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World War II. On to war! March 1939 – Br and Fr agree to help Poland if invaded March 1939 – Br and Fr agree to help Poland if invaded Aug 1939 – Hitler.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II. On to war! March 1939 – Br and Fr agree to help Poland if invaded March 1939 – Br and Fr agree to help Poland if invaded Aug 1939 – Hitler."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II

2 On to war! March 1939 – Br and Fr agree to help Poland if invaded March 1939 – Br and Fr agree to help Poland if invaded Aug 1939 – Hitler and Stalin agree to a ten year Non-Aggression Pact (secret document attached about how to divide up E. Europe) Aug 1939 – Hitler and Stalin agree to a ten year Non-Aggression Pact (secret document attached about how to divide up E. Europe) Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invades Poland Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invades Poland Blitzkrieg, Poland down in a month, Holocaust begins in Poland Blitzkrieg, Poland down in a month, Holocaust begins in Poland Stalin seizes E. half of Poland Stalin seizes E. half of Poland Sept. 3, 1939, Br and Fr declare war on Germany Sept. 3, 1939, Br and Fr declare war on Germany

3 Taking over Poland September 1, 1939 September 1, 1939 Falls very quickly (3 wks) Falls very quickly (3 wks) Poland split between Nazis and Soviets Poland split between Nazis and Soviets Soviets – imprison many people Nazis – Goal to turn Poles into unskilled workers Begin arresting and imprisoning Polands large Jewish population

4 Blitzkrieg Lightning War Lightning War Three pronged attack Three pronged attack Luftwaffe Luftwaffe Tanks Tanks Infantry troops Infantry troops

5 Britain and France Declare War on Germany Sept. 3, 1939 Sept. 3, 1939 Neville Chamberlain (Britains PM) Neville Chamberlain (Britains PM) http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwar2audioclip slibrary_clip01.ram http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwar2audioclip slibrary_clip01.ram http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwar2audioclip slibrary_clip01.ram http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwar2audioclip slibrary_clip01.ram

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7 Evacuation of the Children Britain immediately begins evacuating children from their cities Britain immediately begins evacuating children from their cities 1.5 Million relied on gvt for evacuation 1.5 Million relied on gvt for evacuation 2 Million made independent arrangements 2 Million made independent arrangements

8 Princess Elizabeths Message from the future Queen Message from the future Queen http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwa r2audioclipslibrary_clip06.ram

9 Gas Mask Precaution

10 1940 - A Year of Success for Germany April 9 th – Invades and Occupied Denmark and Norway April 9 th – Invades and Occupied Denmark and Norway Denmark offers little resistance Denmark offers little resistance Norway puts up a fight Norway puts up a fight May 10 th – France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg May 10 th – France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg France is attacked and invaded France is attacked and invaded So much for the Maginot Line So much for the Maginot Line Belgium receives a fullscale Blitzkrieg attack Belgium receives a fullscale Blitzkrieg attack Netherlands attacked by air Netherlands attacked by air

11 Battle of the Atlantic 1939 – 1945 1939 – 1945 Germanys fight against the Allies Germanys fight against the Allies U-boats and armed merchants U-boats and armed merchants Wolf pack attacks Wolf pack attacks Try to block supply routes and convoys Try to block supply routes and convoys

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15 Miracle at Dunkirk British and French forces become trapped at Dunkirk British and French forces become trapped at Dunkirk Number of men rescued (in chronological order): Number of men rescued (in chronological order): 27 May (7669 men) 27 May (7669 men) 27 May 27 May 28 May (17,804 men) 28 May (17,804 men) 28 May 28 May 29 May (47,310 men) 29 May (47,310 men) 29 May 29 May 30–31 May (120,927 men) 30–31 May (120,927 men) 3031 May 3031 May 1 June (64,229 men) 1 June (64,229 men) 1 June 1 June 2–4 June (up to 54,000 men) 2–4 June (up to 54,000 men) 24 June 24 June

16 Paris Falls With the Rest of France Paris falls June 14 Paris falls June 14 Occupation divided between Germany and Italy Occupation divided between Germany and Italy Germany can now focus efforts on Britain Germany can now focus efforts on Britain

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19 Battle of Britain

20 German Luftwaffe v. Britains RAF If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be freed and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duty and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say: "This was their finest hour" ' http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwar2audioclipslibrary_clip08.ram

21 Spotter on London Rooftop

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24 http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwar2audioclipslibrary_clip02.ram

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28 Strategies Britain took advantage of a new technology: radar Britain took advantage of a new technology: radar Air raid sirens Air raid sirens Blackout curtains Blackout curtains Bomb shelters Bomb shelters Fire Fighters* Fire Fighters* Blitz lasted for 57 nights Blitz lasted for 57 nights

