Presentation on theme: "Output of the REZIPE project"— Presentation transcript:
1Output 5.2.1 of the REZIPE project TRAINING MATERIALSOutput of the REZIPE project
2WHAT IS AN ELECTRIC CARAn electric car is powered by an electric motor instead of a gasoline engine.The electric motor gets energy from a controller, which regulates the amount of power—based on the driver’s use of an accelerator pedal.The electric car (also known as electric vehicle or EV) uses energy stored in its rechargeable batteries, which are recharged by common household electricity.
3MAIN MODELS AND CHARACTERISTICS The motorThe car is generally fitted with one or more electric motors with a total power ranging from 15 to 100 kW depending on the size, usage and desired performance.E.g. 48 kW (65 hp.) for a small 4-seater saloon.Batteries and rangeThe battery bank supplies energy provided:either by recharging from an external source via cableor by vehicle deceleration, where the engine works as a generator.The battery capacity is within a range of 5 to 40 kWh, with a total voltage of between 300 and 500V.The vehicle's range depends directly on the battery’s capacity and also on the type of journey, the driving mode and the accessories used (headlights etc.). The manufacturers announce an average driving range of 150km.
5COSTS: COMPARISON WITH THERMAL VEHICLES CONVENTIONAL CARSELECTRIC VEHICLESfuel consumption / 100 kmelectricity equivalentelectricity consumptioncar8,5 l gasoline909 Wh / km488 Wh / kmvan12 l gasoline1283 Wh / km600 Wh / kmsmall lorry16 l diesel1910 Wh / km1000 Wh / km
6MAIN REASONS FOR CHOOSING AN EV Fuel Economy: Does not use liquid fuels. EVs can be programmed to recharge overnight, providing a means to capture and store electricity at night from renewable energy sources like wind and solar photovoltaics. Recharging at night also balances demand on the national grid. Low Emissions: EVs have zero emissions. However, emissions are produced from fuel-burning power plants that supply electricity to the grid. But in most emissions categories, a vehicle running on gasoline or diesel will produce more emissions than will the production of electricity required to power an EV. If electricity is generated from nonpolluting, renewable sources, there are no emissions. It is clear that EVs have an important role to play in the reduction of CO 2 emissions to avoid climate change and in the targets that have been defined in the Kyoto Protocol.
7MAIN REASONS FOR CHOOSING AN EV Fuel Cost Savings: Less expensive to operate than conventional vehicles Energy Security: EVs reduce Italy reliance on imported petroleum. They use electricity produced domestically from natural gas, and renewable sources Fueling Flexibility: Can charge at home or public charging stations Less maintenance: EVs also require less maintenance than conventional vehicles Battery, motor, and associated electronics require no regular maintenance No fluids to change, except brake fluid Regenerative braking reduces break wear Fewer moving parts than a conventional vehicle
8MAIN REASONS FOR CHOOSING AN EV Less noise: Traffic noise is making the atmosphere of modern cities quite unbearable. Thousands of combustion-engined vehicles are generating an annoying background noise which degrades quality of life in cities.The electric vehicle is virtually silent and allows to rediscover the beauty of a moment of silence and quietness. suitable for urban travelling: Most of the air pollution in today's European cities is caused by automotive traffic. Particularly in adverse climatic conditions, traffic generated emissions are degrading air quality up to the point where the physical health of the citizens is directly threatened. Several cities already had to recur to drastic traffic restrictions. Electric vehicle stands for clean air as it is effectively zero-emission at its point of use.
