3BackgroundRNP concept initially published by ICAO: Doc 9613 (RNP Manual)RNP types only identified by an accuracy valueLack of Airworthiness regulation or Guidance materials (except for RNP 10)Industry has developed ED-75/DO-236In parallel, development of RNAVs with specific requirements in different regions of the worldICAO decision in 2003 to set up RNPSORSG (RNP and Special Requirements Study Group)
4StatusRNPSORSG outcome: new edition of ICAO Doc 9613 « Performance Based Navigation Manual » superseding the existing RNP ManualFinal draft posted on the ICAO website (VOL I and VOL II)ICAO State letter dated 27th of April 07 introducing the PBN concept and providing in attachment the VOL II document only (Navigation specification)
5PBN Manual Content Vol 1: Concepts and Implementation Guidance Explains how a given Navigation Application (associated with COM, SUR and ATM) can support given operations in an AirspaceVol 2: Implementing RNAV and RNP (Navigation Specifications)
6Concepts Performance Based Navigation Concept Navigation application Navigation specificationNAVAID infrastructurePerformance Based Navigation ConceptNavigation Application. The application of a navigation specification and the supporting Navaid infrastructure, to routes, procedures, and/or defined airspace volume, in accordance with the intended Airspace concept.Navigation Specification. A set of aircraft and air crew requirements needed to support Performance based navigation operations within a defined airspace. There are two kinds of navigation specification: RNAV and RNP:RNP X: A navigation specification with an On-board Performance Monitoring and Alerting function (OPMA)RNAV X: A navigation specification without an On-board Performance Monitoring and Alerting function“X” refers to the lateral navigation accuracy in Nm (95%)RNP = RNAV + OPMA
7Navigation Specification Navigation Specifications content:Required performance (accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity)Eligible sensors for the achievement of the required performanceRequired navigation functionalities in order to meet the required performanceRequirements on the flight crew in order to achieve the required performance from the aircraft and the RNAV system.Navigation Specifications are not totally « performance-based »:The requirement allocation to Aircraft, Aircrew and ATM is not independent of technologyThe number of technologies is limited (GNSS, IRS, DME…)Specific requirements on: sensors, navigation functionalities and displayNavigation Specification advantageOnly one set of requirements for a given Navigation ApplicationSeparation or obstacle clearanceOperational aspectsAircrew and controllers trainingInstead of requirements specific to the sensor technology
8OPMA: On-board Performance Monitoring and Alerting function A function on board the aircraft detecting and informing the crew when the RNAV system is unable to satisfy the performance prescribed in the Navigation Specification.This function should monitor all type of errors which may affect the aircraft ability to follow the desired flight path.The required level of on board monitoring and alerting is stipulated in each RNP navigation specification.This function may be:a mix of « automatic » monitoring (e.g NSE monitoring through RAIM) and operational procedure (FTE monitoring by the crew)or only « automatic » monitoring (e.g TSE monitoring)
9RNP versus RNAV performance 1 x nav accuracy95%AccuracyDesired routeAccuracy1 x nav accuracy95%RNP PerformanceCrew procedure if TSE> thresholdTSE< threshold99.999%2 x nav accuracyTSE Monitoring and alerting1 x nav accuracy95%AccuracyDesired routeAccuracyTSE Monitoring and alerting1 x nav accuracy95%99.999%2 x nav accuracy
10Overview of navigation specifications (1/2) Area of applicationNavigationaccuracyDesignation of navigation standardCurrent situationDesignation of Navigation Specification: PBN concept (new)Oceanic/Remote10RNP 10RNAV 104RNP 4En Route Continental5B-RNAVRNAV 5En route continental and Terminal2US-RNAV type ARNAV 2
