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CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 1 LN-3: Technologies for Information Management Dr Zhaohao Sun GSITMS, University of Ballarat ITECH.

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Presentation on theme: "CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 1 LN-3: Technologies for Information Management Dr Zhaohao Sun GSITMS, University of Ballarat ITECH."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 1 LN-3: Technologies for Information Management Dr Zhaohao Sun GSITMS, University of Ballarat ITECH 1005/5005: Business Information Systems

2 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 2 After studying this chapter, the students should be able to Explain the relationship between software, hardware and communications components of information systems Evaluate the suitability of different technology components for information management Management issues How do we select the appropriate technology for our organization? What is the meaning and relevance of different technology standards associated with the Internet? Objectives and Outcomes

3 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 3 Talking to suppliers about solutions Selecting the most cost-effective solutions Troubleshooting our own kit Reducing the total cost of ownership of hardware (See also Chapter 11) Why we need to understand Hardware

4 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 4 Infrastructure includes the architecture of the networks, hardware and software. Infrastructure can be considered to include the data and documents accessed through e-business applications. Chaffey 2011:98 Technology Infrastructure Components

5 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 5 Figure 3.1 A five-layer model of technology infrastructure (Chaffey 2011: 99) Source: Adapted from Chaffey (2004) Technology Infrastructure Model

6 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 6 The client/server architecture consists of client computers such as PCs sharing resources such as a database stored on more powerful server computers. Processing can be shared between the clients and the servers. A client is an end-user computer A server is a computer that provides services such as storage or applications to other client computers Middleware is software used to facilitate communications between business applications Client/server architecture is significant since most modern networked information systems are based on this structure. Chaffey 2011: Client/server Architecture

7 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 7 Figure 3.2 A typical three-tier client server architecture Chaffey 2011:101 Three-tier client-server architecture

8 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 8 Distributes processing potentially giving better performance Not vitally dependent on central mainframe Enables local data storage for convenience Empowers end-users to develop their own applications Enables remote working, e.g. sales representatives Chaffey 2011: Reasons for Client-Server

9 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 9 Desktop – system unit is horizontal, vertically in a tower or mini tower configuration. Portable or Laptop. Handheld. Windows terminal or network computer. Figure 3.5 The first Personal Computer Source: Runes PC Museum (http://pc- Figure 3.6 A personal digital assistant (PDA) Source: Hewlett-Packard Company, Inc., Palo Alto CA ( Chaffey 2011: Different forms of Clients

10 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 10 Figure 3.7 Five alternative computing architectures Chaffey 2011:106 Source: BIM Alternative Computing Structures

11 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 11 Blade servers. Clustering storage area network (SAN) – Server clustering is used to connect and manage networked storage devices. Grid computing Mainframes Mini-computers Developments in Server types

12 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 12 Source: Chaffey (2002) A typical e-commerce systems architecture for an e-tailer

13 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 13 Figure 3.6 The main components of a PC (Chaffey 2011:110) Source: The Main components of a PC

14 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 14 The processor of a computer is so-called since it processes instructions supplied by the program code within the operating system and applications software. The Brain of the PC Selection criteria for Processors 1.Manufacturer. 2.Processor architecture. 3.Clock speed. 4.System bus Chaffey 2011:111 A Processor and selection

15 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 15 NameDateTransistorsMicronsClock speedMIPS ,00062 MHz ,00035 MHz , MHz , MHz ,200, MHz20 Pentium19933,100, MHz100 Pentium II19977,500, MHz300 Pentium III19999,500, MHz510 Pentium ,000, GHz7,000 Source: Intel Intel Processor Development: Chaffey 2011:112

16 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 16 Figure 3.7 Intel Pentium microprocessor (a) Microprocessor (b) Microprocessor circuitry Source: Intel Corporation ( Intel Pentium Processor: Chaffey 2011:111

17 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 17 Figure 3.8 ATI Radeon 9800 graphics card with 128 Mb RAM (Chaffey 2011:112) ATI Graphics Video Card

18 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 18 Figure 3.9 Moores Law Source: MOORS Law (Gordon Moor, 1965)