9MAIN REASONS FOR CHOOSING AN EV Domestic Policy GoalsReduce dependence on foreign oilJob creationEconomic Growth (energy sources local)Global ImpactEurope to mitigate climate changeGovernments around the world have allocated funding for clean technologyEnergy IndependenceLocal energy sources reduce price volatilityReduce export of Euro, particularly to unstable regions of the worldDeveloping NationsLower-cost conventional vehicles support economic development goals.Urban air pollution and rising oil imports to be the main driver of electrification
10MAIN REASONS FOR CHOOSING AN EV Climate ChangeGlobal support for climate change has gained momentum with Europe leading the way.Transportation accounts for roughly 15% of energy related CO2 emissions globally.Under the Kyoto Protocol, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community (the European Union-15, made up of 15 states at the time of the Kyoto negotiations) commit themselves to limit or reduce their emissions of four greenhouse gases (GHG) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons). All member countries give general commitments.EU energy policy provides affordable energy while contributing to the EU's wider social and climate goals
12DRIVING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE To drive an electric car need a driving license B or international driving license. In March 2006, the Council of Ministers adopted a Directive proposed by the European Commission to create a single European driving licence to replace the 110 different models currently in existence throughout the EU. Its provisions will take effect in 2013.
13DRIVING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE Electric cars are in many ways similar to gasoline powered cars. They are comfortable, reliable and handle well. Electric cars are very quite. An electric motor has what is known as continuous torque and therefor has almost the same horsepower at any speed, though an electric motor is more efficient at high rotational speeds. For this reason, an electric car normally has better acceleration from standstill of then the acceleration of a gasoline powered car! The Citi-Car can out accelerate most cars from 0 to 20 miles per hour. The top speed of the Citi-Car is however only 40 miles per hour.
15DRIVING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE The heart of an electric car is the combination of:The electric motorThe motor's controllerThe batteriesThe controller takes power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The accelerator pedal hooks to a pair of potentiometers (variable resistors), and these potentiometers provide the signal that tells the controller how much power it is supposed to deliver. The controller can deliver zero power (when the car is stopped), full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal), or any power level in between.
16DRIVING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE Presently most EV manufacturers do their best to emulate the driving experience as closely as possible to that of a car with a conventional automatic transmission that motorists are familiar with. Most models therefore have a PRNDL selector traditionally found in cars with automatic transmission despite the underlying mechanical differences. Even though the motor may be permanently connected to the wheels through a fixed-ratio gear and no parking pawl may be present the modes "P" and "N" will still be provided on the selector. In this case the motor is disabled in "N" and an electrically actuated hand brake provides the "P" mode. When the foot is lifted from the accelerator of an ICE, engine braking causes the car to slow. Selecting the L mode will increase this effect for sustained downhill driving, analogous to selecting a lower gear.
17PLANNING A TRIP WITH AN EC Driving rangeThe car is generally fitted with one or more electric motors with a total power ranging from 15 to 100 kW depending on the size, usage and desired performance.The battery capacity is within a range of 5 to 40 kWh, with a total voltage of between 300 and 500V.The vehicle's range depends directly on the battery’s capacity and also on the type of journey (flat, varied, urban, etc.), the driving mode and the accessories used (headlights, heating, air-conditioning, windscreen wipers, other accessories).The manufacturers announce an average driving range of 150km.
18PLANNING A TRIP WITH AN EC Charging modesConnection to a domestic socket: Charging is restricted to 10A.Connection to a specific socket: Connection of the electric vehicle to the building's electrical distribution network via connector bases which plug into specific sockets on a dedicated AC circuit. The EV Network serves electric vehicle owners by providing a directory of charge points where such vehicles may be charged.Time to rechargeIf the vehicle is connected to a domestic socket: 10 to 12 hours;If it is connected to a dedicated electrical circuit:1 hour (three-phase, 63A) and 8 hours (single-phase, 16A);In addition, quick charging stations allow the battery to be recharged to 80% of its capacity in 15 minutes.
19PLANNING A TRIP WITH AN EC Charging stationsCharging stations can be found and will be needed where there is on-street parking, at taxi stands, in parking lots (at places of employment, hotels, airports, shopping centers, convenience shops, fast food restaurants, coffeehouses etc.), phone booths, as well as in driveways and garages at home. Existing filling stations may also become or may incorporate charging stations. They can be added onto other public infrastructure that has an electrical supply, such as phone booths and smart parking meters.AccessibilityIn Italy, electric vehicles can access traffic limited zones (ZTL) and park for free.
