Presentation on theme: "Market & Marketing Research Dr. Vesselin Blagoev MBA’2010-11."— Presentation transcript:
Market & Marketing Research Dr. Vesselin Blagoev MBA’
Lecture Objectives By the end of the lecture, you should be able to: Define the differences between market and marketing research Understand the role and use of MR information in marketing Explain the elements of a MIS and stages of the MR process
Marketing research defined
Definitions of MR “Marketing Research is the function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information... used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, design the method for collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analyses the results, and communicates the findings and their implications.” (McDaniel, Jr. & Gates, 2010)
Definitions of MR Marketing Research is: “the collection and analysis of data from a sample of individuals or organisations relating to their characteristics, behaviour, attitudes, opinions or possessions. It includes all forms of marketing and social research such as consumer and industrial surveys, psychological investigations, observational and panel studies” Market Research Society (1997) - UK
Definitions of MR Chisnall (2005) “… there was originally a difference between the scope of activities [covered by market and marketing research]… The responsibilities of market research extend comprehensively, whereas marketing research is limited to findings out information about the market for a particular product.” ×but this narrow view restricts the focus for the purposes of marketing as a wider management function. MR should be: applied, scientific, pragmatic, objective, impersonal, factual
MR definition summary Market Research aims to describe and analyse markets (size, structure, growth etc) Marketing Research covers a much broader range of topics - customers, products, competitors, channels, suppliers etc. Strictly speaking, Marketing Research is broader than Market Research
“Most marketers don’t need more information, they need the right information and the managers need to be able to determine how to use this information appropriately and effectively so as to enhance performance.” Kotler, Wong, Saunders and Armstrong (2005); Similar point argued by McDaniel, Jr. & Gates (2010), Malhotra (2010) and Keegan and Green (2011) Do you agree with this? Why? Information
Short cut Marketing research is the systematic and objective search for and analysis of information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing Armstrong and Kotler (2011), Malhotra (2010)
Definition Systematic: It is planned, following a sequence of logically ordered steps, starting with problem definition and ending with its use in problem solution Objective: Data are collected using scientific methods and are analyzed using proven statistical processes
Marketing Research Problem-Identification Research Problem-Solving Research Market Potential Research Market Share Research Image Research Market Characteristics Research Sales Analysis Research Forecasting Research Business Trends Research Segmentation Research Product Research Pricing Research Promotion Research Distribution Research Malhotra (2010, p.40)
Types of market Potential market Consumers have some stated interest in a product or service. Available market Set of consumers who have the interest, income and access to the product or services. Qualified available market Set of consumers who have the interest, income, access and qualifications for a particular product or service. Served or ‘target’ market Part of the qualified market that the company decides to pursue. Penetrated market Set of consumers that have already bought a particular product or service.
Measuring market demand The total market demand is the total volume of a product or service that would be bought by a defined consumer group in a defined geographic area, in a defined time period in a defined marketing environment under a defined level and mix of industry marketing effort.
Measuring market demand Kotler, Wong, Saunders and Armstrong (2005)
Types of demand The primary demand is the total demand for all brands of product and services. The selective demand is a specific demand for a given brand of product.
Estimating market demand Q= n x q x p Where Q = total market demand n = number of buyers in the market q = quantity purchased by an average buyer per year p = price of an average unit
Forecasting future demand Environmental forecast Inflation, Unemployment, Interest rates, Consumer spending and saving, Business investment, Government expenditure. Industry forecast What is currently happening? Company sales forecast Buyers’ intentions, Composite of sales force opinions, Expert opinion. Test market method. Time series analysis, Leading indicators, Statistical demand analysis, Information analysis.
Forecasting future demand Kotler, Wong, Saunders and Armstrong (2005)
Sources of information Internal records Marketing intelligence Competitor intelligence Marketing research
MR Research Dimensions Continuous versus Ad hoc On-going research One-off Qualitative versus Quantitative Why? (motivations, attitudes, behaviours) How many, how often? Secondary versus Primary Data that already exists and was collected for another purpose Data collected for the specific purpose at hand
Get a research method
Primary collection methods Primary data can be collected in 4 ways: observational research focus-group research survey research experimental research 2 main research instruments used are: questionnaires (open-end and closed-end) mechanical instruments e.g. Eyetracking of screen use on internet/TV
Marketing Research Step1 1.Defining the problem and research objectives Exploratory research Gathering preliminary information that will help to better define problems and suggest hypotheses. Descriptive research Defining marketing problems, situations or markets, such as the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers. Causal research Marketing research to test hypotheses about cause and effect relationships.
Marketing Research Step 2 2. Developing the research plan for collection of information Determining information needs Secondary data: information that already exists, having been collected for another purpose. Primary data: information collected for the specific purpose at hand. Qualitative research Exploratory research used to uncover consumers’ motivations, attitudes and behaviour. Quantitative research Research data which involves interviews from a sufficient volume of customers to allow statistical analysis.