29 'Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few.' 'Never in the field of human conflict has so much been owed by so many to so few.' Most intense bombing occurred between June 10 – Oct 31 Most intense bombing occurred between June 10 – Oct 31 Lasted through May 1941, when Germany turned towards Soviets Lasted through May 1941, when Germany turned towards Soviets http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/rams/worldwar2audioclipslibrary_clip19.ram

30 So to recap… April 9, 1940 – Hitler takes Denmark and Norway April 9, 1940 – Hitler takes Denmark and Norway May 10 – Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France to British Channel May 10 – Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France to British Channel June 10 – Fr govt flees June 10 – Fr govt flees June 14 – Germans take over Paris June 14 – Germans take over Paris Aug 1940 – Luftwaffe hits London hard Aug 1940 – Luftwaffe hits London hard British Royal Airforce, Chamberlain – Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few British Royal Airforce, Chamberlain – Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few

31 Operation Barbarossa Hitlers attempt to conquer the Soviet Union 3 million Germans pour into the Soviet Union – Blitzkrieg attacks Soviets initially lose about 2.5 million soldiers (caught off guard – missing their purged generals)

32 Scorched Earth Policy Soviets destroyed their own crops, farm equipment and factories to prevent the Germans from using them General Winter slows German advancement September 1941 – siege of Leningrad begins

33 Total War What does a war like this mean for the civilian population? What does a war like this mean for the civilian population?

34 Americas Involvement Lend-Lease Act FDR persuades Congress to sell or lend war materials to any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the US Atlantic Charter – goal for the war – final destruction of the Nazi tyranny A day that will live in infamy Pearl Harbor is bombed December 7, 1941 – United States declares war on Japan the next day Germany and Italy declare war on US Allies meet and agree to target Europe, then Asia

35 North Africa Campaign http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwt wo/launch_ani_north_africa_campaign.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwt wo/launch_ani_north_africa_campaign.shtml German forces led by Erwin Rommel the Desert Fox Hitler wanted Suez Canal Access to MEs oil fields Cut off the India-Britain supply line Axis and Allies battle back and forth through 1940 and 1941 1942 – Rommel aggressively takes N. Africa October 23, 1942 – 2 nd Battle of El Alamein – led by British General Bernard Montgomery

36 2 nd Battle of El Alamein October 23, 1942 – 2 nd Battle of El Alamein – led by British General Bernard Montgomery Allied troops provide reinforcements N. Africa liberated by Allies, victory May 13, 1943

37 Australian Troops Attacking

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39 El Alamein War Cemetary

40 American tank destroyers in Tunisia pass a farm on their way to battle Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps in 1943

41 Onto Italy http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/ww two/launch_ani_italy_campaign.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/ww two/launch_ani_italy_campaign.shtml Allies invade Italy on July 10, 1943 Described as the Beginning of the End in Anne Franks Diary

42 Meanwhile… Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Stalingrad Hitler is determined to capture Stalins namesake city; Stalin determined to defend Hitler is determined to capture Stalins namesake city; Stalin determined to defend Germans surround the city, Russians encircle the Germans… Germans surround the city, Russians encircle the Germans… Winter sets in Winter sets in Germans surrender early 1943 and lose over 300,000 men; one of the costliest battles of the war Germans surrender early 1943 and lose over 300,000 men; one of the costliest battles of the war Red Army launches a counter attack immediately after and pushes the Germans out of the Soviet Union – the retreat begins Red Army launches a counter attack immediately after and pushes the Germans out of the Soviet Union – the retreat begins

43 D-Day http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/la unch_ani_overlord_campaign.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/la unch_ani_overlord_campaign.shtml June 6, 1944 The 5000-vessel armada stretched as far as the eye could see, transporting over 150,000 men and nearly 30,000 vehicles across the channel to the French beaches. Six parachute regiments -- over 13,000 men -- were flown from nine British airfields in over 800 planes. More than 300 planes dropped 13,000 bombs over coastal Normandy immediately in advance of the invasion.

44 War planners had projected that 5,000 tons of gasoline would be needed daily for the first 20 days after the initial assault. In one planning scenario, 3,489 long tons of soap would be required for the first four months in France. By nightfall on June 6, more than 9,000 Allied soldiers were dead or wounded, but more than 100,000 had made it ashore, securing French coastal villages. And within weeks, supplies were being unloaded at UTAH and OMAHA beachheads at the rate of over 20,000 tons per day. Captured Germans were sent to American prisoner of war camps at the rate of 30,000 POWs per month from D-Day until Christmas 1944. Thirty-three detention facilities were in Texas alone.

