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Child care services – demographic and social context – András Gábos (TÁRKI Social Research Institute) ADAPT2DC Transnational Study Tour, 20-22 May 2014,

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Presentation on theme: "Child care services – demographic and social context – András Gábos (TÁRKI Social Research Institute) ADAPT2DC Transnational Study Tour, 20-22 May 2014,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Child care services – demographic and social context – András Gábos (TÁRKI Social Research Institute) ADAPT2DC Transnational Study Tour, May 2014, Budapest

2 Outline of the presentation 1.General context 2.Demographic processes 3.Childbearing and labour market participation 4.Poverty and social exclusion 5.Family policies and the Visegrád countries in Europe

3 1 General context

4 Child care services – a framework Childcare services LM participation Social inclusion Child development Childbearing The availability and the quality of childcare services: -affect parents’ decisions on -childbearing -labour supply -affect household resources needed for social inclusion -in short term: parental resources -in long-term: child development Work-life balance Breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty

5 Use of childcare and Barcelona target, 2010 Source. C. Thévénet (DG EMPL): Child poverty and child well-being in the European Union. Presentation at the InGRID Expert workshop on ‘Framework and methods for indicator building for various vulnerable groups’ Budapest, November Based on data from EU SILC, 2010.

6 2 Demographic processes in the Visegrád countries

7 Falling fertility in the Visegrád countries, Source: United Nations Population Statistics. Systemic change ↘− / ↗↘↘

8 Falling share of the population aged 0-4 as % of total population, Source: United Nations Population Statistics. Systemic change

9 3 Childbearing and labour market participation

10 Maternal employment rates compared to female employment rates, 2011 Source: OECD Family Database. Visegrád countries -low maternal employment (similar to the Southern countries) -the gap between female and maternal employment is large (among the largest within the OECD) -Poland is an exception (with higher than OECD- average figures)

11 Maternal employment rates by age of youngest child, 2011 Source: OECD Family Database. Visegrád countries -Huge disparities in ME by the age of child -Very low employment for mothers with a child younger than 3 (among the lowest within OECD) -Poland is again an exception -Not the same pattern for mothers with an older child

12 Maternal employment rates by number of children under 15, 2011 Source: OECD Family Database. Visegrád countries -Huge disparities in ME by the number of children -Very low employment for mothers with 3 or more children (among the lowest within OECD) -Poland is again an exception

13 Female employment and fertility Source: OECD Family Database. The negative relationship predicted by economic theory changed in the 1980’s. E.g. Ahn and Mira (2002) Rindfuss, Guzzo és Morgan 2000; Billari et al. 2002; Del Boca et al. 2003; d’Addio and d’Ercole 2005.

14 Female employment and fertility Source: OECD Family Database. Cross-sectional macro-level correlations might be misleading. At micro level, the negative relationship is still there, although weakened in this period. Engelhardt, Kögel and Prskawetz 2001; Engelhardt and Prskawetz 2002; Kögel 2003; Kögel 2006.

15 4 Poverty and social exclusion

16 Relative outcomes of countries related to child poverty risk and main determinants of child poverty risk, 2010 Source. Gábos (2013) based on the methodology developed by the EU Task-Force on Child Poverty and Child Well-being in the EU (2008). Visegrád countries - Considerable variation across V4 - Czech Republic: good (but not very good) performance in all dimensions - Hungary: the risk of poverty is strongly related to poor LM outcomes. Cash transfers and LM participation are protective - Slovakia: the risk of poverty is strongly related to poor LM outcomes. - Poland: in-work poverty is the concern

17 Use of childcare and gradient Source. C. Thévénet (DG EMPL): Child poverty and child well-being in the European Union. Presentation at the InGRID Expert workshop on ‘Framework and methods for indicator building for various vulnerable groups’ Budapest, November Based on data from EU SILC, 2010.

18 5 Family policies and the Visegrád countries in Europe

19 Public spending on family benefits in cash, services and tax measures, in per cent of GDP, 2009 Source: OECD Family Database. Visegrád countries - Considerable variation across countries - Czech Republic, Slovakia: spend near OECD average - Hungary: spends at Scandinavian level, strongly cash focused - Poland: spends at Mediterranean level.

20 Family policy country groups Most flexible - high female employment rate - high part-time rate - good childcare provision - generous leave and benefits - good work-life balance Mixed, mainly flexible - medium or high female employment rate - good childcare options, or significant recent efforts to increase these - mix of traditional policies and flexible policies Mixed, mainly traditional - usually low female employment rate - low part-time rate - few children in childcare - long parental leave Most traditional (family-oriented) - few children in full-time childcare or relatives commonly look after children - low female employment rate - support to large families Source: Eurofound BE DK FI NL SE UK CZ HU LV MT PL RO SK AT CY DE FR IE LU PT SI BG EE EL ES HR IT LT

21 ImPRovEImPRovE – Poverty Reduction in Europe: Social Policy and Innovation - FP7, , U of Antwerp InGRIDInGRID – Integrating Expertise in Inclusive Growth - FP7, , KU Leuven STYLESTYLE – Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe - FP7, , U of Brighton

22 Thank you for your attention!

23 Summary

24 Increase in mean age at birth in the Visegrád countries, Source: United Nations Population Statistics. Systemic change


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