ADS-B Deployment in Europe Single European Sky Surveillance Performance & Interoperability Implementing Rule 2015 2017 2012 voluntary implementation in pocket areas certified existing equipage IR based implementation in wider areas upgraded equipage Forward-fitRetro-fit
Other Continents NRA Hudson Bay Nov 08 later Greenland RAD “all airspace” 2020 NRA+RAD Upper airspace 2012-2014-2018 The leads of the four Programmes meet quarterly (“g4”) most recent meeting included Regulatory Bodies (incl. EASA)
Going to Operations - what does it take? RFG SPR-INTEROP Simulations, Trials & Monitoring Aircrew Manual Avionics EASA Regulation Airworthiness Approval Operational Approval ATC Manual Preliminary Safety Case Ground Infrastructure ANSP Operational Approval EC SES Regulation SPI-IR Business Case OPERATIONS wide-spread
Schedule 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 StandardsAirworthinessMandate 2007 NRA ITP VSA APT RAD SURF AMC 20-24 AMC 20-xx Draft SPI-IR SPI-IR AIRB AMC 20-yy SPI-IR MoC
AMC 20-24 Lessons Learned CASCADE Perspective Open & efficient co-operation between EASA and CASCADE Adequate drafting process through CNS/ATM SG Based on Requirements Focus Group deliverable (ED126/DO303) Turn-around time could be shortened, though AMC 20-24 unlocked global airworthiness approval Making use of existing avionics for initial implementations Facilitates focused learning process across industry In particular within the ADS-B Pioneer Project Provides sound basis for ADS-B-RAD AMC material
Pioneer Airline Certification Status Overview “Applicant”Ac typeNew aircraftRetrofit AirbusA380 A330/A340 A320 family Optional Optional Optional - SB available on request SB available on request BoeingB737-600/700/800/900 B757, B767 B747-400 B777 Free of charge for CASCADE Pioneer Airlines otherwise optional/SB on request ATRATR72Certification ongoing DassaultFalcon 2000OptionalSB available on request AeroconseilA321N/ASTC approval ongoing ATIA3STN/ASTC approval ongoing Air FranceB777, B747N/ASTC approval !!! British AirwaysA320family, B777, B747N/ASTC approval ongoing TC STC
ADS-B-RAD AMC Compared to ADS-B-NRA AMC 20-24 Reference to DO-260A only Same basic GPS position source reference (“SA ON” as minimum) Lower system integrity failure rate for non-position data items More stringent (uncompensated) latency requirement (0.6s/95% - 1.2s/99.9%) More stringent NIC/NAC requirements NIC/NAC “echoing” HPL/HFOM (no latency reflection at time of transmission) Inclusion of Mode A code transmission (“switchable”) Removal of “Permissible Deviations” No reference to “ADS-B disable switch”
Uncompensated Latency Direct GPS-Transponder Wiring Uncompensated Latency Modeling (based on 50 million samples, w/o NUC=0): Mean value: -0.3s Reconstruction error sigma: ≈ 0.15s Resulting latency error sigma: ≈ 0.1s 99.9% @ ≈ -1.0s EASA recommends use of CASCADE Monitoring data as part of Latency compliance demonstration
AMC Development Timing & Dependencies mid 2008 mid 2009mid 2010 <2007 NRA EASA NRA AMC 20-24 RAD EASA RAD AMC 20-xx Work should start soon in support of SPI IR process – meeting an 1H 2010 target date! Draft RIA sent to EASA ED102A DO260A+ APT EASA APT AMC 20-xx ATSAW Applications EASA ATSA AMC 20-xx TBD In line with ECIP process
Summary: “ADS-B out” Deployment Avionics Perspective 2009 RFG SPR/INTEROP 2010 SPI IR Transponder Baseline EASA AMC SPI IR MoC Transponder: ED102/DO260 GNSS Receiver “Data Collector” (e.g. IRU) Alternative Wiring Direct Wiring Pioneer Phase (existing “opportunity” avionics): Pocket implementations in Europe Australia, Canada, USA (TBD) 2012/2015 Transponder: ED102A/DO260A+ GNSS Receiver “as is” (SA Aware recommended) “ADS-B out” mandate (avionics upgrade): SES “SPI IR” USA (Australia, Canada) NPRMs Uncomp. Latency ~ 0.6s
High-level RFG Planning Feeding into AMC Material Development ADS-B-NRA (ED-126, DO-303) Enhanced ATS in Non-Radar Areas TBD: ADS-B-ADD – Aircraft Derived Data for Ground Tools ADS-B-APT ATSA-AIRB ATSA-SURF ASPA-S&M ATSA-APT: Airport Surface Surveillance ATSA-AIRB: Enhanced TSA During Flight Operations ATSA-SURF: Enhanced TSA on the Airport Surface ASPA-S&M: Sequencing & Merging Operations DecAprAugDecAprAugDecAprAug Dec 2007 2008 2009 ADS-B-RAD ATSA-ITP ATSA-VSA ADS-B-RAD: Enhanced ATS in Radar Areas ATSA-ITP: In-trail Procedure in Oceanic Airspace ATSA-VSA: Enhanced Visual Separation on Approach ITP VSARAD
What is ADS-B ? Horizontal Position Information Source ADS-B requires on-board integrity monitoring: Alerting when exceeding measurement integrity containment bound (fault condition) GPS currently only available data source complying with this requirement RAIM with Fault Detection as most basic solution Based on GPS Horizontal Protection (or Integrity) Limit output (HPL/HIL) In addition, ADS-B provides an accuracy indication: Describes the 95% bound of nominal measurement errors Based on GPS Horizontal Figure of Merit (HFOM) information Another parameter is the Surveillance Integrity Level (SIL) Reflects both measurement & system integrity Practically hard-coded based on avionics “Level-C” integrity level (SIL=2) Focus !!!
DO-260AED102/DO-260 Latency f (interconnection) GPS engine ETSO129*/145/146 *) TSO129 engines beware – “proper” RAIM required ! HPL integrity HFOM accuracy ED73/DO-181 What is ADS-B (3/3) Horizontal Position: Avionics Perspective Interconnection: Direct, or via “data concentrator” now … … SPI IR NUC: Navigation Uncertainty Category NIC: Navigation Integrity Category NACp: Navigation Accuracy Category HPL: Horizontal Protection Limit HFOM: Horizontal Figure of Merit NUCNIC NACp
ADS-B Performance: ADS-B-NRA & ADS-B-RAD Reported vs. Required <20NM<10NM<2.0NM<1.0NM<0.5NM<0.2NM<0.1NM Sources: ADS-B Monitoring Project Pioneer Airlines Project Integrity Bound: Systematic NUC=0 issues Under investigation ! Separation:5NM3NM2.5NM (based on 100+ million samples) GPS receiver perspective: “SA ON” = still assuming that GPS artificially dilutes accuracy “SA Aware” = actual accuracy used in position solution SPI IR Note: NIC = NUC + 1
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