45 Success of D-Day Paris is liberated on August 25, 1944 Paris is liberated on August 25, 1944 All of France is freed All of France is freed

46 Soviets Begin Advancing East After Battle of Stalingrad, Germans began to continually lose ground After Battle of Stalingrad, Germans began to continually lose ground

47 http://www.bbc.co.uk/mediaselector/check/player/nol/newsid_6660000/newsid_ 6662600?redirect=6662661.stm&news=1&nbram=1&bbram=1&bbwm=1&nbw m=1 http://www.bbc.co.uk/mediaselector/check/player/nol/newsid_6660000/newsid_ 6662600?redirect=6662661.stm&news=1&nbram=1&bbram=1&bbwm=1&nbw m=1 A group of German officers and civilians concluded in July that getting rid of Hitler offered the last remaining chance to end the war before it swept onto German soil from two directions. On July 20, 1944 they tried to kill him by placing a bomb in his headquarters in East Prussia. The bomb exploded, wounding a number of officers-several fatally-but inflicting only minor injuries on Hitler. Afterward, the GESTAPO (q.v.) hunted down everyone suspected of complicity in the plot. One of the suspects was Rommel, who committed suicide. Hitler emerged from the assassination attempt more secure in his power than ever before. A group of German officers and civilians concluded in July that getting rid of Hitler offered the last remaining chance to end the war before it swept onto German soil from two directions. On July 20, 1944 they tried to kill him by placing a bomb in his headquarters in East Prussia. The bomb exploded, wounding a number of officers-several fatally-but inflicting only minor injuries on Hitler. Afterward, the GESTAPO (q.v.) hunted down everyone suspected of complicity in the plot. One of the suspects was Rommel, who committed suicide. Hitler emerged from the assassination attempt more secure in his power than ever before.

48 10 minute challenge – go! Use pages 966-972 Use pages 966-972 Create a propaganda poster that illustrates one of the concerns of France, Germany, Britain, or Russia during WW II Create a propaganda poster that illustrates one of the concerns of France, Germany, Britain, or Russia during WW II *Insert Class Discussion of Domestic Challenges during the War here* *Insert Class Discussion of Domestic Challenges during the War here*

49 Bombing Germany For two years the Allied forces mercilessly bombed German military bases, factories, railroads, oil depots, and major cities For two years the Allied forces mercilessly bombed German military bases, factories, railroads, oil depots, and major cities Hamburg – 10 day bombing nearly levels the city Hamburg – 10 day bombing nearly levels the city Dresden – 135,000 people killed February 1945 Dresden – 135,000 people killed February 1945

50 Hamburg Before the Bombing

51 Hamburg After

52 Dresden in Ruins

53 Battle of the Bulge Germanys last major stand Germanys last major stand Began December 16, 1944 Began December 16, 1944 Known as the The German Ardennes offensive or the Battle of the Bulge Known as the The German Ardennes offensive or the Battle of the Bulge The Americans were taken completely by surprise The Americans were taken completely by surprise Resisted and held Saint-Vith and Bastogne Resisted and held Saint-Vith and Bastogne German effort was doomed after December 23, when good flying weather allowed the overwhelming Allied air superiority to make itself felt. German effort was doomed after December 23, when good flying weather allowed the overwhelming Allied air superiority to make itself felt. End of January, the last of the 80-km- (50-mi-) deep "bulge" in the Allied lines is eliminated. End of January, the last of the 80-km- (50-mi-) deep "bulge" in the Allied lines is eliminated. Allied advance into Germany resumed in February Allied advance into Germany resumed in February

54 Soviet Successes By December 1944 By December 1944 Soviets have forced the Nazis out of Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and half of Hungary and Poland Soviets have forced the Nazis out of Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and half of Hungary and Poland Liberation of Majdanek – July 23, 1944 Liberation of Majdanek – July 23, 1944 Fighting in Budapest Fighting in Budapest Warsaw Uprising – Summer 1944 Warsaw Uprising – Summer 1944 By the end of the war By the end of the war Soviets have also liberated Czechoslovakia, Poland, the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camps, and parts of Germany Soviets have also liberated Czechoslovakia, Poland, the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camps, and parts of Germany

55 Liberation of Majdanek

56 Former Inmates After Liberation

57 By December 1944

58 Warsaw Uprising http://www.warsawuprising.com/photos.htm

59 Allies Successes Through the Spring of 1945 Through the Spring of 1945 Liberated the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Austria, Liberated the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Austria, Occupied portions of Germany Occupied portions of Germany April 1945 – FDR dies suddenly April 1945 – FDR dies suddenly April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide

