Presentation on theme: "European larch and its improvement in Slovakia Elena Foffová 1), Vladimír Foff 2), Roman Longauer 1) National Forest Centre - Forest Research Institute,"— Presentation transcript:
European larch and its improvement in Slovakia Elena Foffová 1), Vladimír Foff 2), Roman Longauer 1) National Forest Centre - Forest Research Institute, T.G. Masaryka 22, Zvolen, Slovakia LIA Ltd., Fot Informaton Agency, Liptovksý Hrádok, Slovakia
Proportion of forests 45%, 2.3 million ha, Net annual growth 17 million m 3 European larch: 2.5%, ~55 ths. ha Naturally occurring in the inner part of Western Carpathians. Commonly grown elsewhere - mountains, piedmonts, hills. Interest rather high, even increasing >>> climate change, difficulties with Norway spruce. In forests under normal management, it is regenerated only artificially, using seeds produced in clonal seed orchards. Autochthonous genetic resources conserved in multiple nature reserves, protective forests and gene reserve forests.
Natural altitudinal range from 450 to 1,500 m. Three natural types: - High Tatra, - Central Mountain and Basin, - Eastern Slovakian. The edaphotypes of a „white larch“ (fixed to limestone sites) and „black larch“ (acidic substrates) considered but not proved experimentally. >>> different deployment areas according to the parent substrate on which source populations grow. „Basin“ climatype better adapted to sites with late frosts confirmed by experiments instead.
Natural range of Larix decidua
Natural range of Larix decidua in Slovakia
Basic materials Plus trees: 985, of which 931 in a archived. Clonal seed orchards: 37 orchards (including replicates), 105 hectares. Started 1960, usually clones per orchard. Some orchards suspended, new orchards with 50+ clones. Approved stands: 249 units, total area 1070 ha, of which 216 ha elite stands Generative reproductive plantations: 17 units, 47 ha. Each unit is a mix of 50 HS families. Gene reserve forests: 19 units with larch, the netto area of larch 570 ha
Larix decidua – basic materials Regions of provenances Approved stands RegionCountArea Total Trees Count Orchards CountArea 23,00 818,48 13,50 11, ,96 35,0 2778,44
Deployment areas: 1) Central Mountains including (a) Tatras and (b) Low Tatra & Ore Mts.: autochthonous larch, several seed orchards. 2) Hills & mountains of east Slovakia: autochthonous larch, several seed orchards. 3) Hills & mountains of northwest Slovakia: putatively autochthonous, 1 multi-clonal seed orchard. 4) Chain of hills and lower mountains of (a) Southwest and Central and (b) Eastern Slovakia: Outside the natural range. Many seed orchards including 3 comprised of the clones from Jeseniky Mts. (Sudetic) and 1 with clones from several alochthonous populations.
Larix decidua – seeds and plants Seeds Year Region of provenances Total Seeds [in kg] Year Region of provenances Total Inventory of plants [in pieces] Year Age of plants [in years] 12345Total Reforestation [in pieces] Year Age of plants [in years] 12345Total
Results/Experience: Western Carpathian provenances are very adaptable, maybe except of those from High Tatras. The phenotypic quality of local provenances is very good. Jeseniky (Sudetic) larch may grow better in lower altitudes. Experiment starting: Phenological responses on the effects of nursery cultivation and subsequent transfer into very contrasting site conditions.
Progeny testing: Progeny testing of 3 clonal seed orchards with 3 testing plots located within the range of the source populations. - Definition of a deployment area /size of breeding zone (2 nd ) generation seed orchard(s). Small experiment with species hybridization and testing hybrid progenies: Hybrids belonging to 11 species combinations were obtained from 45 crosses. Research support: Flowering phenology, mating system and gene flow in a seed orchard. Genetic makeup of the orchard progenies (PhD. studies).