11Overview of navigation specifications (2/2) Area of applicationNavigationaccuracyDesignation of navigation standardCurrent situationDesignation of Navigation Specification: PBN concept (new)Terminal1P-RNAVUS-RNAV type BRNAV 1N/ABasic-RNP 1Approach0.3RNAV (GNSS)RNP APCH0.3 – 0.1RNP SAAARRNP ARRNP AR APCH
12Navigation Specification comparison (1) RNAV 10RNAV 5RNAV 1RNP 4BASIC-RNP 1RNP APCHPerformance Requirements- Accuracy- Equipment malfunction- Continuity- Signal in Space10NM 95%MajorError > 20 NM,Prob < 10-7/h5NM 95%MinorError > 10 NM,1NM 95%Error > 2 NM,4NM 95%Error > 8 NM,1-0.3NM 95%Error > NM,OPMAError > 8NM,Prob < 10-5Error > 2NM,Error > 2-0.6NM,Minimum equipment2 LRNS using:- GNSS- IRS1 system using:- DME/DME- VOR/DME2 systems using:/IRS2 LRNS using at least:- GNSSSystem using at least:§ x Specific requirements concerning the positioning function- 2IRS + GNSS§ x.3.3
13Navigation Specification comparison (2) RNAV 10RNAV 5RNAV 1RNP 4BASIC-RNP 1RNP APCH§ x Functional Requirements- DisplayNoYes+++- Navigation Functionalities§ x.3.4Operating procedures§ x.3.5Pilot Knowledge and Training§ x.3.6Navigation Databases§ x.3.7Oversight of Operators YesYes YesYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYesLOA Type 2LOA Type 2LOA Type 2LOA Type 2
14PBN manual publication repercussion on EASA materials (1/3) ICAO PBN manual is the most recent document addressing airworthiness and operational criteriaIt includes up to date requirements and/or clarificationsIn particular those related to recent in service experience and those related to harmonisation with other Authorities (mainly with FAA).After a first assessment most of AMC/TGL are consistent with the PBN manual except TGL 10 for P-RNAV and the lack of an AMC for RNP 4 and for Basic-RNP 1.
15PBN manual publication repercussion on EASA materials(2/3) Area of applicationNavigationaccuracyDesignation of navigation standardCurrent situationDesignation of navigation specificationPBN concept (new)EASA materialOceanic/Remote10RNP 10RNAV 10AMC “Recognition of FAA Order a for RNP 10 Operations”4RNP 4Herve’s proposalEn Route Continental5B-RNAVRNAV 5AMC 20-4 “Airworthiness Approval and Operational Criteria For the Use of Navigation Systems in European Airspace Designated For Basic RNAV Operations”Terminal1P-RNAVUS-RNAV type BRNAV 1TGL 10 “AIRWORTHINESS AND OPERATIONAL APPROVAL FOR PRECISION RNAV OPERATIONS IN DESIGNATED EUROPEAN AIRSPACE”and new AMC 20-16N/ABasic-RNP 1No documentAdvanced RNP 1 (provision only)Approach0.3RNAV (GNSS)RNP APCHAMC 20-XX “AIRWORTHINESS AND OPERATIONAL APPROVAL FOR RNP APPROACH (RNP APCH) OPERATIONS”RNP SAAARRNP ARRNP AR APCHAMC 20-XZ “AIRWORTHINESS AND OPERATIONAL APPROVAL FOR RNP AR APPROACH (RNP AR APCH) OPERATIONS”
16PBN manual publication repercussion on EASA materials (3/3) PBN repercussions are not significant on EASA materials but general discussions are necessary to prepare the future:1- What is the role of the RNP RNAV MASPS (DO-236/ ED-75) taking into account the PBN manual publication? Should this standard be amended to be in line with this document?2- Should future “RNAV” AMCs be only a reference to PBN navigation specification or should AMCs still need to include all the details (stand-alone document)?3- Should EU-OPS 1 (e.g and 1.865) be amended to reflect the PBN manual in particular in terms of terminology used?
17Proposed recommendations The following aspects, should be addressed:Review and, where necessary, propose update to EU-OPS to ensure requirements for RNAV and RNP operations are consistent with the ICAO PBN manualReview existing RNAV TGL/AMC and, where necessary, update these documents (e.g. P-RNAV)Issue, when there is an operational need (e.g. RNP 4), an AMC addressing the related ICAO Navigation Specification. EASA should decide if the AMC content is only a reference to the ICAO Navigation Specification or if it includes all the details (cut and paste of the ICAO Navigation Specification plus refinement if necessary).