassland, less rotation, monocultures, deforestation in 3rd countries … Limited transformation of extensively used land into arable land for growing bio-energy crops : many plant and animal species in Europe depend the continuation of extensive farming, particularly in grasslands)
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment12 Facts: The rate of timber extraction in EU forests is in general lower than the increment in growing stock ( but should still allow suff. deadwood ) Environmental functions of forest and forest residues are important (habitats for fauna, source of nutrients, regulation of water flows, etc.) BUT forest residues and deadwood can increase the risk of forest fires, particularly on areas where forests are not thinned due to lack of market demand and low prices. The sustainable removal of forest biomass to produce bio-energy, can bring benefits by reducing forest fires risk and valorising forest by-products and residues. Environmental considerations : Forest based biomass for bio-energy production
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment13 EU forest management is multifunctional and therefore subject to biodiversity considerations not only in protected areas (applying to habitats for fauna, source of nutrients, regulation of water flows, etc.) Certain traditional management practices, such as coppicing native tree species can have very positive biodiversity impacts. The energy market can redynamise forestry in regions where interest in forest management has faded due to downward tendency of wood prices, this can enhance landscape level biodiversity. Many EU forests have low biodiversity stands originating from plantations, energy demand can lead to their conversion to more (bio-)diverse composition. Biodiverisity considerations: Forest based biomass for bio-energy production
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment14 Some principles to ensure environmental values : Leave in place a proportion of forest residues, foliage, old trees and deadwood. Never extract roots or stumps. Respect local conditions (slope, soil water regime, soil nutrient balance, etc.) Small scale local developments assure best overall environmental performance. Environmental safeguards : Forest based biomass for bio-energy production
EUROFORENET 20.11.2007DG Environment15 In any case: Environmental safeguards are needed to avoid that the increase in bio-energy production results in additional environmental pressures on agricultural and forest land, which are a scarce resource in Europe. Thank you for your attention