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Laboratory of Heat transfer and Environmental Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Treatment options for.

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Presentation on theme: "Laboratory of Heat transfer and Environmental Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Treatment options for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Laboratory of Heat transfer and Environmental Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Treatment options for biodegradable waste: Reducing BDW landfilling Apostolos Malamakis Dr Mechanical Engineer Workshop on recycling of waste September Tirana, Albania

2 The Eco Cycle Society

3 MS shall develop national strategies for reduction of biodegradable waste using recycling, composting, biogas production and material/energy recovery Any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition Paper and cardboard Waste from kitchen, food courts etc. Market waste Wood Waste from gardens & parks Textile materials Definition and strategies for biodegradable waste

4 Overview On average, the European citizen generated 10 % more waste in 2007 than in 1995 (Eurostat). On average the generation of waste is about 500 kg per capita ranging from 300 to 800 kg per capita (2007). On average, the European citizen generated 10 % more waste in 2007 than in 1995 (Eurostat). On average the generation of waste is about 500 kg per capita ranging from 300 to 800 kg per capita (2007). In 1995, 62 % of municipal waste was landfilled on average and in 2007 this had fallen to 42 %. In 1995, 62 % of municipal waste was landfilled on average and in 2007 this had fallen to 42 %. Thirteen countries had either no incineration or incinerated less than 10 % of their municipal waste in Eight EU ‑ 15 Member States incinerated more than 20 % of municipal waste. Thirteen countries had either no incineration or incinerated less than 10 % of their municipal waste in Eight EU ‑ 15 Member States incinerated more than 20 % of municipal waste. 22 % of municipal waste generated in 2007 has been recycled and 17 % composted (Eurostat, 2009). 22 % of municipal waste generated in 2007 has been recycled and 17 % composted (Eurostat, 2009). Biodegradable municipal waste (bio-waste, paper and cardboard, and biodegradable textiles) make up a considerable share of municipal waste — approximately 60–70 % in most countries. Biodegradable municipal waste (bio-waste, paper and cardboard, and biodegradable textiles) make up a considerable share of municipal waste — approximately 60–70 % in most countries. The generation of BMW has been relatively stable over the period 1995–2006 although its production varies between countries and regions ( kg per capita). The generation of BMW has been relatively stable over the period 1995–2006 although its production varies between countries and regions ( kg per capita).

5 Overview (up to 2007) Total MW: kg/capita Total MW: kg/capita Total BMW: kg/capita Total BMW: kg/capita Recycling rate: kg/capita Recycling rate: kg/capita 1. Paper/cardboard: kg/capita 2. Bio-waste: kg/capita 3. Plastic: 1-50 kg/capita 4. Glass: 5-45 kg/capita 5. Metal: 2-25 kg/capita

6 Waste generation per country and for EU-27 in 2008 (kg/cap)

7 Projections - ETC/RWM 2007 (EU 25)

8 EU Waste Composition (2004)

9 EU MSW management (kg/cap)

10 Municipal waste treatment, 2008 (% of total municipal waste treated)

11 BMW: What happens to it? LANDFILL (2003)

12 BMW: What happens to it? INCINERATION (2003)

13 BMW: What happens to it? COMPOSTING (2003)

14 European Union Composting penetration Wide-spread separate collection and composting Implementation phase Initial phase Minimal activities

15 Lessons learned from Europe “good results countries” have: “good results countries” have: Regime of certainty: strong planning, landfill bans, strict regulation, municipal (co-)ownership reducing financial risks; Regime of certainty: strong planning, landfill bans, strict regulation, municipal (co-)ownership reducing financial risks; Partnership between government levels: transparant responsibilities, thorough consultation, local implementation; Partnership between government levels: transparant responsibilities, thorough consultation, local implementation; Public trust: separate local waste taxes (transparency), strict adherence to EU requirements; Public trust: separate local waste taxes (transparency), strict adherence to EU requirements; Integrated approach across waste streams: integration of household and industrial waste leads to cost reductions. Integrated approach across waste streams: integration of household and industrial waste leads to cost reductions.

16 Lessons learned from Europe “bad results countries” have: “bad results countries” have: Lack of certainty which creates difficulties in securing key waste management infrastructure; Lack of certainty which creates difficulties in securing key waste management infrastructure; Poor strategic planning capability with little cooperation between tiers of government; Poor strategic planning capability with little cooperation between tiers of government; Weak local accountability and ownership of waste related issues so that issues are repeatedly deferred; Weak local accountability and ownership of waste related issues so that issues are repeatedly deferred; Politically inconsistent messages and fiscal incentives which contradict the promotion of the waste hierarchy. Politically inconsistent messages and fiscal incentives which contradict the promotion of the waste hierarchy.

