Presentation on theme: "Ch. 5: Energizing With Energy This color = read and write down Any other color = read and think about."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 5: Energizing With Energy This color = read and write down Any other color = read and think about
Wherever you are sitting as you read this, changes are taking placelightbulbs are heating the air around them, the wind might be rustling leaves, rain changing to snow, your body turning food into heat (and the brown stuff)…and on…and on…. 1. Every change that occurs, large or small, involves … energy! What is energy? 1 1 The Nature of Energy
2.Energy - the ability to cause change OR the ability to do work. Measured in Joules (J) Anything that can cause a change must have energy. Change Requires Energy The Nature of Energy 1 1 Think about all the things you can affect and change in a days time (for good and for bad). If you dont have energy, you dont feel like doing much of anything soooo… we NEED energy.
3.Energy has different forms a.Electrical energy– due to the flow of _________. b.Chemical energy – stored in chemical bonds (ex. food, gas, fuel) c.Radiant energy – radio waves, light, x-rays d.Thermal energy – heat e.Kinetic energy– movement Is the chemical energy stored in food the same as the energy that comes from the Sun or the energy stored in gasoline? The Nature of Energy 1 1
It warms the planet and is the ultimate source of energy for every living thing on Earth. WHAT AM I ? 1 1 Radiant energy from the Sun travels a vast distance through space to Earth
4.Kinetic Energy – energy of movement measured in Joules (Jewels) Things that are moving have it. Things that are sitting still dont. KE = ½ mv 2 m is mass (kg) v is velocity (m/s) KE is kinetic energy in Joules (J)
Sample Problem: As a paralegal your boss (a lawyer) asks you to find the KE of a 1000 kg car that was going 20 m/s when it ran a red light and hit someone. Formula: KE = ½ mv 2 Work: KE = ½ (1000 kg) (20 m/s) 2 Answer: KE = 200,000 J
5.Potential Energy (P.E.)– stored energy. a) Elastic P.E. – from something that can stretch or compress. i.e. – rubber band, spring, shocks, tramp. b) Chemical P.E. – from chemical bonds i.e. – gasoline, food, bombs, natural gas c) Gravitational P.E. – anything that can fall i.e. – book on a bookshelf, roller coaster at the top of a hill (formula on next slide)
GPE = mgh GPE is gravitational potential energy (J) m is mass (kg) g is accel. due to gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ) h is height (m) The higher off the ground something is the ______ potential energy it has!
Sample Problem: As an engineers assistant you need to find the GPE of a roller coaster part so you can order the right one. The mass is 1000 kg and it is 10 m off the ground at its highest point. Formula: GPE = mgh Work: GPE = (1000 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )(10 m) Answer: GPE = (98,000 J)
Money can be used as an analogy for energy. An Energy Analogy 1 1 You have a $ 750,000 inheritance coming to you $ 400 is cash $17,500 is gold coins $ 130,000 is CDs $ 40,000 is in a savings account $ 535,000 is in BASEBALL CARDS Would you want the baseball cards?
Regardless of its form, money is money. The same is true for energy. Energy from the Sun that warms you... Energy from the food that you eat… Energy from the powerplant that runs your play- station… are only different forms of the same thing.
6.Energy can change from one form into another but the total amount N E V ER changes. 7.Law of Conservation of Energy – energy CAN NEVER be created or destroyed.
The SI unit of energy is the joule – symbol J. Kinetic Energy The Nature of Energy If you dropped a softball from a height of about 0.5m, it would have a KE of about one joule before it hits the floor. 1 1
Example 3 1.What is the kinetic energy of a baseball moving at a speed of 40 m/s if the baseball has a mass of 0.15 kg? ANS: KE = ½ mv 2 KE = ½ (0.15 kg)(40 m/s) 2 KE = 120 J
GPE: stored energy that is due to an objects position. The Nature of Energy If the apple stays in the tree, it will keep the stored energy due to its height above the ground. 1 1
Potential Energy The Nature of Energy If it falls, that stored energy of its position is converted to energy of motion which is ______ ________. 1 1
The Nature of Energy 8. Energy Transformations 1 1 GPE Kinetic and Electrical -the dam Electrical Radiant -Cell phone Electrical Kinetic (sound wave) -mp3 player Chemical Kinetic and Thermal - car taking off
Starting with the food I ate, diagram the energy transformations as I walk over and turn on the light. Starting with the coal from the power plant, diagram the energy transformations on the hair dryer C.P.E T.E. K.E. E.E. C.P.E. T.E. K.E. E.E. T.E.
When natural gas is burned, energy stored in the bonds that hold the atoms together and is released. Chemical Potential Energy The Nature of Energy 1 1
GPE changes with height above the ground. 9. Changing GPE The Nature of Energy If two objects are at the same height, the one with the most mass has the most GPE. 1 1 The higher off the ground an object is, the more GPE it has.
