Employee Evaluation Supervision Issues Rating 1. Performs routine tasks with little oralways no guidance 2. Requires little supervision toalways complete complex tasks 3. Willingly accepts and carries outalways assignments Position Title: Executive Secretary I
Employee Evaluation Time Utilization Issues Rating 1. Able to work effectively againstalways tight deadlines 2. Performs effectively in pressuredalways and tense situations 3. Uses time in an efficient and always productive manner 4. Uses the organization’s resources always effectively to meet deadlines Position Title: Executive Secretary I
Employee Evaluation Time Utilization Issues Rating 5. Sets priorities and revises workalways plans to meet deadlines 6. Works overtime to make certainalways that deadlines are met 7. Punctualalways 8. Coordinates time away from the always office in accordance with guidelines Possible Ratings: Always, Usually, Rarely
Employee Evaluation Knowledge and Creativity Rating 1. Demonstrates thorough knowledgealways and applies to assignments 2. Maintains conscientious effortusually to enhance knowledge 3. Provides and applies creative usually solutions to assignments Position Title: Executive Secretary I
Employee Evaluation Performance Quality Issues Rating 1. Thorough and accurate inusually completing assignments 2. Attentive to detailusually 3. Maintains acceptable production usually rate without sacrificing quality 4. Reliablealways Possible Ratings: Always, Usually, Rarely
Employee Evaluation Performance Quality Issues Rating 5. Answers calls promptly and takesalways accurate messages 6. Demonstrates good follow-throughalways on assignments 7. Adapts and copes well with always changing situations 8. Written communication is organized, always grammatical, and accurate Position Title: Executive Secretary I
Rating 1. Active in providing phone coveragealways to the team 2. Offers assistance to team membersalways and supports “team concept” 3. Resolves conflict in a professionalusually manner Performance Evaluation Professionalism Position Title: Executive Secretary I
Key Point Successful Return to Work Recognize that employee evaluations often emphasize performance speed
Key Point Successful Return to Work Some jobs and work environments are more disability-friendly than others
Vocational Demands and Outcome Success in higher status occupations is more difficult because of lower error tolerances Key Point
Vocational Tasks for Persons with Severe Disabilities Typing & word processing Computer data entry Photocopying Phone answering Collating & stapling Mail preparation Filing Packaging & unpacking Pricing Delivery Light assembly Light cleaning Microfilming Food preparation
Experience tells us that people with even the most severe disabilities can succeed at working - The personal qualities of successful workers are well known. Personal qualities are different than work skills. You have the ability to change the kind of person you are, and to succeed at work. How so?
“Am I Ready To Work ?” Test True or False? I know my strengths and limitations. I have clear goals and focus on making things better. I keep trying even when things seem difficult. I try to learn from my mistakes.
“Am I Ready To Work ?” Test True or False? I am willing to admit when I make a mistake. I am willing to ask for help. When people ask if I need help, I respond politely. When people talk, I make sure to listen.
“Am I Ready To Work ?” Test True or False? When I’m not sure how to do something, I ask. I look for the positive in other people and situations. I’m polite and respectful to others. I can learn a lot from other people. I’m thankful when people offer me constructive feedback.
“Am I Ready To Work ?” Test True or False? I do my best to be patient with myself, my goals, and other people. I pay attention to how I’m feeling. I work hard to control my discouragement and anger. I think about other people’s feeling.
“Am I Ready To Work ?” Test True or False? I can clearly see the benefits of work. Outside of work, I try to do things that are good for me. I choose to spend time with people who can help me reach my goals.
“Am I Ready To Work ?” Test True or False? I am an important and responsible member of my treatment team. I communicate my feelings, needs, concerns, and ideas. I understand that success at work means more than just doing my job.
Vocational Planning and Counseling Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, Ph.D., ABPP VCU Health System
Case Planning Issues Ü Should I choose to help this person find and keep a job? Ü What goals and time frames are practical? Ü What do I need to be concerned about or sensitive to?
