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Controversies in heart failure diagnosis Dr. Frans Rutten, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "Controversies in heart failure diagnosis Dr. Frans Rutten, Utrecht, The Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Controversies in heart failure diagnosis Dr. Frans Rutten, Utrecht, The Netherlands

2 Background Disease of the elderly (1% of HF aged <65 years) (Early) diagnosis of slow onset HF is in primary care ‘always’ left sided; only <1% cor pulmonale Prevalence 1-1.5% (20-30 patients per practice) 30% with a GP’s HF label: No HF 30% of HF patients unknown * never detected * detected (much) later in time course

3 ESC 2008 definition of heart failure I. Symptoms typical of heart failure and (not always!) II. Signs typical of heart failure and III. Objective evidence of a structural or functional abnormality of the heart at rest 2005: Only symptoms obligatory Objective evidence of (left) ventricular dysfunction - decreased LVEF (LVEF <45%) : HFREF - LV filling and relaxation abnormalities, ‘normal’ LVEF : HFPEF

4 When should we think of HF? Any patient with * shortness of breath * exercise intolerance/fatigue * peripheral oedema Especially in: Elderly (oldest old, multimorbidity, ‘fragile’) Prior myocardial infarction, other CHD (HFREF) Diabetes type II (HFPEF) Longstanding hypertension (HFPEF) Atrial fibrillation, (suspected) valvular disease COPD (labeled as COPD and ‘really’ COPD). Every year! Renal dysfunction (eGFR<30-45 ml/min/1.73m²)

5 Diagnosing heart failure is not easy! COPD HF rest 30 causes of dyspnoea  65 years: multimorbidity

6 What is heart failure ? a complex clinical syndrome (left) ventricular dysfunction with origin in heart : HFREF (left) ventricular dysfunction in response to endothelial dysfunction (DM, etc) and pressure overload (HT): HFPEF reduced ability of the ventricle(s) to fill with or eject blood The heart is unable to provide sufficient cardiac output to satisfy the metabolic needs of the body. backward failureforward failure Fluid retention compensation exercise intolerance tachycardia fatigue apical beat

7 symptoms and signs of HF

8 ESC guidelines 2008 Dickstein et al. Eur J Heart Fail 2008;10:933-

9 primary careED Chance of having new onset HF?Possible cause?

10 79 years old 64 years old Hypertension, diabetes, COPD‘no’ comorbidity 30 pack years smoking slowly increase in dyspnoea, fatigue acute dyspnoea, orthopnoea,166/92, 92 bpm Displaced apex, no fluid overload raised JVP, crepitations,oedema

11 Symptoms breathlessness (with exercise) exercise intolerancealways Fatigue ankle oedema (chronic venous insufficiency) not always! orthopnoea/paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea- early phase Increased urinating at night (>2x)- diuretic use weight gain (>2 kg/wk)

12 Signs crepitations raised JVP fluid overload oedema apical impulse displaced or sustained S3 gallop very rare heart murmur not very typical tachycardia, irregular pulse

13 Palpation of the apical impulse

14 Clinical models to detect or exclude HF in suspected patients from PC Male sex Orthopnoea Prior MI AUC 0.75 LVSD (LVEF <50%) JVP Age Prior MI, CABG, PCI Apical impulse AUC 0.82 (>700 patients) crepitations Murmur JVP Kelder et al. Submitted Male sex Prior MI AUC 0.66-0.79 (MICE, 6 of 9 studies) crepitations oedema Mant et al. HTA 2009;13:no 32 Fahey et al. Fam Pract 2007;24:628-

15 Clinical model (screening) elderly stable COPD Age Male sex Prior MI, CABG, PCI Diabetes AUC 0.79 Orthopnoea Crepitations, elevated JVP, S3 gallop, ankle oedema Kelder et al Heart 2011 Prior MI, CABG, PCI Apical impulse AUC 0.70 (screening elderly COPD patients) Heart rate >90 bpm BMI >30 kg/m² Rutten et al. BMJ 2005;331:1379 Clinical models to detect or exclude HF in suspected patients from PC

16 Essentials of clinical diagnostic models Signs or symptoms of fluid overload (diuretics, early phase) Displaced/broadened apical impulse murmur in elderly persons, male sex, prior CAD, diabetes Screening COPD: HR >90 bpm BMI >30 kg/m²

17 Additional tests slow onset acute onset test treatment with diuretics : NOtest treatment with diuretics ? ECG: when normal HF <10%ECG: when normal HF <2% Chest X-ray ?Chest X-ray ? NTpro BNP: when normal HF <10% NTpro BNP: when normal HF <2% Echocardiogram valvular disease LVH, CMP causes of HF wall motion abnormalities other cardiac abnormalities

18 ESC guidelines 2008 Dickstein et al. Eur J Heart Fail2008; 10:933- 5 key diagnostic 'tests'

19 Multivariable models for detection/exclusion (slow onset) HF Clinical model0.75 + ECG0.86 Clinical model0.82 + ECG0.83 + Chest X-ray0.84 + ntpro BNP0.86 Kelder et al. Submitted Clinical model0.66-0.79 (6 of 9 studies) + ECG0.76-0.83 + ntpro BNP0.83-0.93 Mant et al. HTA 2009;13:no 32 Clinical model0.79 + ECG0.85 + Chest X-ray0.84 + ntpro BNP0.91-0.92 Kelder et al. Heart 2011;97:959 Fahey et al. Fam Pract 2007;24:628

20 Multivariable models for detection/exclusion (slow onset) HF Clinical model0.70 (screening elderly COPD patients) + ECG0.75 + Chest X-ray0.73 + ntpro BNP0.77 Rutten et al. BMJ 2005;331:1379 Fahey et al. Fam Pract 2007;24:628-

21 Dutch adaptation of the ESC guidelines 2008 Hartfalen richtlijn. Hoes et al. 2010 Heart failure very unlikely Suspected heart failure symptoms and signs Slow onset ECG normal and NT-proBNP<400 pg/ml BNP<100 pg/ml ECG abnormal or NT-proBNP≥400 pg/ml BNP≥100 pg/ml ECG abnormal or NT-proBNP≥ 125 pg/ml BNP≥ 35 pg/ml ECG normal and NT-proBNP<125 pg/ml BNP< 35 pg/ml Acute ECG, (NT-pro)BNP, chest X-ray Echocardiography Heart failure very unlikely ECG, (NT-pro)BNP, chest X-ray

22 Causes for elevated ntproBNP levels acute dyspnoea slow onset dyspnoea ACSage >75 years pulmonary embolismatrial fibrillation acute renal failurerenal dysfunction pulmonary artery hypertensionLVH sepsis severe COPD

23 Conclusions Dyspnoea, exercise intolerance/ fatigue, ankle oedema: Always think of HF Signs or symptoms of fluid overload (diuretics, early phase) Displaces/broadened apical impulse, murmur essentials in elderly persons, male sex, prior CAD, diabetes Additional tests: ntproBNP most valuable Lower exclusionary cut-points ntproBNP for slow onset than acute onset HF Echocardiogram for diagnosis AND cause(s) AND whether HFPEF/HFREF Always consider cause of HF, especially treatable ones (valves)!!


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