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Introduction to WWII Unit 12 WWII. Isolationism and neutrality Traditional US Policy Traditional US Policy WWI WWI Pacifists Pacifists Belligerents Belligerents.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to WWII Unit 12 WWII. Isolationism and neutrality Traditional US Policy Traditional US Policy WWI WWI Pacifists Pacifists Belligerents Belligerents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to WWII Unit 12 WWII

2 Isolationism and neutrality Traditional US Policy Traditional US Policy WWI WWI Pacifists Pacifists Belligerents Belligerents Against military buildups Against military buildups FDRs Good Neighbor Policy towards Latin America FDRs Good Neighbor Policy towards Latin America

3 Historical Roots Washington 1793 Proclamation of Neutrality Washington 1793 Proclamation of Neutrality Farewell address: entangling alliances Farewell address: entangling alliances

4 Neutrality Acts of Neutrality Acts Neutrality Acts No sale or shipment of arms to belligerents No sale or shipment of arms to belligerents No loans or credit No loans or credit No travel by US citizens on belligerents ships No travel by US citizens on belligerents ships Purchase of non military goods to be paid in cash and transported in their ships. Better know as Cash and Carry Principle Purchase of non military goods to be paid in cash and transported in their ships. Better know as Cash and Carry Principle Reason keep US out of war Reason keep US out of war

5 Spanish Civil War Italy and Germany help the Fascists Italy and Germany help the Fascists Soviet Union helps the Republicans Soviet Union helps the Republicans Americans stay neutral. Americans stay neutral.

6 FDRs Quarantine Speech 1937 Japan invades China 1937 Japan invades China Quarantine... aggressors to protect the health of the international community against the spread of disease Quarantine... aggressors to protect the health of the international community against the spread of disease Isolationists warned Roosevelt about American involvement. Isolationists warned Roosevelt about American involvement.

7 Triumph of Aggressors Japan Manchuria 1931 and the Chinas heartland 1937 Japan Manchuria 1931 and the Chinas heartland 1937 Italy Ethiopia 1936 Italy Ethiopia 1936 Germany: troops in the Rhineland 1936 Germany: troops in the Rhineland Austria and the Sudetenland 1938 Austria and the Sudetenland

8 Appeasement Munich Conference 1938 Munich Conference 1938 Sudetenland Sudetenland

9 Start of WWII Blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg September 1, 1939 September 1, 1939 First 2 years Britain, France and its allies suffered a number of defeats. First 2 years Britain, France and its allies suffered a number of defeats Soviets sign a non aggresson pact 1939 Soviets sign a non aggresson pact France Falls France Falls Britain goes it alone. Britain goes it alone.

10 Gradual US Involvement Americas interests at risk Americas interests at risk Neutrality Act of 1939 Neutrality Act of 1939 Cash and carry principle Cash and carry principle Destroyer Deal/lend Lease Act 1941 Destroyer Deal/lend Lease Act 1941 Atlantic Charter (Roosevelt and Churchill) Atlantic Charter (Roosevelt and Churchill) Self determination Self determination No land No land Disarmament of aggressors Disarmament of aggressors Permanent system of security Permanent system of security

11 End of Great Depression Need to produce war goods creates rapid escalation in the GNP. Need to produce war goods creates rapid escalation in the GNP. The nations GNP tripled by 1945 The nations GNP tripled by 1945 Federal spending jumped from 20 billion to 98.4 billion. Federal spending jumped from 20 billion to 98.4 billion. Unemployment dropped to 1.9 percent by Unemployment dropped to 1.9 percent by Average weekly wages jumped from in 1939 to in Average weekly wages jumped from in 1939 to in WWII ends the Great Depression WWII ends the Great Depression

12 12 Major Leaders Adolf Hitler Nazi Germany Benito Mussolini Italy

13 13 Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Japanese Prime Minister Winston Churchill British Prime Minister

14 14 Major Leaders Franklin Delano Roosevelt US President Joseph Stalin Russian Leader

15 Sides are Drawn Axis Powers Germany Japan Italy Allies United States Britain France

16 US in WWII Pearl Harbor: America enters the war Pearl Harbor: America enters the war Power of Presidency increases. Power of Presidency increases. Role as policy maker expands. Role as policy maker expands. American people look to Roosevelt American people look to Roosevelt Do not want to change during a war Do not want to change during a war

17 Human Dimensions Arsenal of Democracy: with the lend lease program America began supplying all the allies with war materials. Arsenal of Democracy: with the lend lease program America began supplying all the allies with war materials. US mainland untouched by war destruction. US mainland untouched by war destruction. Stopped production of consumer goods and retool for war effort. Stopped production of consumer goods and retool for war effort.