Section Check A. change B. heat C. motion D. work Energy is the ability to cause __________. 1 1 Q. 1
Section Check The answer is A. Energy is the ability to cause ___change____. 1 1 Answer
Section Check List four different forms of energy: electrical, chemical, radiant and thermal, (potential & kinetic), GPE Answer 1 1 Q. 2
Section Check A. the objects mass and velocity B. the objects mass C. the objects velocity D. the acceleration of the object The kinetic energy of an object depends on __________. 1 1 Q. 3
Section Check The answer is A. Kinetic energy depends on __the objects mass and velocity___. 1 1 Answer
If you are sent out to the hall to work on an assignment you must not disrupt other classes. If you do = automatic write-up No headphones during reading / notes / grading. Only while working on homework and some labs.
Lightbulbs transform ________ energy into ______ and _______ energy. Transforming Electrical Energy Conservation of Energy 2 2
Transforming Chemical Energy Conservation of Energy In a car, a spark plug fires, changing _______ potential energy into __________ energy. 2 2
Then, as the hot gases expand, thermal energy is converted into ________ energy. Transforming Chemical Energy Conservation of Energy 2 2
Transforming Chemical Energy Conservation of Energy Every green plant converts light energy from the Sun into chemical energy. Some energy transformations are less obvious because they do not result in motion, sound, heat, or light. 2 2
Conversions Between Kinetic and Potential Energy Conservation of Energy 10. Mechanical energy (M.E.) – total amount of potential and kinetic energy in a system mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy 2 2 ME = PE + KE
A.Projectiles: the K.E. and P.E. change, but the M.E of the ball does ___ ________. 2 2
Energy Transformations in a Swing Conservation of Energy 11. Pendulum – how is K.E. effected? more mass = _______ K.E. Shorter string = _____ K.E. Answer this question out loud how is the energy conserved? 2 2
At the ends of the path you have max _____. As it accelerates downward, the P.E. changes over to ______. At the bottom of the path, KE is at its ______. Energy Transformations in a Swing Conservation of Energy 2 2
Be sure study guide packet is done Read through notes / powerpoints 12. E.P.E – slingshots, rubber bands, etc. –The ______ ball has more G.P.E –The ______ ball has more E.P.E
13. What law is represented in the diagram? WRITE THE ANSWER The Law of Conservation of Energy 2 2
While coasting along a flat road on a bicycle you will eventually stop if you dont pedal. Is energy always conserved? Conservation of Energy A. Write an answer to this question: If energy is conserved, why dont you keep coasting forever? 2 2
Converting Mass into Energy Conservation of Energy Fusion - a small amount of mass is turned into a huge amount of energy. 14. Nuclear Fusiontakes place in the Sun and other stars. 2 2
Nuclear Fission Conservation of Energy A. The energy before the reaction is equal to the energy after the reaction. 2 2
Some of the chemical potential energy stored in your body is used to maintain a nearly constant internal temperature. 15. Energy in Your Body Conservation of Energy A portion of C.P.E. is converted to heat that your body gives off. 2 2
Your body stores C.P.E in the form of fat. It gets converted to: - T.E. (heat) -K.E. (movement) Energy Conversions in Your Body Conservation of Energy This C.P.E. is used to fuel the processes that keep you alive (i.e. heart beat, breathing, and thinking). 2 2
Walking burns the most calories for ______ body frame. _____ burns the most calories for all bodies Energy Conversions in Your Body Conservation of Energy 2 2
Calorie (C) measures food energy (C.P.E.) 1 C 4,184 J Food Energy Conservation of Energy Every gram of fat a person consumes can supply 9 C of energy. Carbohydrates and proteins each supply about 4 C of energy per gram. 2 2
Section Check A. kinetic energy B. momentum C. potential energy D. potential and kinetic energy Q. 4 Mechanical energy is the total amount of _________ in a system. 2 2
Section Check The answer is D. Mechanical energy is the energy due to position and motion of all objects in a system. 2 2 Answer
Section Check Q.5 Define the law of conservation of energy. The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only change forms. Answer 2 2
Section Check A. electrical, thermal B. mechanical, thermal C. thermal, electrical D. thermal, mechanical Q.6 Friction converts ________ energy into _________ energy. 2 2
Section Check The answer is B. Friction converts mechanical energy into thermal energy. 2 2 Answer
Write what happens to the energy if the mass is doubled? Write what happens to the energy if the velocity is doubled? Why is this? Answer: If m is doubled, KE is doubled. If v is doubled, KE is quadrupled, because it is squared. Q. 7 KE = ½ mv 2
E = mc 2 - E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light. Einsteins famous formula - States that mass is energy. - A tiny bit of mass gets converted to a huge amount of energy because the speed of light is a huge number. Reviewing Main Ideas 2 2
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