19 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 19 Computer memory is used to store data and programs. There are two types of computer storage. Temporary or volatile storage where data is only saved when a device is switched on and permanent storage where the data is saved even when a device is powered down. Temporary storage is best known through the acronym RAM, standing for Random Access Memory. RAM is used to store the operating system, applications and current data or documentation and is linked closely to the processor to which instructions and data are supplied from RAM. RAM is similar to our short term memory – it is used for issues we are currently thinking about. - RAM Figure 3.12 RAM (Source: Kingston Technology Company, Fountain Valley, California (Chaffey 2011:114)

20 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 20 Each computer also contain Read Only Memory or ROM which is permanent storage which is used to store the BIOS which is activated when a computer is first switched on before the operating system is loaded from the hard-disk or other permanent media. When you switch a PC on, the first text screen will always refer to the BIOS (Binary Input and Output System) loading. The BIOS is effectively constant; but it can be upgraded if required. This form of ROM is a standard component on each computer and does not affect the performance of the system, so it is not specified in PC purchase. Read Only Memory (ROM)

21 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 21 Byte – made up of 8 bits used to represent a single character or digit Kilobyte – 1,024 Bytes Megabyte – 1,024 Kilobytes Gigabyte – 1,024 Megabytes Terabyte – 1,024 Gigabytes Chaffey 2011:114 Storage Capacities

22 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 22 Storage capacity Approximate bytes Power of 2Exact Bytes ByteExactly 1 byte -1 (eight bits, can represent one digit or character) KilobyteA thousand bytes ,024 MegabyteA million bytes ,048,576 bytes (1,024 Kb) GigabyteA thousand million bytes ,073,741,824 (1,024 Mb) TerabyteA trillion bytes ,099,511,627,776 bytes 1,024 Gb) Bits and Bytes

23 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 23 Label for volume (size) ?Gigabyte??? Approx numeric amount (bytes) ?1,000,000,000??? Example data amount: A database for a large company A database for a small company A high resolution photo A low resolution photo A character Example storage amount: 1 ?b capacity server 120 ?b hard disk 512 ?b Memory Old style 720 ?b hard disk 100 ?b to store numbers in mobile phone Activity Complete the table below filling in the gaps shown by ? Label for volume (size): Byte, Terabyte, Kilobyte, Megabyte Numeric amount: 1, 1,000,000:1,000,000,000,000 1,000 (Chaffey 2011:115) Understanding Storage Capacities

24 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 24 Figure 3.13 The relationship between Virtual Memory and RAM (Chaffey 2011:115) Why RAM affects system performance

25 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 25 Non-volatile storage – the data is retained after the hardware is powered down. Some say permanent storage is equivalent to our long-term memory. Storage devices: The main media types for permanent storage are magnetic, optical, tape and solid-state. The media may be readily removable from the computer or it is a fixed part of the system. Permanent Storage

26 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 26 Figure 3.14 Hard disk drive (Chaffey 2011:117) Hard Disk Drive, DVD Writer. Memory Stick Figure 3.15 Optical drive – a DVD Rewriter (Chaffey 2011:120) Figure 3.16 Memory key or stick (Chaffey 2011:120)

27 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 27 Read-only – traditional CDs and DVD used for music and film. Recordable (denoted by CDR and DVDR) – The media can be written to, but once they reach their capacity space cannot be cleared by deleting existing files. Rewritable (denoted by CDRW and DVDRW) – the media can be written to repeatedly. CDs can hold around 640 to 700 Mb. DVDs can hold either 4.7 or 7.95 Gb depending on whether they are double or single-sided. Chaffey 2011:119 Types of Optical Storage

28 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 28 Capacity of device or media. Speed of reading and writing media. Cost of device. Cost of removable media. This is a relatively low cost compared to the cost of the device. Need for permanent or removable media. In some cases where a removable device is needed such as removable hard disk then this can add to the cost of the device. Chaffey 2011:120 Selecting Storage Media

29 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 29 There are two main output devices for a computer system which are used to interact with applications and data. The first is the monitor or display which is, of course, used for interacting with the system, the second is the printer which is used for keeping hard copy. Output devices Used for viewing outputs from a system Hard copy Printed output from a system, distinct from soft or electronic copy Output Devices

