Presentation on theme: "European larch and its improvement in Slovakia Elena Foffová 1), Vladimír Foff 2), Roman Longauer 1) National Forest Centre - Forest Research Institute,"— Presentation transcript:
European larch and its improvement in Slovakia Elena Foffová 1), Vladimír Foff 2), Roman Longauer 1) National Forest Centre - Forest Research Institute, T.G. Masaryka 22, 960 91 Zvolen, Slovakia LIA Ltd., Fot Informaton Agency, Liptovksý Hrádok, Slovakia
Proportion of forests 45%, 2.3 million ha, Net annual growth 17 million m 3 European larch: 2.5%, ~55 ths. ha Naturally occurring in the inner part of Western Carpathians. Commonly grown elsewhere - mountains, piedmonts, hills. Interest rather high, even increasing >>> climate change, difficulties with Norway spruce. In forests under normal management, it is regenerated only artificially, using seeds produced in clonal seed orchards. Autochthonous genetic resources conserved in multiple nature reserves, protective forests and gene reserve forests.
Natural altitudinal range from 450 to 1,500 m. Three natural types: - High Tatra, - Central Mountain and Basin, - Eastern Slovakian. The edaphotypes of a „white larch“ (fixed to limestone sites) and „black larch“ (acidic substrates) considered but not proved experimentally. >>> different deployment areas according to the parent substrate on which source populations grow. „Basin“ climatype better adapted to sites with late frosts confirmed by experiments instead.
Basic materials Plus trees: 985, of which 931 in a archived. Clonal seed orchards: 37 orchards (including replicates), 105 hectares. Started 1960, usually 25-35 clones per orchard. Some orchards suspended, new orchards with 50+ clones. Approved stands: 249 units, total area 1070 ha, of which 216 ha elite stands Generative reproductive plantations: 17 units, 47 ha. Each unit is a mix of 50 HS families. Gene reserve forests: 19 units with larch, the netto area of larch 570 ha
Deployment areas: 1) Central Mountains including (a) Tatras and (b) Low Tatra & Ore Mts.: autochthonous larch, several seed orchards. 2) Hills & mountains of east Slovakia: autochthonous larch, several seed orchards. 3) Hills & mountains of northwest Slovakia: putatively autochthonous, 1 multi-clonal seed orchard. 4) Chain of hills and lower mountains of (a) Southwest and Central and (b) Eastern Slovakia: Outside the natural range. Many seed orchards including 3 comprised of the clones from Jeseniky Mts. (Sudetic) and 1 with clones from several alochthonous populations.
Larix decidua – seeds and plants Seeds Year Region of provenances 123456Total 20049524310239 200521111823 20068331196481646753 200715195382013268 Seeds [in kg] Year Region of provenances 123456Total 20049524310239 200521111823 20068331196481646753 200715195382013268 Inventory of plants [in 1 000 pieces] Year Age of plants [in years] 12345Total 20044 4162 8381 329334558 972 20054 9163 6431 027326279 939 20064 8363 9651 6153086510 789 20075 0143 7561 7526823111 235 Reforestation [in 1 000 pieces] Year Age of plants [in years] 12345Total 20041 7791 004307553 145 20052 028751262273 068 20062 213933276653 487 20072 0021 323606313 962
Results/Experience: Western Carpathian provenances are very adaptable, maybe except of those from High Tatras. The phenotypic quality of local provenances is very good. Jeseniky (Sudetic) larch may grow better in lower altitudes. Experiment starting: Phenological responses on the effects of nursery cultivation and subsequent transfer into very contrasting site conditions.
Progeny testing: Progeny testing of 3 clonal seed orchards with 3 testing plots located within the range of the source populations. - Definition of a deployment area /size of breeding zone. - 1.5 (2 nd ) generation seed orchard(s). Small experiment with species hybridization and testing hybrid progenies: Hybrids belonging to 11 species combinations were obtained from 45 crosses. Research support: Flowering phenology, mating system and gene flow in a seed orchard. Genetic makeup of the orchard progenies (PhD. studies).