Graph 2: An average age of mothers in the 1st childbirth, in all childbirths
Female employment and its context in the CR Before and after 1989: 46 % of women in the 80s, 44.3 % in 1990 Changes in social policies – family policy and employment policy affected W´s + M´s lifes and work paths as parents (the right to care preferred to right to work in the W´s case)
Table 1: The number of nurseries in the Czech Republic since 1988 YearNumber of facilities Total enrolment capacity 19881 36755 955 19891 31352 646 19901 04339 829 1999 67 1 913 2010 46 1 452 Source: ÚZIS (Institute of Health Information and Statistics) 2000 a 2011
Graph 3: Femele employment rate in the Visegrad countries
Graph 4: Employment impact of parenthood - female
What about men – fathers in the CR? Until 1990 (parental) allowance for fathers only in specific life situations (Act No. 110/1984 Sb.) October 1990: „parental allowance“ was introduced (e.g. also for all fathers) 2001: parental leave (in the Labour Code)
Graph 6: Absolute number of men on the parental leave (or at home to take care) in a given year (in thousands)
Graph 7: Women on parental leave as percentage of the total number of parents on the parental leave in a given year
Causes of low representation of men on parental leave Institutional level: Until 2008: a parental allowance = one fixed sum After 2008: 3 fixed sums Absence of a parental quota Absence of paternal (daddy) leave Lack of support on the company level
Graph 8: Uptake of parental leave by Norwegian fathers (of those who were entitled to the leave) between 1988 and 1998 (in %) Source: Brandt and Kvande 1995.
Impact of motherhood on female work Lower career chances Lower income Higher unemployment rate (see next slide) Lower pensions (women´s average pension in the long term = 0.81 % of men´s average pension)
Table 2: Gender pay gap in the average gross hourly wage by age (women compared to men in 2004 and 2010) Age cohortGender pay gap in 2004 Gender pay gap in 2010 20-240.900.89 25-290.870.91 30-340.700.78 35-390.660.68 40-440.700.68 45-490.730.71 Source: Struktura mezd 2004 and 2010 (2004 and 2010 Wage Structure).
Inequalities in the private sphere Unequal distribution of the domestic work and child care In 63.5 % families with children up to 10 – traditional division of labour and care (Parents 2005) Family as an inhibitor for women in the LM Family as a stimulator for men
Conclusion Reinforcing familialistic tendency in the Czech family policy / male breadwinner – female carer model - low fertility rate - low employment rate of mothers - lower chances on the LM for mothers - increase in gender inequalities in the sphere of paid work + unpaid work (in the private sphere) Questions: For whom is this model adventageous? Is not finally time to change it?
Thank you! Hana Maříková email@example.com