18 Role Of Women 15 million in 1940 to 19 million in million in 1940 to 19 million in 1945 Replaced men Replaced men 200,000 in the military (WACs)/(Waves) 200,000 in the military (WACs)/(Waves) Rosie the Riveter captured the sense of duty and patriotism Rosie the Riveter captured the sense of duty and patriotism Effects: Effects: many women entered and stayed in the workforce and child care many women entered and stayed in the workforce and child care Some industries set up day care and nursery schools near their defense plants. Some industries set up day care and nursery schools near their defense plants. Increased standard of living Increased standard of living

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20 Mobilization Selective Service Act 1940 Selective Service Act 1940 Men between the ages of 21 to 35 had to register for the draft. Men between the ages of 21 to 35 had to register for the draft. By million men and women were in uniform. By million men and women were in uniform. Million African Americans Million African Americans Segregated units Segregated units

21 Financing the War Govt goes into enormous debt Govt goes into enormous debt Selling of war bonds Selling of war bonds Hollywood stars promoted the sales of war bonds. Hollywood stars promoted the sales of war bonds. US entertainers such as Bob Hope traveled the world entertaining the troops. US entertainers such as Bob Hope traveled the world entertaining the troops.

22 Rationing Short supply of consumer goods Short supply of consumer goods Rationing of meat, gasoline, rubber, clothing, sugar. Rationing of meat, gasoline, rubber, clothing, sugar. Americans received rationing books that limited their purchases of a rationed item. Americans received rationing books that limited their purchases of a rationed item. Meatless Tuesdays and victory gardens. Meatless Tuesdays and victory gardens. Office of Price Administration made sure retail prices of scarce products did not exceed allowable limits and cause inflation. Office of Price Administration made sure retail prices of scarce products did not exceed allowable limits and cause inflation. Drive at 35mph Drive at 35mph Scrap metal drives Scrap metal drives Dig for victory. Dig for victory.

23 Allied Strategy and Leadership Soviet Union 1941 (Stalingrad ) Soviet Union 1941 (Stalingrad ) Defeat Nazi Germany first Defeat Nazi Germany first Battle of El Alamein Battle of El Alamein Sicily Sicily Italy Italy D-Day June 6, 1944 D-Day June 6, 1944 May 7, 1945 VE Day May 7, 1945 VE Day

24 24 Meanwhile … in the Pacific Pearl Harbor: a date which will live in infamy Pearl Harbor: a date which will live in infamy USS Arizona Sinking in Pearl Harbor What? Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Effect? US declares war on Japan & other Axis powers

25 Two front war Pacific Theater Pacific Theater Island hopping Island hopping Battle of Midway Battle of Midway Battle of Coral Sea Battle of Coral Sea Iwo Jima Iwo Jima Okinawa Okinawa

26 Manhattan Project Los Alamos Texas Los Alamos Texas Program to develop first Atom Bomb Program to develop first Atom Bomb

27 Decision to drop the Atom Bombs Why? Why? Loss of 250,000 American Servicemen if Japan was invaded. Loss of 250,000 American Servicemen if Japan was invaded. Loss of millions of Japanese. Loss of millions of Japanese. Political fallout if Americans did not use the bomb and sacrificed American lives. Political fallout if Americans did not use the bomb and sacrificed American lives. Show Soviet Union Show Soviet Union

28 US Occupation of Japan Demilitarizing Japan Demilitarizing Japan General Douglas MacArthur General Douglas MacArthur Democratization Democratization New Constitution New Constitution Built up economy Built up economy

29 Cost of War Germany- 3 million combat deaths (3/4ths on the eastern front) Germany- 3 million combat deaths (3/4ths on the eastern front) Japan – over 1.5 combat deaths; 900,000 civilians dead Japan – over 1.5 combat deaths; 900,000 civilians dead Soviet Union - 13 million combat deaths Soviet Union - 13 million combat deaths U.S. – 300,000 combat deaths, over 100,000 other deaths U.S. – 300,000 combat deaths, over 100,000 other deaths When you include all combat and civilian deaths, World War II becomes the most destructive war in history with estimates as high as 60 million, including 25 million Russians. When you include all combat and civilian deaths, World War II becomes the most destructive war in history with estimates as high as 60 million, including 25 million Russians.

