Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Bruno Scrosati Lithium batteries: a look into the future. Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “Sapienza”

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Bruno Scrosati Lithium batteries: a look into the future. Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “Sapienza”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bruno Scrosati Lithium batteries: a look into the future. Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “Sapienza”

2 To fight the global warming a large diffusion in the road of low emission vehicles (HEVs) or no emission vehicles (EVs) is now mandatory

3 Electrified Vehicle sales forecast for Asia Pacific countries Source: The Korean Times

4 Source: internazionale.htmlhttp://aspoitalia.blogspot.com/2011/02/gli-scenari-dellagenzia- internazionale.html

5 Will it be a tank of lithium to drive our next car? Key requisite: availability of suitable energy storage, power sources Best candidates: lithium batteries

6 Courtesy of Dr. Jürgen Deberitz CHEMETALL GmbH Where lithium is taking us?

7 7  Li-ion battery system: a scheme of operation Electrochemical Reactions Cathode Anode Overall (From: K. Xu, Encyclopedia of Power Sources, Elsevier, 2010) The present Li-ion batteries rely on intercalation chemistry!

8 Further R&D is still required to improve their performance especially in terms of energy density to meet the HEV, PHEV, EV requirement Although lithium batteries are established commercial products Lithium Batteries Jumps in performance require the renewal of the present lithium ion battery chemistry, this involving all the components, i.e., anode, cathode and electrolyte

9 Energy Density (Wh/kg)  EV driving range (km ) Middle size car (about 1,100 kg)  using presently available lithium batteries (  150 Wh/kg)  driving 250 km with a single charge   200 kg batteries Enhancement of about 2-3 times in energy density is needed! THE ENERGY ISSUE

10 Electric Vehicle Applications- The energy issue Li-ion Batteries Present 140 Wh/kg * 170 Wh/kg * 200 Wh/kg * Estimated progress of the conventional Lithium-Ion Technology in terms of battery weight in EVs 200kg 140 kg Near future Modified by courtesy of Dr. Stefano Passerini, Munster University, Germany

11 Midterm evolution of the lithium ion battery technology Some examples of new-concept batteries developed our laboratory.

12 Stena Metall AB. Main goal: complete the development of the battery starting from a further optimization of the electrode and electrolyte materials, to continue with their scaling up to large quantities and then on their utilization for the fabrication and test of high capacity battery cells, to end with the definition and application of their recycling process. Collaborative participation of nine partners. Consorzio Sapienza Innovazione (CSI), Italy, managing coordinator HydroEco Center at Sapienza including Dept Chemistry (scientific coordinator), Dept Physics, Universities Camerino and Chieti; Chemetall Chalmers University of Technology Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi ENI SpA Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) SAES Getters SpA ETC Battery and Fuel Cells Sweden AB

13 The APPLES SnC/ GPE / LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 lithium ion polymer battery anodeGPEcathode

14 1 μm The Li[Ni 0.45 Co 0.1 Mn 1.45 ]O 4 / SnC lithium ion cell J.Hassoun, K-S. Lee, Y-K.Sun,B.Scrosati, JACS 133 (2011)3139

15 The Li[Ni 0.45 Co 0.1 Mn 1.45 ]O 4 / SnC lithium ion battery Projected energy density: 170 Wh/kg Li[Ni 0.45 Co 0.1 Mn 1.45 ]O 4 + SnC  Li (1-x)[Ni 0.45 Co 0.1 Mn 1.45 ]O 4 + LixSnC

16 Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 / Li[Ni 0.45 Co 0.1 Mn 1.45 ]O 4 lithium ion battery H-Gi Jung, M. W. Jang, J. Hassoun, Y-K. Sun, B. Scrosati, Nature Communications, 2 (2011) 516

17 Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 / Li[Ni 0.45 Co 0.1 Mn 1.45 ]O 4 lithium ion battery Projected energy density: 200 Wh/kg Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 + Li[Ni 0.45 Co 0.1 Mn 1.45 ]O 4  Li 4+x Ti 5 O 12 + Li (1-x) [Ni 0.45 Co 0.1 Mn 1.45 ]O 4

18 Electric Vehicle Applications- The energy issue >500 Wh/kg Super- Battery< 100kg Li-ion Batteries Year Present Wh/kg * 170 Wh/kg * 200 Wh/kg * Estimated limit of Lithium-Ion Technology 250 kg 140 kg Revolutionary Technology- Change Modified by courtesy of Dr. Stefano Passerini, Munster University, Germany

