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By: Norma Avalos & Javier Perez

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1 By: Norma Avalos & Javier Perez
America in World War II “Never before have we had so little time in which to do so much.” -Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1942 By: Norma Avalos & Javier Perez

2 The Allies Trade Space for Time
Pearl Harbor (1941) America’s desire for vengeance against the Pacific Franklin D. Roosevelt decided to: 1st destroy Japan’s allies PLAN: gather allied forces after defeating Hitler Conflicts: From isolation to war Could they arrive fast enough??

3 The Shock of War Executive Order No. 9066: Regret:
Detention Camps, also known as concentration camps, set up for enemy aliens (Japanese, German, & Italian descendants) 2/3 American-born U.S. citizens Regret: Finally in 1988, U.S. Government officially apologized & paid $20,000 to camp survivors

4 Building the War Machine
Great Depression ended due to great demands for jobs & production Henry J. Kaiser, “Sir Launchalot”: Shipbuilder who assembled 1 ship p/14days Many essential goods rationed such as food and gasoline Labor unions forbidden of striking Some still did (United Mine Workers, led by John L. Lewis) Congress passed Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act in June 1943 Federal government could seize and take over industries that were either on the verge of or under strikes Luckily only less than 1% of working hours were accounted for under strikes

5 Manpower & Womanpower Men AND women drafted
15 million men in armed forces as well as 216,000 women, “women in arms;” WAACS (Army), WAVES (Navy), SPARS (Coast Guard) 1942 agreement w/ Mexico, The Bracero Program- thousands of Mexican agricultural workers were to come work in America due to lack of personnel Women also took over “men” jobs but 2/3 of them became housewives again after the war Return of men created a baby boom

6 Wartime Migrations California’s pop grew by nearly 2 million
Hypocrisy in America?? President Roosevelt created the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) in attempt to decrease racism in workplace Meanwhile, Blacks in the military were still being discriminated against just like at home Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded in 1942 1944-mechanical cotton picker invented, therefore Blacks no longer needed Majority decided to move North or West, all in search of a better life 1.6 million blacks left the South By 1970, ½ of Black race lived outside of the South

7 Holding the Home Front U.S.A.-only country to be better off after the war than before Both corporate profits and gross national product more than doubled America’s wartime bill came out to be $330 billion (+ than the costs of all previous American wars combined) National debt from $49 billion to $259 billion due to expansion of income tax War cost up to $10 b/p/hr at one point

8 The Rising Sun in the Pacific
Japanese gained more land than what they lost Conquered: Guam, Wake, Hong Kong, British Malaya, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, the Philippines, and even a part of China After conquering the Philippines, the fighters were obliged to make the infamous 85-mile Bataan death march U.S. General Douglas MacArthur escaped in time to flee to Australia but promised to return and free the islands from Japan’s chokehold

9 Japan’s High Tide at Midway
American & Australian forces finally caught up w/ Japan in the Coral Sea (world’s 1st naval battle in which the ships never saw their opponent) During Japan’s attempt to seize Midway Island, U.S. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz stopped them and there began the 3 day battle, June , which would now halt the Japanese from further expansion “Island hopping”-Allies landed on and conquered neighboring islands and starved them to death, therefore keeping Japan away.

10 American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo
August 1942: America won at Guadalcanal August 1943: gained Aleutian Islands of Attu & Kiska by island hopping August 1944: gained New Guinea June 19, 1944: U.S. attacks Marianas w/ advanced aircraft (i.e. “Hellcat” fighter) June 20, 1944: U.S. won the Battle of the Philippine Sea U.S. performed hourly bombing raids over Japan especially in Tokyo

11 The Battle of the Philippine Sea

12 The Allied Halting of Hitler
U.S. cracked “enigma” code; made it easier to pinpoint German U-boats Discovery made at the end of the war: Hitler close to releasing a new & improved U-boat that could last x-amount of time underwater & was able to cruise at 17 knots underwater as well Oct. 1942:In El Alamein British General Bernard Montgomery defeated German leader Marshall Edwin Rommel, also known as the “Desert Fox” Russia recovered 2/3 of the land they had lost