20CHARGING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE Connection to a domestic socket: Connection of the electric vehicle to the building‘s electrical distribution system via connector bases which plug into domestic single phase or three phase AC sockets with earth and power supply conductors. A charging control function is either built into the plug or into a unit fitted to the cable. Charging is restricted to 10A.Connection to a specific socket: Connection of the electric vehicle to the building's electrical distribution network via connector bases which plug into specific sockets on a dedicated AC circuit. A harging control function is built into the plug base. This mode guarantees users the highest level of safety and the best performance. Danger may arise from:a faulty system (damaged cable, faulty or aging installation, etc;)mishandling by users (a child putting its fingers into the socket, etc.)incorrect usage (the user plugs the connector into the wrong socket, etc.)
21CHARGING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE The time required for optimum charging of the vehicle's battery is directly linked to the electric power injected into the vehicle.If the vehicle is connected to a domestic socket on the building's standard electrical distribution network, charging will be restricted to 10A, which means a longer time to charge it (around 10 to 12 hours).If it is connected to a dedicated electrical circuit, the time to charge is between1 hour (three-phase, 63A) and 8 hours(single-phase, 16A).In addition, quick charging stations delivering 500C/125A in AC allow the battery to be recharged to 80% of its capacity in only 15 minutes.
22CHARGING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE For normal charging (3 kW), car manufacturers have built a battery charger into the car. A charging cable is used to connect it to the electrical network to supply 230 volt AC current.For quicker charging (22 kW, even 43 kW and more), manufacturers have chosen two solutions:use the vehicle's built-in charger, designed to charge from 3 to 43 kW at 230 V single-phase or 400 V three-phase.use an external charger, which converts AC current into DC current and charges the vehicle at 50 kW.The user finds charging an electric vehicle as simple as connecting a normal electrical appliance; however to ensure that this operation takes place in complete safety, the charging system must perform several safety functions and dialogue with the vehicle during connection and charging.
23CHARGING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE Safety measures (when charging and handling batteries)Electric vehicle are manufactured in compliance with:ISO : Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications - Part 1: On-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS)ISO : Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications - Part 2: Vehicle operational safety means and protection against failuresISO : Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications - Part 3: Protection of persons against electric shock
24MAINTENANCE Less interventions and costs Battery maintenance EVs also require less maintenance than conventional vehicles Battery, motor, and associated electronics require no regular maintenance No fluids to change, except brake fluid Regenerative braking reduces break wear Fewer moving parts than a conventional vehicle.Battery maintenanceRechargeable batteries are usually the most expensive component of BEVs, being about half the retail cost of the car. The cost of battery manufacture is substantial, but increasing returns to scale lower costs.Battery service life should be considered when calculating the extended cost of ownership, as all batteries eventually wear out and must be replaced. The rate at which they expire depends on a number of factors.
25MAINTENANCEBattery service life should be considered when calculating the extended cost of ownership, as all batteries eventually wear out and must be replaced. The rate at which they expire depends on a number of factors. E.g. : In real world use, some fleet Toyota RAV4 EVs, using NiMH batteries, have exceeded 100,000 miles (160,000 km) with little degradation in their daily range. Lithium ion batteries are perishable to some degree; they lose some of their maximum storage capacity per year even if they are not used. Nickel metal hydride batteries lose much less capacity and are cheaper for the storage capacity they give, but have a lower total capacity initially for the same weight.
26MAINTENANCEBattery replacement costs of BEVs may be partially or fully offset by the lack of regular maintenance such as oil and filter changes required for ICEVs, and by the greater reliability of BEVs due to their fewer moving parts. They also do away with many other parts that normally require servicing and maintenance in a regular car, such as on the gearbox, cooling system, and engine tuning. And by the time batteries do finally need definitive replacement, they can be replaced with later generation ones which may offer better performance characteristics, in the same way as you might replace old batteries from a digital camera with improved ones.