19 Cathode side: Li Metal Chemistries "4V" Li-Ion Oxide Cathodes Potential vs. Li/Li Capacity / Ah kg -1 Limetal O 2 (Li 2 O) F2F2 S O 2 (Li 2 O 2 ) Lithium-Element Battery Cathodes Where should we go ? Intercalation chemistry Carbon anodes Modified by courtesy of Dr. Stefano Passerini, Munster University, Germany

20 Li 2 S 8 : 209 mAh/g-S, Li 2 S 4 : 418 mAh/g-S Li 2 S 2 : 840 mAh/g-S, Li 2 S : 1675 mAh/g-S Li 2 S 8 : 209 mAh/g-S, Li 2 S 4 : 418 mAh/g-S Li 2 S 2 : 840 mAh/g-S, Li 2 S : 1675 mAh/g-S Charge process Discharge process S8S8 Li 2 S 8 Li 2 S 6 Li 2 S 4 Li 2 S 2 Li 2 S Lithium Sulfur Li Li + Li 2 S Li + + S e-e- Li + e-e- Electrolyte (polymer or liquid) AnodeCathode Anodic rxn.: 2Li → 2Li + + 2e - Cathodic rxn.: S + 2e - → S 2- Overall rxn.: 2Li + S → Li 2 S, ΔG = kJ/mol OCV: 2.23V Theoretical capacity : 1675mAh/g-sulfur The lithium-sulfur battery B. Scrosati, J. Hassoun, Y-K Sun, Energy & Environmental Science, 2011 Cobalt: 42,000 US$/ton Sulfur: 30 US$/ton

21 The lithium-sulfur battery  solubility of the polysulphides Li x S y in the electrolyte (loss of active mass  low utilization of the sulphur cathode and in severe capacity decay upon cycling)  low electronic conductivity of S, Li 2 S and intermediate Li-S products (low rate capability, isolated active material)  Reactivity of the lithium metal anode (dendrite deposition, cell shorting, safety) Major Issues:

22 Ji, X., Lee, K.T., Nazar, L.F., Nat. Mater 8, 500 (2009) N. Jayprakash,J. Shen, S.S. Morganty, A. Corona, L.A. Archer, Angew. Chemie Intern. Ed. 50, 5904 (2011) Lai, C. Gao, X.P., Zhang, B., Yan, T.Y., Zhou, Z J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 4712 (2009). The lithium-sulfur battery Sleeping for long time……. booming in the most recent years………… Ji, X., S. Ever, R. Black, L.F. Nazar, Nat. Comm., 2, 325 (2011) Ji, X., L.F. Nazar, J. Mat. Chem,., 20, 9821 (2010) and others ……. however mainly focused on the optimization of the sulfur cathode still keeping Li metal anode E.J. Cairns et al, JACS, doi.org/ /ja206955k

23 Our approach: Jusef Hassoun and Bruno Scrosati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 2371 ANODE Conventional :Li metal  our work : Sn-C nanocomposite (gain in reliability and in cycle life) ELECTROLYTE Conventional : liquid organic  our work : gel-polymer membrane (gain in safety and cell fabrication) CATHODE Conventional : sulfur-carbon  our work : C- Li 2 S composite Conventional : liquid organic (Li-metal-free battery ) (Li metal battery) SnC nanocomposite / gel electrolyte/ Li 2 S-C cathode sulfur lithium-ion polymer battery

24 SnC/ Li 2 S lithium ion battery J. Hassoun & B. Scrosati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 2371

25 Potentiodynamic Cycling with Galvanostatic Acceleration, PGCA, response in the CPGE. Li counter and reference electrode. Room temperature. THE CATHODE Anode peak area = cathode peak area (integration) Reversibility of the overall electrochemical reaction! In situ XRD analysis run on a Li/CGPE/Li 2 S cell at various stages of the Li 2 S → S+ 2Li charge process. Jusef Hassoun, Yang-Kook Sun and Bruno Scrosati, J. Power Sources, 196 (2011) 343