17 Measures for reducing landfilling of BMW MeasureAdvantagesDisadvantagesApplication 1. Complete banning of BMW landfilling -BMW diversion from SL enhanced -SL lifetime increases -Rigid -Detailed data on BMW quantities and systematic control of incoming waste loads is needed -Increased management costs Certain SL located closely to treatment facilities 2. Complete banning in landfilling certain BMW streams (paper, garden waste, etc) - BMW diversion from SL enhanced -Separate collection systems encouraged -Environmental conscience developed -Rigid -Detailed data on BMW quantities and systematic control of incoming waste loads is needed -Separation system in landfills is required -Increased management costs Certain SL located closely to treatment facilities or to areas where separate collection systems operate Lasaridi et al. 2008

18 MeasureAdvantagesDisadvantagesApplication 3. Limitation of BMW that can enter SLs (application per SL, inclusion in the licensing documents) -Offers flexibility if quantities allowed to enter SL decrease over a time period -Encourages the setting up of systems for diverting BMW from SL -SL terms of operation are clearly defined -SL environmental impacts minimised rehabilitation costs decrease -SL operation and -A common method to estimate BMW quantities at case level is necessary -In case diversion systems fail a temporary disposal area for BMW is required -Overall costs increase Large SL serving urban areas 4. Landfill tax-Motivates against landfilling -May be a source of money to invest on recycling/recovery -Need to change how waste producers are charged -Landfill gate fees must increase up to % to reach treatment costs Should be considered by central authorities and applied by case if considered applicable

19 Landfill tax in 13 EU countries (€/ton, )

20 Lasaridi et al MeasureAdvantagesDisadvantagesApplication 5. Limitation of BMW that can enter SLs (application at the regional level) - Offers flexibilty if targets are redefined over a time period -Encourages the setting up of systems for diverting BMW from SL -SL terms of operation are clearly defined -SL environmental impacts minimised - Offers flexibility - SL operation and -rehabilitation costs decrease -A common method to at regional level is necessary estimate BMW quantities -Increased complexity -Inadequate institutional infrastructure in many areas -Overall costs increased Where regional authorities have the necessary infrastructure 6. Upper and lower limit of BMW treated (per facility, inclusion in licensing documents) -Facilities can accept quantities from various areas thus competitiveness is encouraged -Encourages the setting up of systems for diverting BMW from SL especially if combined with measure 4 -Flexible system, not depending on a certain facility -Room available for separation at source systems -A common method to at regional or case level is necessary estimate BMW quantities -Increased complexity In any case

21 Technical aspects - Utilization paths for energy recovery [Kaltschmitt, M., Hartmann, 2001]

22 BDW management The Hellenic experience

23 Municipal Solid Waste generation ( )

24 MSW production and management – current situation

25 Landfills in Greece Volos Tagarades Ano Liosia 63 landfills in operation Only in 3 landfills is performed biogas collection and energy recovery: - Ano Liosia (23.5 MWe). - Tagarades (5 MWe). - Volos (1.3 MWe) …

26 Landfill gas utilization Ano Liossia (Athens): 23,9 MW e Tagarades (Thessaloniki): 5 MW e

27 Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) Existing MBTs 1. Ano Liossia Capacity: 1,500 t/d Capacity: 1,500 t/d 2. Ditiki Ellada: Biodrying (is operating since 2009) 3. Irakleio: Biodrying (is operating since 2009) Ano Liossia MBT

28 Hellenic waste management – planned MBTs will be constructed

29 Waste derived fuels 1. MSW / residuals MRF and/or MBT 2. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): Consists of paper and plastic and it is produced mainly in MRFs and MBTs. 3. Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF): Consists of BMW (in a big proportion) and is needed biological treatment (biodrying process). The three aforementioned fuels could incinerated without other supplementary fuel for energy recovery. The three aforementioned fuels could incinerated without other supplementary fuel for energy recovery. RDF and SRF could co-incinerated on other industries (cement plants, energy plants etc.). RDF and SRF could co-incinerated on other industries (cement plants, energy plants etc.).

30 Construction barriers of WtE plants in Greece (1/2) Historical reasons. Political reasons. Dependence from the low gate fee of the sanitary landfills, without taking into consideration Life Cycle Costing approach. MBT at Ano Liossia (Skordilis, 2006)

31 Construction barriers of WtE plants in Greece (2/2) Very sensitive and flexible market for RDF/SRF. Authorisation, licensing, bureaucracy. One new initiative. RDF at Ano Liossia (Skordilis, 2006)

32 A target in the … bin Simple/cheap means – huge impact: equip small and medium communities with separate collection bins Simple/cheap means – huge impact: equip small and medium communities with separate collection bins Implement wide public awareness campaigns – without the people we cannot have results whatever the legislation imposes Implement wide public awareness campaigns – without the people we cannot have results whatever the legislation imposes

33 Thank you for your attention!


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