Marketing Research Step 3 3. Presenting the research plan Outline of research construct. Summarised written proposal.
Marketing Research Step 4 4. Implementing the research plan, collecting and analysing the data Interpreting and reporting the findings. Present the relevant data so that the information can be used to make meaningful decisions. Team effort between marketers and researchers and joint responsibility.
Table 9.6 Types of question
Table 9.6 Types of question (continued)
Demand estimation Estimation of market demand is essential for effective marketing and as illustrated below, demand is measured on a number of levels. Figure 9.3 Ninety types of demand measurement (6 5 3)
Secondary Sources Internal sales records, databases, customer feedback, experienced employees Government reports Chambers of Commerce often available on gov.uk website Trade Associations Industry Reports & Country-based reports e.g. GMID/Euromonitor (available via Marketing area specific articles/reports e.g. Promotions
MR: key criterion MR information has the purpose of supporting marketing decisions Organisations as they grow in size tend to lose close customer contact New markets entered may be geographically distant and unfamiliar New products require research into their potential appeal to customers Communications need researching - are the right messages being given and received Need to think clearly about the issue to be decided, before spending money on MR
Marketing Research in practice Marketing research is concerned with investigating and understanding buyer behaviour Buying behaviour is merely one element of human behaviour; it is complex and influenced by many factors Motivations may be a mixture of business specific, personal, economic, psychological, sociological and demographic variables Behavioural sciences give insights into consumption
Marketing research in small businesses and non-profit organisations Often limited by budgetary constraints, but the following can be accomplished: Observation of market, competitors and industry Secondary data collection Surveys Experiments
Main divisions of MR Product Customer Pricing Sales Promotion
Overview of MR divisions TypeProductCustomerPricingSalesPromotion Examples of issues needing investigation through MR Failure, reduced demand, portfolio inequity, lack of USP, poor quality Target segment profile, preference, loyalty, Macro/Micro env. issues, habits, motivation Sensitivity, ceiling, match to other mix elements, competition, incentives needed, vs. perception of quality, Increasing cost of sales, comparative mkt performance, falling sales, force organisation, distribution methods Relevant methods to audience, rising costs, reduced exposure/cover age, effectiveness, integration, Types of info. Demand, sales, market share, competitive advantage Demographics, purchase behaviours, level of influence of int./ext. factors Costs, profit objectives, mkt/competitive prices, trade /channel vs. consumer prices Value, volume, quantity sold, mkt coverage, latent potential, buyer power Media usage / availability, readership/ viewer rates, public image, awareness, perceptual positioning, brand strength
Why MR is important Traditionally, small firms have close links with their customers Large-scale operations have widened the gap between producers and consumers Modern communities are knowledgeable, experienced and critical Effective penetration of markets requires specialised and sophisticated approaches to identify, assess and satisfy market demands. Effective marketing information and research enables an organisation to make better decisions on the most appropriate market entry and competitive strategies.
Marketing information system (MIS) The marketing information system (MIS) is comprised of: people technology procedures to gather, sort, analyse, evaluate and distribute necessary, timely and accurate information to marketing decision makers.
Marketing Information System (MIS) Brassington & Pettitt, 2007 Effective system of organising, structuring and managing the storage, access and dissemination of market research data
The Marketing Research Process Brassington & Pettitt, 2007
MR in the Marketing Process MR information needed at all stages: new product idea generation and product development marketing testing launch implementation brand performance management positioning and repositioning etc
Market research ethics Increasing consumer resentment has become a major problem in the research industry due to how the market research has been used and abused. Consumers fear researchers may use sophisticated techniques to obtain information that may be intrusive and infringe consumer rights. There is also the fear that the research findings may be manipulated and misinterpreted to suit the company paying for the research. To minimise abuse the research industry has developed broad standards such as ESOMAR’s International Code of Marketing and Social Research Practice.
Summary Marketing research aids decision making by providing management with specific kinds of information which should form the foundation of all strategic decision making and tactical planning Marketing Research is vital in identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs profitably Accurate information enables intelligent decision making in pursuit of organisational objectives Information must be continuously collected, monitored, analysed and communicated all around the organisation (via a MIS) All businesses can conduct research, whether in- house or via an external consultancy
Further reading suggestions Armstrong, G. and Kotler, P. (2011), Marketing, 9 th ed., Pearson Cooper, D. & Schindler, P. (2006), Marketing research. Boston: McGraw Hill Keegan, W.J.& Green, M. (2011), Global Marketing, 6 th ed., Pearson Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (2010), Principles of Marketing, 13rd ed., Pearson Malhotra, N. (2010), Marketing Research. An Applied Orientation, 6th ed. Pearson McDaniel, Jr. C. and Gates, R. (2010), Marketing Research, John Wiley & Sons, 8 th ed.