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S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping National Statements of Scientific Literacy Jesper Bruun, Jens Dolin and Robert Evans Department of Science Education University.

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Presentation on theme: "S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping National Statements of Scientific Literacy Jesper Bruun, Jens Dolin and Robert Evans Department of Science Education University."— Presentation transcript:

1 S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping National Statements of Scientific Literacy Jesper Bruun, Jens Dolin and Robert Evans Department of Science Education University of Copenhagen, Denmark 1d.UCPH.WP8.TPDP.8a

2 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy An insight into science and a willingness to engage in the socio-scientific debate on an informed basis..

3 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy Vision I ‘looking inward to science itself’ - emphasizes the products and processes of science itself - this view of literacy is through knowing and is within science Roberts, D.A. (2007). Chapter 7. Scientific Literacy/Science Literacy. In S.K. Abell & N.G. Lederman, Eds., Handbook of research on science education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

4 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy Vision II ‘looking inward to science from situations outside of science’ - characterized by situations with a scientific component which students are likely to encounter as citizens - in this vision, literacy, through knowing, is about science-related situations where matters other than science are important

5 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy The well-known PISA 2006 definition in the Framework for the 2006 test is an example primarily of Vision II. Scientific literacy refers to an individual’s: - scientific knowledge and use of that knowledge to identify questions, to acquire new knowledge, to explain scientific phenomena, and to draw evidence-based conclusions about science-related issues; - understanding of the characteristic features of science as a form of human knowledge and enquiry; - awareness of how science and technology shape our material, intellectual, and cultural environments; and - willingness to engage in science-related issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen. PISA (2006)

6 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy MTG aims to collect and develop good practices of Inquiry Based Science Teaching. Our part is to do this for scientific literacy and citizenship within three countries: Denmark, England, and Hungary. The end goal is the production of teacher training modules.

7 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy Our specific research questions are: How is scientific literacy conceptualized in Denmark, England, and Hungary, and how are these conceptions influenced by local cultures? How have good science teachers in these countries implemented scientific literacy in their science classes?

8 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy Our challenge was to find a way of comparing how statements from three different countries conceptualize scientific literacy.

9 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy Comparing texts is difficult because people put their own meanings into them. Rather than just adding to the textual analyses of scientific literacy available from each country, we chose to create maps in order to try to make analyses and comparisons more precise and informative.

10 S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping SL Our maps were made with PAJEK software based on complex network theory. Batagelj, V. and Mrvar, A. (1996, 2007). Pajek: Program for Analysis and Visualization of Large Networks.

11 S-Team WP8a TPDP These maps reveal strings which show the relative importance of the connections between the elements. The maps thus make up a visual representation of often complex texts with an integrated quantitative approach. They allow for mathematical manipulation and quantification which can offer new insights. Mapping SL

12 S-Team WP8a TPDP An example from the PISA 2006 definition is: ‘willingness to engage in science-related issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen.’ When mapped this part of the definition looks like this….. Mapping SL

13 S-Team WP8a TPDP ‘willingness to engage in science- related issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen.’ The direction and width of the connections correlate with those of the full text definition. The ‘nodes’ are coded by color to indicate different syntactical roles. Mapping SL

14 S-Team WP8a TPDP When the entire PISA (2006) definition is mapped, the direction and widths of the connections are fully related to the rest of the definition. Mapping SL

15 S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping SL

16 S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping SL

17 S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping SL

18 S-Team WP8a TPDP Basic Danish Science Course Definition Students should realize the importance of knowing and understanding scientific thinking, and they must be able to relate to the strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge. Students should achieve knowledge of some key scientific issues and their social, ethical or historical perspectives, so they can express a knowledge- based view on issues and problems from a scientific perspective. Finally, students' curiosity towards and engagement in the scientific field should be supported and promoted. Students should be able to: - Carry out practical investigations and observations, both in the laboratory and in nature, including creating and assessing simple hypotheses. - Use models that qualitatively and quantitatively describe simple relationships in nature and see the possibilities and limitations of such models. - Communicate a scientific topic with a correct use of professional concepts. - Put into perspective the contributions of scientific subjects to technological and societal development through examples. - work actively with scientific issues, including taking part in dialogues using correct professional concepts. - Use Information Communications Technology (ICT) tools. - Be presented with examples of computer modeling. Students will work with various forms of written work which is designed with a clear progression in the requirements toward a final written product. Mapping SL

19 S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping SL

20 S-Team WP8a TPDP United Kingdom Science Programme of study for key stage 4 Pupils should be taught: - how scientific data can be collected and analysed - how interpretation of data, using creative thought, provides evidence to test ideas and develop theories - how explanations of many phenomena can be developed using scientific theories, models and ideas - that there are some questions that science cannot currently answer, and some that science cannot address. - about the use of contemporary scientific and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks - to consider how and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions - how uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and about the role of the scientific community in validating these changes. Pupils should be taught to: - plan to test a scientific idea, scientific problem - collect data from primary sources and tools work accurately and safely, first-hand data - evaluate methods of collection reliability as evidence. - recall, analyse, interpret, apply and question scientific information or ideas - use both qualitative and quantitative approaches - present information, develop an argument and draw a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools. Mapping SL

