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12/10/2014 1 Marketing Research and Information Dr.Vesselin Blagoev.

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Presentation on theme: "12/10/2014 1 Marketing Research and Information Dr.Vesselin Blagoev."— Presentation transcript:

1 12/10/2014 1 Marketing Research and Information Dr.Vesselin Blagoev

2 12/10/2014 2 Market research (1) and Marketing research (2) are distinct : (1) Simply aims to describe markets – their size, location and pattern of development (2) Is much wider in application. Marketing is not an exact science – any problem has a number of alternative solutions. Marketing research is used to select the best option

3 12/10/2014 3 Analysis of information needs Decisions can be classified as recurrent and occasional

4 12/10/2014 4 Analysis of information needs Example: Recurrent hospitality marketing problems requiring continuous information inputs: Regular appraisal of salespersons’ performance Analysis of actual sales of accommodation, food and beverage against forecast sales Tracking of seasonal patterns in sales Setting monthly sales targets for regional sales offices Monitoring actual promotion expenditure against budget Considering whether to match changes in competitors’ bar prices

5 12/10/2014 5 Analysis of information needs Occasional hospitality marketing problems requiring ad hoc information inputs: Whether to co-operate with adjacent hotels in joint promotion Whether to sponsor a sport events Whether to launch a new food and beverage format Whether to close a floor during winter To discover the reasons for poor sales performance from a particular office To see if profitable opportunities exist in franchising a fast-food format

6 12/10/2014 6 Behavioral Environment Socio-Cultural Psychological Economic Environment Competition Science and Technology Political and Legal Environment The Company Consultants Research Organizations The Sales Organization Middlemen Facilitating Agencies Publications of All types Trade Associations Marketing Research Dept. Suppliers Related Marketers Advertising Agencies Advertising Media Marketing Information: Main Sources

7 12/10/2014 7 Primary Research Diagnostic/exploratory Focus groups Depth interviews Surveys Experiments Observations Test markets

8 12/10/2014 8 Secondary research Somebody else gathered for some other purpose Statistics Trade associations report Government reports Company records Audits Internet web sites Articles

9 12/10/2014 9 Secondary internal data Sales records Delivery and stock records Prices and quotations Sales promotion – price offers, etc. Advertising – media and messages – size of budget Sales personnel call reports Past studies of marketing effectiveness

10 12/10/2014 10 Secondary external data Internet Statistics Company reports Catalogues, brochures Advertising (TV, radio, newspapers, etc.) Ready-made surveys Official reports Other publications Intelligence sources

11 12/10/2014 11 The search engines, stupid ! Secondary external data

12 12/10/2014 12 On-line secondary data sources SiteURLComments American Marketing Association Brainstorm Business Forum Chambers of Commerce best practice Business Link National Good for small businesses World Wide Web Virtual Library

13 12/10/2014 13 On-line secondary data sources SiteURLComments Europe Business Monitor www.businessmonitor. European business information UK National Statistical Office Department of Trade and Industry Mintel Business, trade, economic, investment data Intelligence in time

14 12/10/2014 14 On-line secondary data sources SiteURLComments US Census Data Social and economic census and surveys Keynote Institute of Export Europages 500,000 companies

15 12/10/2014 15 Research Procedures 1. Analysis of information needs 2. Finding information sources 3. Collecting the information 4. Analyzing the information 5. Using the information

16 12/10/2014 16 Sources of Information Available to a Marketing Decision Maker Accounting reports Marketing Research Sales Expenses Profits Consumer behaviour studies Product tests Advertising effectiveness reports Published government and trade journals reports Pricing response studies Distribution reports Personal contacts with other managers Decision Marketing Decision Maker Experience

17 12/10/2014 17 MR – Steps in the research process 1. Establish the need for information 2. Specify research objectives and information needs 3. Determine Sources of data 4. Develop the data collection forms 5. Design the sample 6. Collect the data 7. Process the data 8. Analyze the data 9. Present research results

18 12/10/2014 18 Primary data is obtained through: Observations Surveys (interviews) Projective techniques Experimentation

19 12/10/2014 19 Observations Observing, recording and subsequently analyzing consumer or market behaviour in particular contexts

20 12/10/2014 20 Surveys Directing a series of questions at samples of customers/users by: Personal interview Mail/postal survey Telephone On-line questionnaire completion

21 12/10/2014 21 Omnibus surveys Omnibus surveys are periodic, e.g. every month, questionnaire surveys with pre-recruited samples of customers, using composite questionnaires that cover a differing mix of product fields each survey period. The marketing research agency sales sections of the questionnaire to third parties (users).

22 12/10/2014 22 Focus groups A group interview with 8 to 12 (in some sources 6 to 8) people led by a discussion leader, with a broad focus on some particular market, product field or consumer decision situation. Focus groups are often used as exploratory research to develop ‘a feel’ for a market or issue, prior to more detailed research.

23 12/10/2014 23 Select the survey method 1. Face to face methods : Interviewer and interviewee actually meet. (a) Personal interview (b) Group-administered questionnaire This method is valued by advertising researchers who wish to pre-test commercials. (c) Self-administered questionnaire It is not uncommon to have a callback 4 times in order to obtain a 75% response rate.