30 Wars Impact on minorities Japanese Americans: executive order Japanese Americans: executive order Wartime Relocation Authority Wartime Relocation Authority Forced removal of 100,000 Japanese from the west coast. Forced removal of 100,000 Japanese from the west coast. 18,000 kept until the end of the war. 18,000 kept until the end of the war.

31 Problems Continue Moved to Utah, California, Arizona, Wyoming, Arkansas, and Idaho Had to wear identification tags Over 17,000 Japanese Americans served in Army units even though their friends and families were being locked away by their own country.

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33 Korematsu v United States 1944 Constitutional principles: civil liberties equal protection, presidential power in wartime, rights of racial ethnic groups. Constitutional principles: civil liberties equal protection, presidential power in wartime, rights of racial ethnic groups. Why Decision is important: Why Decision is important: up held the power of the president in wartime to limit a groups civil liberties. up held the power of the president in wartime to limit a groups civil liberties. Ruled that forced relocation of Japanese Americans during WWII was legal. Ruled that forced relocation of Japanese Americans during WWII was legal Congress voted to give 20,000 dollars to each survivor of the camps Congress voted to give 20,000 dollars to each survivor of the camps. NISEI Soldiers: Japanese American unit won the most medals in WWII NISEI Soldiers: Japanese American unit won the most medals in WWII

34 African Americans Segregation of the military Segregation of the military Widespread discrimination Widespread discrimination Race riots Race riots Movement to north but still experienced great amount of discrimination. Movement to north but still experienced great amount of discrimination.

35 Adjusting to peace Demobilization: 11 million troops are released from service within 2 years. Demobilization: 11 million troops are released from service within 2 years. Military reduced Military reduced

36 Economy Removes price controls Removes price controls Prices rise 25% between mid 1945 to mid Prices rise 25% between mid 1945 to mid Wages do not increase Wages do not increase Major strikes in the coal, auto, steel and railroads Major strikes in the coal, auto, steel and railroads Truman who was a friend of labor threatened the workers. Truman who was a friend of labor threatened the workers. Sent in troops Sent in troops

37 GI Bill of Rights Medical care, grants and loans for college. Medical care, grants and loans for college. Low cost home loans. Low cost home loans. Low cost loans to invest in businesses Low cost loans to invest in businesses Servicemens Readjustment Act Servicemens Readjustment Act

38 Adjusting to Peace Formation of the United Nations Formation of the United Nations Baby Boom Baby Boom Rise of the Middle Class Rise of the Middle Class

39 Trumans Fair Deal Succeeds Roosevelt in 1945 Succeeds Roosevelt in 1945 Elected president in 1948 Elected president in 1948 Partisan problems with Congress Partisan problems with Congress Republicans and Democrats At odds over domestic issues Republicans and Democrats At odds over domestic issues

40 Trumans Fair Deal Congress past some parts of the Fair Deal and rejected others. Congress past some parts of the Fair Deal and rejected others. Increased the minimum wage Increased the minimum wage Extended Social Security to 10 million not covered. Extended Social Security to 10 million not covered. Funds for low income housing Funds for low income housing Funds for flood control, irrigation projects and electrical power plants. Funds for flood control, irrigation projects and electrical power plants.

41 Taft Hartley Act Designed to limited the power of unions Designed to limited the power of unions Union leaders had to sign loyalty oaths Union leaders had to sign loyalty oaths Union leaders could not demand closed shops. Union leaders could not demand closed shops. Labor unions could not conduct secondary boycotts. Labor unions could not conduct secondary boycotts. A employer could sue the union for breach of contract. A employer could sue the union for breach of contract. President could call for an 80 day cooling off period. President could call for an 80 day cooling off period.

42 Upset election of 1948 Harry Truman defeats Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York Harry Truman defeats Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York

43 Truman and Civil Rights Continued difficulties for minorities Continued difficulties for minorities De jure (by law) segregation in the South. De jure (by law) segregation in the South. De facto (housing patterns) segregation in the North. De facto (housing patterns) segregation in the North. Truman formed the Fair Employment Board to ensure African Americans equal opportunity to hold civil service jobs. Truman formed the Fair Employment Board to ensure African Americans equal opportunity to hold civil service jobs.


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