13 A Second Front from North Africa to Rome
Soviets desperate for a different approach in regards to their large loses (20 million Soviet forces dead by end of WWII) British planned to invade Italy through North Africa in hopes of attacking their “soft underbelly”; plot came to be known as Operation Torch Not very successful, underbelly underestimated Led to creation of “unconditional surrender” founded by FDR & Churchill at Casablanca Conference Mussolini, Italian dictator lynched w/ mistress; Italy remained a part of Axis Powers August 1943: Sicily surrendered; June 4, 1944: Rome did, too; Italy finally defeated on May 2, 1945

14 Operation Torch

15 D-Day: June 6, 1944 Tehran Conference-the 3 Allied Forces met to discuss and created plans for the cross-channel invasion General Dwight D. Eisenhower was the appointee 1st on the list… The invasion of Normandy Paris freed in August 1944 thanks to… The “French underground” (The angels sent from heaven…Halleluiah!!) JK

16 Leaders of Allied Forces

17 FDR: The Fourth-Termite of 1944
Republicans= Thomas E. Dewey Liberal governor of New York VP: John W. Bricker Opponent: Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt VP: Harry S. Truman

18 Roosevelt Defeats Dewey
Dewey chose to take offensive route in campaigning FDR preoccupied w/ WWII Regardless, Roosevelt surpassed Dewey by 333 votes; Franklin Delano Roosevelt-4 terms in office WOW!! Not so much since it had previously occurred just 3yrs. ago

19 Roosevelt Defeats Dewey Cont.

20 The Last Days of Hitler Battle of “the Bulge”-Dec. 16, 1944 in Ardennes forest; lasted 10 days March Americans deeper & deeper into Germany Joined Soviet troops and navigated toward Berlin Concentration Camps- withheld Jews, Dutch, Polish, disabled, and other minorities; they were used as laborers & experiments, they were also tortured and killed Allied forces weren’t previously aware, disgusted by their cruelty toward Jews & “undesirables”

21 The Last Days of Hitler Cont.
Farewell: Unfortunately, FDR died from a cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945 As a result to his failure, Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945 White Flag Finally Raised!! May 7, 1945 official German surrender May 8, 1995-officially proclaimed V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day)

22 Japan Dies Hard March 9-10, firebomb raids on Tokyo kills +83,000ppl Promise Kept!! Oct. 20, 1944-General MacArthur returns to the Philippines Liberates Manila in March 1945 Japan sea-handicapped after last great naval battle at Leyte Gulf 4,000 Americans lost during 25-day captivity of Iwo Jima in March 1945 April-June 1945, Okinawa went down along with 50,000 Americans Japan’s last resort was to turn to “kamikazes,” suicide pilots

23 The Atomic Bombs July 1945, Potsdam Conference- Allies had no alternative; turned to “surrender or be destroyed” Many warnings were given to Japan by the Allied Forces: If Japan didn’t surrender, then they’d have to face complete & utter destruction Japan ignored all warnings & refused to hold back Consider yourself warned… August 6, Americans dropped the 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima, causing the deaths of 180,000 people August 9, nd atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, killing 80,000 August 8, 1945-Soviets declared war against Japan August 10,1945-Japan agreed to surrender as long as Hirohito remained their emperor; Allies accepted

24 The Atomic Bombs Cont. Hiroshima Bombing:

25 The Atomic Bombs Cont. Nagasaki Bombing:

26 War Officially Over!! September 2, 1945 was the formal end of the long-lasting war Hirohito surrendered to General MacArthur aboard the U.S.S. Missouri

27 The Allies Triumphant America suffered 1 million casualties
Few due to diseases because of the new discovery of penicillin We mainly owe our gratitude of victory to U.S. generals, admirals, & leaders, who got us through this war without any major set backs Who says the good guys don’t always win?? We are the STRONG, the FEARLESS, the CONQUERORS; we are AMERICA, the land of the FREE & the home of the BRAVE

28 *Extra Info: Nov. 4, 1948; Harry S. Truman vs. Thomas E. Dewey

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