24 12/10/2014 24 Select the survey method 2 2. Telephone interview About 75% with 3 callbacks 3. Mail questionnaire Response between 10 and 70%

25 12/10/2014 25 Strengths and Weaknesses MailTelephonePersonal 1Flexibility PoorGoodExcellent 2Quantity of data collected GoodFairExcellent 3Control of interviewer effects Excellent FairPoor 4Control of sample FairExcellentPoor 5Speed of data collect PoorExcellentGood 6Response rate PoorGood 7Cost GoodFairPoor

26 12/10/2014 26 Errors in reactive research Respondent error Investigator error Sampling error

27 12/10/2014 27 Respondent errors Testing effect: People behave when they know that they are being watched Role-selection effect: Sometimes they chose a role (What kind of person I am?) Measurement effect:The pre-campaign questioning of ads may cause special attention to them during the survey Response sets: People tend to say Yes more often than to refuse

28 12/10/2014 28 Investigator error Interviewer effect: Race, sex and age matter as well as tone and voice Instrument effect: Do you read the question in identical way to all interviewed people? Recording error

29 12/10/2014 29 Sampling error Sampling-frame error Sample bias: Some people in the sample may be absent or refuse to answer Administrative error: In a rainy day you get different answers compared to a sunny day

30 12/10/2014 30 Techniques which are recommended for increasing the mail questionnaire response rate Send a “warning” card mentioning imminent arrival of the questionnaire Send the questionnaire with covering explanatory letter Have each letter personally addressed and signed Offer a small gift for taking part in the survey Assure confidentiality of results Use the shortest questionnaire possible Word questions simply

31 12/10/2014 31 Techniques which are recommended for increasing the mail questionnaire response rate 2 Keep to questions which require concrete, not abstract responses Include a stamped addressed envelope Send reminders to non respondents Be rigorous in screening out sample members from whom responses are not required

32 12/10/2014 32 Surveys Stage 1 Preparation: involves setting research objectives and defining the information that is needed to meet them Stage 2 Preliminary decisions: begins with a review of the secondary information and an appraisal of constrains

33 12/10/2014 33 Selecting a sample Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Define the population 1. Elements 2. Units 3. Extent 4. Time Identify the sampling frame Determining sample size Select a sampling procedure Select the sample

34 12/10/2014 34 Surveys 2 Main questions: - What is our population of interest? -Can we obtain an accurate listing of this population from which to draw the sample (known as a sampling frame)? -Should we use a probability sample (every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected) or a non-probability sample? -What size of sample should we select? -What should be the sampling unit (a person or a householder – who should answer the questions)

35 12/10/2014 35 Surveys 3 The Law of statistical regularity : any subset of the population selected at random will tend to process the same characteristics of the larger group The Law of inertia of large numbers : large groups are more stable that small groups Stage 3 Design and test of the questionnaire Stage 4 Main run Stage 5 Producing results

36 12/10/2014 36 Probability samples (a) Simple random sample: sample members are selected using either a lottery method or a random number method (b) Systematic random sample: for a large population. It is wise only if the sampling frame is itself randomly ordered or unrelated to the purpose of the survey (c) Stratified sample: all sectors of the population are in the final sample -proportionate (PSS) -disproportionate (DSS)

37 12/10/2014 37 Probability samples 2 (d) Multistage sample -cluster sample -area sample: Stage 1: Divide country into constituencies. Randomly select constituencies Stage 2: Divide constituencies into wards. Randomly select wards. Stage 3: Divide wards into polling districts. Randomly select polling districts Stage 4: Divide polling districts into groups of households. Randomly select of them and interview all members (e) Multiphase sample

38 12/10/2014 38 Non-probability samples (a) Quota sample The interviewer may be told to interview 20 females under 30. Looks like choosing stratified sampling. (b) Convenience sample The least satisfactory form of sample except for exploratory work and hypothesis generation. (c) Judgmental sample A loose form of quota sample in which the researcher’s judgment replaces any overt attempt to find relevant quota controls.

39 12/10/2014 39 What is a focus group? Usually 8-12 participants Usually employs a videotape or audio recording equipment Used to: Collect background data Generate hypotheses Gather impressions on new product concepts Stimulate new ideas about older products Interpret previously obtained quantitative results

40 12/10/2014 40 Panel data Longitudinal histories What you bought ? How much did you pay for that ? How many did you buy ? When did you buy ? Where did you buy it ?

41 12/10/2014 41 Sampling procedures All sampling procedures Non-probability procedures (1)Convenience sample (2)Judgment sample (3)Quota sample Probability procedures (1)Simple random sample (2)Stratified sample (3)Cluster sample a) systematic b) area sample

42 12/10/2014 42 Sampling procedures 2 (1)As the name sample implies: whoever is “around” (2) Experts propose/decide about the sample, i.e. which city will present in a better way the whole population (3) The sample is similar to the population (on the pre-specified characteristics) (1) The mean (central tendency) (2) m Σ x i μ= i=1, i=1, …, N N

43 12/10/2014 43 Marketing mix Marketing Environment Consumers Competitors Distribution Economic conditions Government Technology Other Internal marketing information External Marketing information Information library Information processing Analytical system Marketing Decision- Makers Requests for Analysis Regular info Requests for information Special info Marketing Information System Marketing research

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