60 May 8, 1945 VE Day VE Day Victory in Europe! Victory in Europe!

61 Yalta Conference Yalta – Feb 4 to Feb 11, 1945 Big Three Begin making post-war plans Roosevelt – wants Soviets to help in the Pacific Churchill – pushed for importance of democratic gvts and free elections in Eastern Europe after the war Stalin – demands that Eastern Europe become a Soviet sphere of political influence for the USSRs protection Discuss how to handle Germany

62 Conclusion of War FDR dies April 12, 1945 FDR dies April 12, 1945 Adolf Hitler commits suicide April 30, 1945 Adolf Hitler commits suicide April 30, 1945 Unconditional surrender from Germans on May 7 th at General Eisenhower's post Unconditional surrender from Germans on May 7 th at General Eisenhower's post VE Day – Victory in Europe – May 8, 1945 VE Day – Victory in Europe – May 8, 1945 Unconditional surrender from Germans on May 9 th in Soviet occupied Berlin Unconditional surrender from Germans on May 9 th in Soviet occupied Berlin

63 Potsdam Conference July-August 1945 Truman, Stalin, Churchill, and Atlee Issue ultimatum to Japan of prompt and utter destruction if they dont agree to unconditional surrender **Truman receives word of successful atom bomb test** Truman tells Stalin that the USA has a new powerful bomb Agree to partition Germany and work on demilitarization, democratization, de-nazification, and decentralization

64 Casualties of WW II Picture Picture

65 Partitioning Germany Germany is divided up into four parts Germany is divided up into four parts Britain, United States, France and the Soviets Britain, United States, France and the Soviets The democratic states become West Germany The democratic states become West Germany Soviet state becomes East Germany Soviet state becomes East Germany

66 The Eastern Bloc Soviets refuse to give up Poland and cling onto the countries they had liberated from Nazi Germany Soviets refuse to give up Poland and cling onto the countries they had liberated from Nazi Germany Soviet Red Army hand picked dictators that would be allegiant to the Soviet Union Soviet Red Army hand picked dictators that would be allegiant to the Soviet Union Eastern European countries forcibly become communist Eastern European countries forcibly become communist opposition is eliminated opposition is eliminated noncompliant states are threatened to be crushed with Soviet tanks noncompliant states are threatened to be crushed with Soviet tanks

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68 Eastern Bloc states forced to have communist leadership and have loyalty to Soviet Union Eastern Bloc states forced to have communist leadership and have loyalty to Soviet Union NATO established April 1949, still exists NATO established April 1949, still exists North Atlantic Treaty Organization North Atlantic Treaty Organization Today: 26 member states, 14 allies Today: 26 member states, 14 allies Soviet Union successfully tests the atom bomb August 1949 Soviet Union successfully tests the atom bomb August 1949 Warsaw Pact established to counter NATO Warsaw Pact established to counter NATO Officially Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance Officially Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance Signed May 1955, not disestablished until 1991 Signed May 1955, not disestablished until 1991 Founding members: Albania (leaves 1961), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, and later East Germany Founding members: Albania (leaves 1961), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, and later East Germany

69 Rebuilding Europe Europe is in ruins Aerial attack abilities devastated most of the major cities of Europe Rebuild buildings, railroads, and infrastructure Where do you start? – brick by brick

70 Warsaw in Ruins

71 Hamburg, Germany

72 Marshall Plan European Recovery Plan European Recovery Plan Secretary of State – George Marshall Secretary of State – George Marshall Reconstruction plan offered in July 1947 Reconstruction plan offered in July 1947 Intended to help foster stability and rehabilitation to European countries Intended to help foster stability and rehabilitation to European countries 4 year plan of economic and technical assistance – 13 billion US Dollars 4 year plan of economic and technical assistance – 13 billion US Dollars West takes advantage West takes advantage Eastern bloc offered same deal if the Soviets were willing to make political reforms and allow for some external controls – Deny help Eastern bloc offered same deal if the Soviets were willing to make political reforms and allow for some external controls – Deny help

73 Marshall Plan Extremely successful! Extremely successful! Restores countries to even better status than before the war Restores countries to even better status than before the war

74 United Nations April 1945 50 countries met April 1945 50 countries met Charter and purpose developed Charter and purpose developed Save future from war Save future from war Promote national self-determination Promote national self-determination Promote respect for human rights Promote respect for human rights Help nations solve problems Help nations solve problems Headquarters- New York City Headquarters- New York City

75 Advantages Over League No major power refused to join No major power refused to join UN peace keeping force UN peace keeping force Armed group to enforce decisions Armed group to enforce decisions

76 Overall… UN more effective socially, economically not politically UN more effective socially, economically not politically 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights- 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights- Protect from oppression Protect from oppression Preservation of rights Preservation of rights


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