Client Factors Character, Personality, Intellect, Skills, and Health Ü Work ethic, attitude, desire for success Ü Stamina, sleep, pain, and health Ü Transportation independence Ü Stress and frustration tolerance Ü Control of sexual and aggressive impulses Ü Ability to accept diminished skills and potential
Client Factors Character, Personality, Intellect, Skills, and Health Ü Interpersonal and negotiation skills Ü Responsiveness to feedback Ü Neuropsychological functioning Ü Adaptability Ü Loyalty to employer
Client Factors Situational Ü Immediate and long-term financial needs Ü Expense of working Ü Accumulated benefits and other pressures to remain Ü Consistency between career plans, hopes, and available options Ü Retirement plans
Work Responsibilities and Environmental Factors Ü Dangers Ü Cost of making mistakes Ü Job complexity and demand on workers Ü Flexibility in scheduling and assigning responsibilities Ü Organizational stability Ü Noise, distractions, and ambience
Colleague and Supervisor Factors ÜPresence and level of supervision ÜMorale ÜAttitude toward people with disabilities and willingness to be supportive ÜEmployee evaluation and feedback system ÜCompetitiveness ÜTolerance of individual differences
Community Factors ÜDemand for workers ÜAccessibility ÜPresence and types of local businesses ÜAvailability of medical and rehabilitation resources ÜCost of living and average wages
Return to Work Assessment Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, Ph.D., ABPP VCU Health System
Assessment Components Interview or Questionnaire Format conditions for return to work responsibilities schedule safety issues work environment relationship with your supervisor goals and job security
Conditions for Return to Work Has your doctor or employer set any conditions for your return to work? If yes, describe conditions……. How long do you feel that you need before you can return to work part-time? How long do you feel that you need before you can return to work full-time?
Responsibilities What is your job title? Do you have a written job description? If yes, please provide a copy. Is driving required for you to perform your job? Will transportation be an issue if you return to work? How will you get to work? Describe job responsibilities and indicate most important.
Responsibilities Do you have contact with customers? If yes, please describe. Do you have contact with other workers? If yes, please describe. Do you supervise other workers? If yes, please describe? What equipment do you use on your job? Describe any training or qualifications to use equipment.
Schedule How many hour per week are you required to work? Are you required to work overtime? Would you be allowed to work part-time? Are you required to work swing-shifts? How much flexibility would you be allowed in your schedule to accommodate breaks, doctors appointments, not feeling well?
Safety Concerns Is your job dangerous? If yes, how? Do you use dangerous equipment on the job? If yes, describe. Do other employees use dangerous equipment? If yes, describe. Have you or others been injury at work? If yes, please explain (e.g., how often).
Work Environment Are there other people in the workplace who have had serious injuries and return to work? If yes, how have they been treated? Do you have concerns about how you would be received by co-workers if you returned to your previous position? If yes, explain.
Relationship with Your Supervisor How frequently have you had contact with your supervisor since your injury? What does your supervisor know about the injury? What was your relationship with your supervisor like before the injury?
Relationship with Your Supervisor What feedback has your supervisor given you since your injury? Has your supervisor offered to change your responsibilities or position so that you can do your job? If yes, how?
Goals and Job Security What do you see as your biggest challenges in return to work? Describe your career goals and whether they have changed since the injury. Do you feel that you will have a secure job if you return to work? If not, why not?
The Potential Family Role They can... facilitate ignore impede sabotage The process of... job development job matching placement maintenance
Family members often need help understanding the demands of a job... I know he can’t remember what day it is Still, why couldn’t he run a nuclear plant?
Employment Can Increase Family Members’ Stress Levels need for transportation assistance caretaker’s resumption of former work responsibilities redistribution of injured person’s responsibilities daily apprehensions about client’s failures or termination
Employment Interference by Family Members Communicating and emphasizing personal fears about failure Over-protectiveness - calling employer, following patient, questioning Telling client he’s too good for the job Demanding better performance Failing to acknowledge client’s gains and hardships
Skepticism about the value of intervention often increases as a function of time post-injury Gain an understanding of the family’s past experiences with rehabilitation professionals personal expectations for the process and outcome of intervention
Leave the family out... When intervention fails and when the personal problems of family members exceed their potential contribution or family members clearly indicate a desire to sabotage
Employment Enhancement by Family Members Acknowledging and emphasizing client’s efforts and successes Encouraging communication Promoting in-home generalization of cognitive and behavioral interventions Encouraging abstinence from alcohol
Employment Enhancement by Family Members Acknowledging personal impact of employment process Understanding interactions between client, family, and personal goals Moderating feedback and offers of assistance Aiding participation in alcohol-free social and recreational opportunities
Building Family Trust Set realistic goals and expectations Acknowledge potential benefits and limits of intervention Maintain ongoing communication Follow through with agreements A written program description and contract helps establish and document agreements
Supported Employment Methods and Models Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, Ph.D., ABPP Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
