Presentation on theme: "INTERCULTURAL CITIES Joint action of the Council of Europe and the European Commission WHAT IS AN INTERCULTURAL CITY?"— Presentation transcript:
INTERCULTURAL CITIES Joint action of the Council of Europe and the European Commission WHAT IS AN INTERCULTURAL CITY?
the world in motion
Net Migration – EU25 (000s) (Eurostat)
Net migration per 1000 population (2005, Migration Policy Institute)
Foreign-born as % of total population (2005, Migration Policy Institute)
the challenge to Europe’s cities
NB. Small cities ,000 population; Medium cities m; Large cities - 1m+ Declining city growth rates (Turok, I. & Mykhnenko, V. (2006) Resurgent European Cities?
Signs of revival? (Turok, I. & Mykhnenko, V. (2006) Resurgent European Cities?
European cities, 200,000+ population (2004, Eurostat)
how different countries manage diversity
Guest worker policy
National and mother tongue/ culture teaching. Intercultural competence for all. Desegregation. Mother tongue language support. Religious and cultural education. Emphasis on national culture. State ignores supplementary schooling Enrol migrant children in schools Ad hoc recognition of migrant children Education Anti-discriminatory lettings policy. Ethnic monitoring. Encouragement for ethnic housing mix Anti- discriminatory lettings policy. Affirmative access to social housing Equal access to social housing – non-ethnic criteria. Ignore discrimination in housing market Short-term housing solutions; minimal regulation of private rental sector Ignore migrant housing. React to crisis with temporary shelters Housing Anti-discrimination policy; intercultural competence and linguistic skills emphasised Anti- discrimination policy; Affirmative action on training and hiring General vocational support – non- ethnic criteria Minimal regulation – limited vocational assistance Ignore. Turn a blind eye to black market activity Labour Market State supports them as agents of integration State supports them as agents of empowerment States does not recognise them Informal co- operation on limited issues State ignores them Minority group organi- sations INTER- CULTURAL POLICY MULTI- CULTURAL POLICY ASSIMIL- ATIONIST POLICY GUEST WORKER POLICY NON- POLICY Urban Diversity Policy Indicators
Cross-cultural leadership, asso- ciation and cons- ultation. Ackno- wledgement of hybridity. Leadership, consultation and resource allocation ethnically-based Facilitate naturalisation. No ethnic consultative structures No rights or recognition Governance and citizenship Encouragement of ethnically mixed neighbourhoods and public space Recognise enclaves and ethnic leadership. Area-based regeneration Ethnic enclaves considered an urban problem. Dispersal policy Ethnic enclaves tolerated but considered temporary Ignore ethnic enclaves – disperse if crisis arises Urban develop ment Campaigns to emphasise intercultural togetherness ‘Celebrate diversity’ festivals and city branding campaigns Encourage tolerance of minorities, but intolerance of those not assimilating Migrants as economically useful but of no political, social or cultural significance Migrants as a potential threat Public awareness Police as agents of inter-ethnic conflict management Police as social workers. Proactive anti- racism enforcement High profile policing of migrant areas Police as agents of migrant regulation, monitoring, deportation Migrants as security problem Policing INTER- CULTURAL POLICY MULTI- CULTURAL POLICY ASSIMIL- ATIONIST POLICY GUEST WORKER POLICY NON- POLICY Urban Diversity Policy Indicators
How do we think of migration and diversity? A threat? An opportunity? A nuisance?
How might diversity UNDERMINE a city? Complexity Loss of cohesion Low civic commitment Job displacement Exploitation/exclusion/crime Indigenous backlash
You get a richer environment, you have more insights, because people reason from their own background. I’m sure of this because we’ve reaped the rewards. We have an absolute advantage from having many cultures Stefano Marzano CEO, Philips Design
How can cities make diversity their advantage?
How might diversity ENHANCE a city? Complementary skills Access to markets and capital Aspiration & entrepreneurship Cosmopolitan brand Creativity & innovation
Londoners believe the capital’s mix of cultures, languages and ethnicities is one of the best things about living in it. This enormous increase in the range of possibilities open to people will lead to more exchange and interaction as people choose from what is best in different cultures. This is increasingly important for Londoners’ jobs and incomes. Ken Livingstone Mayor of London
the intercultural approach
“…goes beyond equal opportunities and respect for existing cultural differences, to the pluralist transformation of public space, institutions and civic culture…. Interculturalism
…cities should promote cross- fertilisation across all boundaries, between ‘majority’ and ‘minorities’, ‘dominant’ and ‘sub’ cultures, localities, classes, faiths, disciplines and genres, as the source of cultural, social, civic and economic innovation.“ Intercultural innovation = Diversity advantage
preconditions and ingredients for an intercultural city
Diversity alone is not a guarantor of prosperity There need to be: Reasons to interact Incentives to interact Places, institutions and agents of interaction
A framework of rights and equalities Openness Cultural literacy The intercultural lens Intercultural leaders Creating the conditions for Diversity Advantage
Openness Movement Residence Trade Faith Creative expression
Cultural literacy Seeing the city through others’ eyes Telling the story of the city in diverse ways Creating the conditions for Diversity Advantage
Seeing… Education City planning Transport Wealth creation …through an intercultural lens Creating the conditions for Diversity Advantage
City planning through an intercultural lens If greater intercultural engagement was one of our priorities, how would we plan things differently? An open space A housing estate A downtown quarter A school?
The importance of Intercultural Places and Spaces Libraries Parks Children’s playgrounds Community centres Open markets Local cafes All the places we risk losing as life becomes more privatised, commercial and security conscious
The importance of Intercultural Places and Spaces
The importance of Intercultural Leaders and Innovators Politicians Business people Inter-faith activists Social entrepreneurs Artists Sports people
Go where others don’t go INTERCULTURAL LEADERS & INNOVATORS
Build bridges At great personal risk! INTERCULTURAL LEADERS & INNOVATORS
Get people working together INTERCULTURAL LEADERS & INNOVATORS
cities being intercultural
Palo Alto Singapore Innovation
Toronto City Strategy
Torino Conflict management
New institutions London Borough of Tower Hamlets
MEASURING THE INTERCULTURAL CITY Isolation index Cultural mixing in housing and schools Inter-ethnic marriage New kinds of intercultural professions Cross-cultural business and civic networks Diverse cultural influences on built environment Shared cultural celebrations Possible indicators
Being intercultural… Recognise difference – seek out similarities Highlight hybridity – downplay purity A single, diverse public sphere Resource the places where cultures meet Resource bridge-builders not gate-keepers Don’t avoid conflict – embrace it, manage it