26 SnC/ Li 2 S lithium ion polymer battery Projected energy density: 400 Wh/kg SnC+ 2.2Li 2 S  Li4.4SnC+ 2.2S Safety

27 Capacity decay upon rate increase. Slow kinetics ! Some Li 2 S particles remain uncoated by carbon Optimization of the cathode material morphology is needed. Work in progress in our laboratories The kinetics issue

28 Improved sulfur-based cathode morphology Hard carbon spherule-sulfur (HCS-S) electrode morphology, showing the homogeneous dispersion of the sulfur particles in the bulk and over the surface of the HCS particles. The top right image illustrates the sample morphology as derived from the SEM image (top left) and the EDX image (bottom right) in which the green spots represent the sulfur J.Hassoun, J. Kim, D-J. Lee, H.-Gi.Jung,S-M.Lee,Y-K.Sun, B. Scrosati, J.Power Sources, Doi: /jpowsour

29 Improved sulfur-based cathode morphology J.Hassoun, J. Kim, D-J. Lee, H.-Gi.Jung,S-M.Lee,Y-K.Sun, B. Scrosati, J.Power Sources, Doi: /jpowsour Cycling response room temperature 0  C Rate capability

30 LiSiC/ S-C lithium ion battery J.Hassoun, J. Kim, D-J. Lee, H.-Gi.Jung,S-M.Lee,Y-K.Sun, B. Scrosati, J.Power Sources, Doi: /jpowsour

31 LiSiC/ S-C lithium ion battery Projected energy density: 400 Wh/kg

32 The lithium-air battery. The ultimate dream Potential store 5-10 times more energy than today best systems Two battery versions under investigation Lithium-air battery with protected lithium metal anode and/or protected cathode (aqueous electrolyte) 2Li + ½ O 2 + H 2 O  2LiOH Theor. energy density : 5,800 Wh/kg Lithium-air battery with unprotected lithium metal anode (non aqueous electrolyte) Li + ½ O 2  ½ Li 2 O 2 Theor. energy density : 11,420 Wh/kg Present Lithium Ion technology (C-LiCoO 2 : Theor energy density: 420 Wh/kg

33 The lithium-air battery (organic electrolyte) Unprotected electrode design Organic electrolytes Remaining issues: high voltage hysteresis loop, limited cycle life, stability of the organic electrolytes, reactivity of the lithium metal anode….. Courtesy of Prof O.Yamamoto, Mie University, Japan

34 Reaction mechanism Lithium superoxide formation Lithium peroxide formation Lithium oxide formation Y-C. Lu, Z. Xu, H.A. Gasteiger, S. Chen, K. Hamad- Schifferli, Y. Shao-Horn, 2010, JACS, 132, Y-C. Lu, H.A. Gasteiger, Y. Shao-Horn, Electrochem Solid State Lett, 2011, 14, A70-A74 Very low charge -discharge hysteresis with efficiency approaching 90% ! J. Hassoun, F. Croce, M. Armand & B. Scrosati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 2999 Oxygen electrochemistry in the polymer electrolyte lithium cell at RT Li / Polymer electrolyte / SP,O 2 cell study by PCGA

35 P.G. Bruce et al., IMLB, Montreal, Canada, June 27-July 2, 2010 P.G. Bruce et al., ECS, Montreal, Canada, May 01-06, 2011 Electrolyte decomposition ! Polymer electrolyte EC:DMC, LiPF 6 J. Hassoun, F. Croce, M. Armand & B. Scrosati, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 2999 Oxygen electrochemistry in the polymer electrolyte lithium cell at RT

36 Reduction products XRD of the SP electrode Li / polymer electrolyte / SP,O 2 galvanostatic discharge Oxygen electrochemistry in the polymer electrolyte lithium cell at RT

37 The last concern: are lithium metal reserves sufficient for allowing large electric vehicle production?

38 Main Lithium Deposits

39 B.Scrosati, Nature, 473 (2011) 448

40 Laboratory structure Principal investigator: Prof Stefania Panero Post Docs: Priscilla Reale Maria Assunta Navarra Graduate students: average 3 Visitors : average 2 Master students : average 4 Total : average 15 Inchul Hong Researchers: Jusef Hassoun Sergio Brutti

41 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was in part performed within the 7th Framework European Project APPLES (Advanced, Performance, Polymer Lithium batteries for Electrochemical Storage )


Download ppt "Bruno Scrosati Lithium batteries: a look into the future. Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “Sapienza”"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google