Attributes of Employment Models employees’ level and type of disability nature of supervision and support resources work responsibilities for workers and supervisors level of compensation and benefits workers’ relationship to host company number of work sites level of community integration and visibility
Supported Employment Models enclave mobile work crew small business sheltered workshop co-worker training center based training individualized supported employment
Enclave Characteristics Structure - special training group, persons working in community based industry Supervision - permanent, full-time, on site Incentives - pay and benefits based on productivity; commensurate with other workers Workers - paid by host or support company Supervisor - paid by support company
Enclave Advantages intensive supervision allows hiring persons with very severe disabilities employee improvement and supervisor fading not required greater likelihood of co-worker stability and support supervisor can oversee more than one worker potential for good pay and benefits especially when host is larger company
Crew - one or two supervisors, 3- 8 persons with disabilities Operate from a van, frequent traveling to provide contract services at many different sites Common services - grounds keeping, landscaping, custodial, painting, farm labor, snow removal Model works well in rural areas and small communities Mobile Work Crew Characteristics
Some workers not fully productive; increasing supervision and public funding needs Business status typically “not for profit” Successful marketing and contract negotiation required
Mobile Work Crew Advantages Contracting allows flexibility based on community needs Community travel stops facilitate integration Public work allows citizens to see persons with disabilities working productively Cost efficient after start up because of low overhead
Small Business or Entrepreneurial Option Characteristics Workers - eight or less; having most severe disabilities Supervision, very close with ongoing behavioral programming Business type - manufacturing or contractual Single business may be constituted of several linked sites
Small Business or Entrepreneurial Option Characteristics Business plan addressees marketing, sales, production, documentation, quality control Social integration by setting site nearby other businesses, restaurants, stores, recreation sites Cost comparable to day treatment or day rehabilitation program Compared to sheltered workshop - smaller number of employees with greater disabilities
Sheltered Workshop Workers with severe and varied disabilities Supervisors - usually more than one Close supervision includes behavior management Work type - light assembly, printing and duplication, mailing, clerical Incentives - pay less than minimum wage based on productivity, few benefits if any
Sheltered Workshop Management - one or more staff may focus entirely on business operations Single site usually zoned for business or light industry Common complaints - – workers feel “unproductive” – extreme segregation – limited options for work responsibilities – concerns about poor models for behavior
Co-Worker Training Employment Model Experienced employees become primary providers of on the job training and support Employment specialists train experienced employees Employment specialists serve as consultants, mediators, and data collectors
Center Based Rehabilitation Referral Extensive Assessment Placement 6 – 12 week follow-up Eliminate Poor Risks Extensive Vocational Training
Supported Employment Referral Brief Holistic Assessment Brief Holistic Assessment Follow-along long-term Job Analysis, Matching, Development Placement interdisciplinary rehabilitation counseling and behavioral services case coordination recreational programs social programs substance abuse treatment
Disincentives Loss of disability income Loss of medical insurance Fear of stress or failure Loss of “helpless role” Lower pay rate and job status
Job Analysis Required cognitive, academic, technical, interpersonal skills Transportation needs and skills Stamina and endurance requirements Health code requirements Level of independence and available supervision Environment - noise and safety issues
Principles of Shared Responsibility ðInclude persons with brain injury and their families as equal partners ðDevelop services by preparing supports not people ðEstablish and maintain relationships with funding and service agencies ðEfforts toward improved quality of life
Job Development Seek available jobs Contact past and new potential employers Observation and analysis of job site Ongoing communication with client, family, and rehabilitation providers Job matching employers needs with client’s skills and interests
Vocational Tasks for Persons with Severe Disabilities 1 Typing & word processing 1 Computer data entry 1 Photocopying 1 Phone answering 1 Collating & stapling 1 Mail preparation 1 Filing 1 Packaging & unpacking 1 Pricing 1 Delivery 1 Light assembly 1 Light cleaning 1 Microfilming
New Employer Contacts ÜJob hotlines ÜHelp wanted ads ÜPersonal contacts ÜGovernment vacancy listings ÜReferrals from other employers ÜCollege career planning and placement offices
Research indicates that persons with disabilities are more... highly motivated dependable likely to stay in their positions longer than persons without disabilities Why hire ‘em?
On-Site Intervention Unobtrusive involvement in training work-related skills Compensatory strategies development Promoting positive collegial and supervisor relationships Stress inoculation Problem solving interactions emphasizing positive feedback Phase-out with mastery
Job Adaptation and Support Methods use assistive devices develop or enhance cues rearrange work environment change task sequence or eliminate difficult steps arrange for co-worker to complete task
Job Site Enabling if a work skill or task can be taught - teach it if it can’t be taught, adapt it if neither teaching nor adapting are successful, support it
Box , Richmond, VA USA PH Jeff Kreutzer Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center The National Resource Center for Traumatic Brain Injury