21 S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping SL

22 S-Team WP8a TPDP Small excerpt from the Hungarian National Core Curriculum Cultural studentlearnfeatures lifespecific studentlearnProperties, substances naturalmost frequently used studentlearnchangesnatural environment studentlearninteractionsenvironment studentlearnphenomenanature studentlearnlawsnature studentlearnTransformation, substances naturalmost frequently used Mapping SL

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24 S-Team WP8a TPDP To begin to make comparisons using the maps, a composite map which includes all of the content of all three national definitions and aligns common elements, was also produced. The map places the scientific literacy ‘concepts’ around the periphery of a circle (see blue nodes) to begin to align the elements usefully. Mapping SL

25 S-Team WP8a TPDP Denmark, UK, Hungary Composite Mapping SL

26 S-Team WP8a TPDP Denmark Highlighted in Composite Mapping SL

27 S-Team WP8a TPDP UK Highlighted in Composite Mapping SL

28 S-Team WP8a TPDP Hungary Highlighted in Composite Mapping SL

29 S-Team WP8a TPDP Another way to map literacy to provide comparisons is with interactive maps. An example, using Denmark, the United Kingdom and the PISA 2006 definitions, is available at: e2.swf e2.swf Mapping SL

30 S-Team WP8a TPDP Scientific Literacy

31 S-Team WP8a TPDP With these maps, there are thousands of comparisons and nuances possible to consider and as many questions may be raised as answered in such explorations. Some obvious and general observations are likely to include the following: Comparing SL

32 S-Team WP8a TPDP Assuming that the ‘student’ of the Danish map is equivalent to the ‘pupil’ of the United Kingdom map and the ‘student’ in the Hungarian map, then the strongest components of scientific literacy vary between the three cultures. Comparing SL

33 S-Team WP8a TPDP Whereas the emphasis in Hungary is ‘to learn’ and ‘reflect’… Comparing SL

34 S-Team WP8a TPDP Whereas the emphasis in Hungary is ‘to learn’ and ‘reflect’… The Danish perspective leans more towards ‘carrying out’, ‘using’ and ‘achieving knowledge’… Comparing SL

35 S-Team WP8a TPDP Whereas the emphasis in Hungary is ‘to learn’ and ‘reflect’… The Danish perspective leans more towards ‘carrying out’, ‘using’ and ‘achieving knowledge’… ‘Use’ of science is the most common goal in the UK, followed by ‘understanding’. Comparing SL

36 S-Team WP8a TPDP These varying perspectives may result in… Comparing SL

37 S-Team WP8a TPDP - more traditional science ‘learning’ in Hungary… Comparing SL

38 S-Team WP8a TPDP - more traditional science ‘learning’ in Hungary… - an emphasis on ‘doing science’ in Denmark… Comparing SL

39 S-Team WP8a TPDP - more traditional science ‘learning’ in Hungary… - an emphasis on ‘doing science’ in Denmark… - a high regard for ‘using’ science in the UK. Comparing SL

40 S-Team WP8a TPDP If so, these varying national perspectives are important starting points for increasing European scientific literacy through Inquiry Based Science Teaching (IBST). Comparing SL

41 S-Team WP8a TPDP The number of concepts specified in each of these three cultural definitions of scientific literacy also varies significantly. Obviously, by far, the largest number, which can be seen as blue nodes on the maps, are found in the Hungarian definition. Comparing SL

42 S-Team WP8a TPDP This will have a differential effect on increasing scientific literacy in these three sample countries. Comparing SL

43 S-Team WP8a TPDP Useful insights helpful in planning for IBST for scientific literacy are also possible from the Internet-based interactive. Comparing SL

44 S-Team WP8a TPDP For example, highlighting the concept ‘doing science in praxis’ from the menu shows that all of these science processes are an integral part of Danish science literacy but not as forthrightly mentioned by the UK version. Comparing SL

45 S-Team WP8a TPDP There are some significant limitations to the use of these maps of scientific literacy. Limitations

46 S-Team WP8a TPDP Since the definitions have been chosen by country nationals who are partners in the Mind The Gap project, these choices may not be the same as others in each country would have made. Limitations

47 S-Team WP8a TPDP If two words with the same meaning are mapped as separate nodes, the honest comparative similarity of that concept would be altered from what really exists. Limitations

48 S-Team WP8a TPDP Some of these variances may be simply due to the use of different words to express similar ideas, while others may be artifacts from translations to English. In either case, the solution is to carefully go over the final maps with nationals who can clarify similar and unique concepts before making improved maps. Limitations

49 S-Team WP8a TPDP The next step is to illustrate how classroom teachers use IBST to teach for the scientific literacy found in the mapped definitions. Next steps

50 S-Team WP8a TPDP Teachers in training can look at single strings representing different aspects of scientific literacy and work towards teaching them. Next steps

51 S-Team WP8a TPDP Our early attempts at making such videos have only been partially successful. Several such lessons, linked to statements in Danish and UK scientific literacy maps are posted at the following Web-site: ntificliteracy/comparemaps ntificliteracy/comparemaps Next steps

52 S-Team WP8a TPDP Mapping National Statements of Scientific Literacy Jesper Bruun, Jens Dolin and Robert Evans Department of Science Education University of Copenhagen, Denmark 1d.UCPH.WP8.TPDP.8a


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