30 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 30 Form: Text (VDU) raster/graphics (vector) based Resolution (pixels) VGA 640 by 480 SVGA 800 by 600 (design for many web sites) XGA 1024 by 768 Size: 14, 15, 17, 21 Colour depth: 16, 256, 15 million etc. Choose a good graphics card which enables higher resolutions than those chosen above. Selecting a Monitor

31 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 31 Figure 3.16 A flat-screen monitor (Chaffey 2011:122) Flat Screen Monitor

32 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 32 Type Character, graphics (raster) or graphics (vector) based Laser printer vs Inkjet Resolution Measured in dots per inch Colour depth Throughput Measured in pages per minute Monitor Selecting Criteria

33 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 33 Figure 3.19 Multi-function ink-jet printer (Chaffey 2011:123) Multi-function Inkjet Printer

34 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 34 Figure 3.18 Xerox Docutech laser printer with a capacity of 500,000 sheets per month (Chaffey 2011:123) Laser Printer

35 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 35 Data is captured or input by different hardware tools or devices that rely on movement, light or sound e.g. Keyboard, mouse Scanner Barcode reader Voice recognition Finger print readers for security Direct Digital Input (Chaffey 2011:125) Microsoft Wireless Desktop (Chaffey 2011:126) Data Input Devices

36 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 36 Mice and keyboard are commodities, so cost reduction is key. But: Can cause repetitive strain injury in staff if poor quality (and other issues of ergonomics) Wireless keyboards and mice can appear neater, but require batteries, so more often used at home rather than business (Chaffey 2011:125) Selecting Input Devices

37 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 37 Computer network A communication system that links two or more computers and peripheral devices to enable transfer of data between these computers. The purpose of a computer network is to transfer data between different computers or hardware devices. The client/server model introduced earlier requires a computer network to transfer data between the client and server computer. The server may also be connected to other hardware devices such as a network printer or a backup system using a network. (Chaffey 2011:127) Computer Network

38 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 38 Local-area network (LAN) A computer network that spans a limited geographic area such as a single office or building. Wide-area network Computer networks covering a large area which connects businesses in different parts of the country or different countries. Computer networks are constructed on different scales. Small-scale networks known as local-area networks (LANs) can be set up in an office, a small business or even at home. Larger-scale networks which may span a city, country, the world or space are known as wide- area networks. These effectively link together different LANs. (Chaffey 2011:127) LANs and WANs

39 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 39 AdvantagesDisadvantages 1. Facilitates sharing of information1. Organization becomes overdependent on networks for access to information and applications 2. Reduces duplication of information2. Cost of initial setup, usage and maintenance 3. More rapid information transfer including real-time information access 3. Reduced security of information as information is exposed to increased risk of internal and external access, modification and deletion 4. Reduces hardware requirements through sharing of devices 4. Can facilitate information overload as s and documents are more easily distributed 5. Enables software to be managed centrally and reduces need for local copies of software 6. Assists in information security by requiring log-in for access to certain data 7. Enable transformation of business through e-business applications 8. The Internet provides potential to reach new international markets or new customer groups at a relatively low cost Network advantages/disadvantages (Chaffey 2011:128)

40 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 40 Integrated services digital network (ISDN) An ISDN telephone line provides two separate channels allowing simultaneous voice and data transmissions. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) services makes use of existing telephone lines to provide very high data transfer rates. ADSL is known as asymmetric since download data transfer rates are different (higher) than upload rates. Wi-Fi (Wireless fidelity): A high-speed wireless LAN enabling wireless access to the Internet for mobile, office and home users. Leased lines or secure virtual private networks (VPNs) with higher speed access using the T1 standard are used by larger organizations. (Chaffey 2011:128-9) Different forms of guided media

41 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 41 The speed at which data can be transferred from A to B is governed by the channel capacity, which is measured in bits per second (bps). Transmission of a single bit in a second is equivalent to one baud, a binary event. Rates are usually measured in terms of thousands of bits/second (Kb/sec), millions of bits/sec (Mb/sec) or billions of bits/sec (Gb/sec). A general term often used for describing capacity is bandwidth, which is a measure of capacity given by the difference between the lowest and highest frequencies available for a given medium.bandwidth Transmission Speed

