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HANDBOOK OF METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.

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Presentation on theme: "HANDBOOK OF METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE This project has been funded with support from the European Commission."— Presentation transcript:

1 HANDBOOK OF METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE This project has been funded with support from the European Commission

2 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT PARADIGM OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE

3 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 In the context of vocational training and workplace one of proposed and accepted definitions is such: „Competence is the capability to perform; to use knowledge, skills and attitudes that are integrated in the professional repertoire of the individual“ (Mulder et al., 2006).

4 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 One of the most quotable deffinition states: „Intercultural competence is the appropriate and effective management of interaction between people who, to some degree or another, represent different or divergent affective, cognitive, and behavioral orientations to the world“ (Spitzberg & Changon, 2009, p. 7).

5 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Authors of handbook „Building Intercultural Competences“ summarize, that: „intercultural competence“ could be defined as cultural-aware mobilization, managed by individuals, of knowledge, skills, atitudes and values, enabing them to cope with unfamiliar ever changing problems arising from encounters with people socialized in different culture, in order to find new and shared solutions (Bednardz, Onorati, 2010, p. 46).

6 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Root and Ngampornchai (2012) summarize that no matter how intercultural competence is theorized within intercultural communication, most scholars agree on at least three core assumptions: 1) Intercultural competence should be conceptualized based on cognitive, affective, and behavioral approaches. 2) The end result should be communication that is considered both effective and appropriate. 3) Intercultural competence is culture-general and there are core competencies that individuals can develop that are not specific to any culture.

7 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE FOR LABOUR MARKET AND ITS INFLUENCE TO LEARNING AND WORKING PROCESSES

8 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Globalization, a term that has been constantly gaining popularity in the last two decades, primarily means free movement of capital, labor, goods, information and ideas for the sake of exchanging global communication and gaining faster and cheaper geographic mobility.

9 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Main problems occurring in the situations when intercultural competence of the employees is inadequate or insufficiently developed: religious differences; different attitudes towards professional duties, money, the opposite sex; differences about the word- view; differences in the body language; differences in national traditions and the way of life; different behavioral patterns (meals, code of dress, recreational activities); differences in the national character and its manifestations.

10 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Requirements for specialist employment can no longer be restricted to only professional training as they will necessarily comprise a much wider scale of competences and skills, including intercultural competences and self- employment skills for success in both national and international labor market.

11 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT THEORETICAL MODELS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE

12 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Five types of intercultural competence models.

13 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Compositional models. 2.Co-orientational models. 3.Developmental models. 4.Adaptational models. 5.Causal process models.

14 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Pyramid model of intercultural competence (Deardorff, 2004)

15 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 The background of Pyramid model of intercultural competence is the requisite attitudes: Respect to others and to the cultural diversity, and when valuing other cultures. Openness to intercultural learning and to people from other cultures, withholding judgment. Curiosity and discovery implying willingness to risk and to move beyond one’s comfort zone, and tolerating ambiguity and uncertainty.

16 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 On the second level of the model there are two important components: Knowledge and comprehension: Cultural self-awareness, which means the ways in which one’s culture have influenced one’s identity and worldview. Deep understanding and knowledge of culture (including contexts, role and impact of culture and others’ worldviews). Culture-specific information. Sociolinguistic awareness.

17 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 The second component is skills of: Listening. Observation. Interpreting. Analyzing. Evaluating. Relating.

18 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 On the third level of the model there is the desired internal outcome: Adaptability to different communication styles and behaviors; adjustment to new cultural environments. Flexibility by selecting and using appropriate communication styles and behaviors; also cognitive flexibility. Ethnorelative view. Empathy.

19 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 The fourth and highest level of Pyramid model of intercultural competence is appointed for the desired external outcome: Behaving and communicating effectively and appropriately (based on one’s intercultural knowledge, skills, and attitudes) to achieve one’s goals to some degree.

20 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Process model of intercultural competence (Deardorff, 2006)

21 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145

22 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity (Bennett, 1989; 1993; 2004)

23 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 INTEGRATION OF DIFFERENCE ↑ ADAPTATION TO DIFFERENCE ↑ ACCEPTANCE OF DIFFERENCE ↑ MINIMIZATION OF DIFFERENCE ↑ DEFENSE ↑ DENIAL

24 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Seven phases of acquiring intercultural competence: becoming aware of cultural influences; becoming aware of stereotyping processes; recognizing and becoming aware of cultural shock; reflecting on one’s own cultural background; tackling a variety of cultural backgrounds; managing conflict in intercultural contexts; developing synergies in intercultural contexts (Bednarz, 2010).

25 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT SET OF METHODS AND TOOLS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE

26 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Methods for development of intercultural competence.

27 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Cognitive methods. Self-insight methods. Behavioral methods. Experiental methods. Attribution methods.

28 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Experience. Comparison. Analysis. Reflection. Cooperative activity.

29 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Tools for development of intercultural competence.

30 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Traditional tools for development of intercultural competence.

31 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Verbal or written description. Narration of stories. Role play, simulations and drama. Theatre, poetry and creative writing. Ethnographic tasks. Short films watching. Presentations. Still image making. On-line communication. Project works.

32 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Innovative tools for development of intercultural competence.

33 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Concept mapping. Use of media. Intercultural shock. City exploration. Case studies. Reflective diaries.

34 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT METHODOLOGICAL RECOMMENDATIONS AND EXAMPLES OF HOW TO HANDLE WITH THIS MATERIAL

35 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Methodological recommendations.

36 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 Three principles of intercultural education positioned above must be the methodological basis for development of intercultural competence: Principle 1: Intercultural education respects the cultural identity of the learner through the provision of culturally appropriate and responsive quality education for all. Principle 2: Intercultural education provides every learner with the cultural knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary to achieve active and full participation in society. Principle 3: Intercultural education provides every learner with the cultural knowledge, attitudes and skills that enable them to contribute to respect, understanding and solidarity among individuals, ethnic, social, cultural and religious groups and nations.

37 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT Examples of how to handle with this material.

38 This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Nr. LLP-LDV-TOI-2013-LT-0145 This draft should be developed further on your comments


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