42 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 42 POTS – 56Kb/sec modem ISDN – 256 or 512 Kb/sec ADSL – First introduced mainly at 512 Kb/sec, but 256 Kb/s, 1 Mb/s and 2 Mb/s options now common Monthly capacity may be capped, e.g. 1, 15 Gb Satellite – similar to ADSL Upload and download maximum figures differ Internet Connection Speeds

43 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 43 Modem Modulator-demodulator used to convert data between digital and analogue form when transmitting data over telephone lines Hubs Used to connect groups of computers to a network Bridges and routers Device used to connect networks and control the flow of data between them Firewall Hardware used to increase security of part of a network through preventing unauthorized access from beyond the network Repeaters Device used to increase efficiency of transmission over long distances (Chaffey 2011:129) Communication Components

44 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 44 Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the computer-to- computer exchange of structured data, sent in a form that allows for automatic processing with no manual intervention. This is usually carried out over specialist EDI networks.DTI (2003) Chaffey 2011:130 EDI

45 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 45 Figure 3.22 Physical and network infrastructure components of the Internet (Chaffey 2011:131) Internet Technology

46 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 46 Figure 3.23 Internet timeline (Chaffey 2011:132) Internet Timeline

47 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 47 Figure 3.24 Information exchange between a web browser and web server (Chaffey 2011:134) Information exchange between web-browser and web-server

48 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 48 Figure 3.26 The TCP/IP Protocol (Chaffey 2011:136) TCP/IP Protocol

49 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 49 The World Wide Web, or web for short, provides a standard method for exchanging and publishing information on the Internet. If we take the analogy of television, then the Internet is the equivalent to the broadcasting equipment such as masts and transmitters, and the World Wide Web is equivalent to the content of different TV programmes. The medium is based on standard document formats such as HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Chaffey 2011:133 World Wide Web

50 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 50 HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) A standard format used to define the text and layout of web pages. HTML files usually have the extension.HTML or.HTM. XML or eXtensible Markup Language: A standard for transferring structured data, unlike HTML which is purely presentational. HTML code This text is bold This text is italic This text is underlined In browser: This text is bold This text is italic This text is underlined HTM and HTML

51 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 51 HTML code Go to home page Go to the BBC web site Browser: Go to home page Go to the BBC web site HTML Code

52 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 52 URL (Universal Resource Locator): a web address used to locate a web page on a web server. Web addresses are structured in a standard way as follows: What do the following extensions or global top level domains stand for?,,,.biz,.info Chaffey 2011:133 URLs and Domain Names

53 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D Metadata definition of the structure and content of a collection of data or document. Data about data. HTML has a limited capability for describing documents through HTML meta-tags. These are presented at the start of the document in the header area. Chaffey 2011:140 53

54 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 54 An intranet document example Chaffey 2011:140 HTML Metadata Example

55 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 55 E-business and E-commerce Management Dave Chaffey Book ISBN XML Metadata Example

56 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 56 Wireless connection to the Internet is possible in several different forms WAP internet access from mobile phones Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) WAP is a technical standard for transferring information to wireless devices, such as mobile phones. 3G Third generation of mobile phone technology with high speed data transfer enabling video calling. i-Mode A mobile access platform widely used in Japan that enables display of colour graphics and content subscription services. Chaffey 2011:149 The Wireless Internet

57 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 57 SMS Messaging SMS: short message service, is the formal name for text messaging, commonly known as texting SMS is a simple form of that enables messages to the transferred between mobile phones. Over 3 trillion text messages were sent worldwide in 2009 Texting has proved useful for business in some applications Chaffey 2011:151

58 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 58 Summary Explained the relationship between software, hardware and communications components of information systems Evaluated the suitability of different technology components for information management

59 CRICOS Provider Number 00103D 59 References Chaffey and White (2011) Business Information Management © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Chaffey and Wood (2005) Business Information Management © Pearson Education Limited Sun Z (2010) LN-3 revisited Harvey, W. LN-2, 2008, UB

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