Anticipate, Understand and prevent risks Psycho-socials June 2010
The program Day 1 What is stress ? The consequences Detect and act as manager Prevent and limit the impact of communication’s stress Action plan
The program Day 2 Back to the action plan Discussions on specific cases brought by participant Role playing filmed formatting situation Balance sheet
Understand the nature of stress Be aware of risks it poses Know how to act in his role of manager cope with stress Acquire postures communication to allow reduce the severity and risk The educational objectives
The facilitator : Michel MAESTRALI ESC, Master PNL, Master Coaching Paris 8, Process Com licensed coach, member of the ICF 15 years experience in big companies (SNCF, SNCM) and SMEs as manager, partner, officer. Last post occupied : HRD and Finance Director in transportation business of DSP His profession today : The accompanying change The instructional project and the formation The individual Coaching Coaching and formation at distance
Part 1: What is stress Study case Brainstorming What is stress ?
Part 1 : What is stress Stress ? In the phenomenon of stress, it should be interesting to distinguish : The external stimuli, the « Stressors » (term coined by Hans Seyle who studied and developed the concept of Stress in the 30s) The stress response, all physical and psychological reactions (Adrenaline, negative emotions…) The consequences of this reaction, unnatural behavior, irritability, sleeplessness...
Part 1: What is stress The 3 stages of stress ? In unusual situation or aggression of all kinds, the body goes through three successive stages: The alert phase, when our brain evaluates a situation of this type, the body produces instantly hormones (ex. adrenaline), the heart rate increases… The resistance phase, when the perceived situation persists in the time, the body is organized to endure and fight (with cortisol for example) The exhaustion phase, if the phase of resistance extends, our resources are gradually depleted.
Part 1: What is stress Illustration The stress consists in « a transaction between the person and his environment in which the situation is assessed by the individual to be beyond its resources and may endanger their well-being. » Richard LAZARUS and Susan FOLKMAN (1984)
Part 1: What is stress Study case Self – examination
Part 2: Consequences of stress? Serious consequences for the individual FAIL decreased motivation, difficulty for concentration, difficulties in finding solutions, pollution of family life and friendly, diseases like musculoskeletal disorders (such as back pain, the tendonitis), diseases like cardiovascular (burn-out or exhaustion professional, depression...)
Part 2: Consequences of stress? Good stress and bad stress Two psychologists, Yerkes and Dodson, have shown in the early 20th century that stress is good for the performance to some level, but then, it becomes harmful. « Good » stress Optimal stress « Bad » stress Intensity of the stress response Performance of the individual
Part 2: Consequences of stress? Dysfunctional personal When we are stressed, we tend to commit errors following logic in our interpretation of the facts : Arbitrary interference (a conclusion without evidence) “It’s,gonna wrong" “They take me for an idiot" The selective abstraction (consider only some facts) “She didn’t smile, she wants me!" Minimization (of its successes) or maximization (its failure) “I mishandled the negotiations, I will surely lose market" “It works too well, it can’t last" Generalization “I missed my review, I suck!" “Anyway, it’s always the same thing" Personalization (Bring events to oneself) “If the project fails, it’s my fault" “A computer that is loose, it only happens to me" Dichotomous thinking (think all or nothing) “He criticized me in a meeting, he hates me" “If I fail completely, it’s because I’m bad" Of “Know of to manage the stress", Dr Charly Cungi, ed. Retz, 2003 and “The stress at work", Patrick Legeron, ed. Odile Jacob, 2001
Part 3: Act on stress Not all equal cope with stress Vulnerabilities The rather impulsive personality, angry, in a spirit of competition The « outsiders »,who events are due to factors external (fate, others, context...) The anxiety (personality trait) The pessimists who focus on negative The learned helplessness, following failures, stories of life
Part 3: Act on stress Not all equal cope with stress Resistance factors The personality characterized by patience, calmness, stability emotional The « insiders », for whom events are due to oneself and one can act on them Those who trust in them, belief in self-efficacy (belief in its resources, capabilities) Optimism Endurance Resilience, the ability to rebuild despite hardships (flourish integrating its failures)
Part 3: Act on stress Strategies for dealing with stress Strategies focused on problem solving Dealing with the « stressor», modify, reduce... Strategies focused on emotion Reduce, control our emotion cope with stress Strategies ineffective Denying the situation Avoid the problem
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager Case study Brainstorming : What are the different role of the manager ?
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager A typology of 5 roles Depending on the context, the moments and personalities, the manager, if he wants to be effective, must take on multiple roles The main roles are The relay The actor / decision maker The innovator The unifying Attendants
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager The relay In this role the manager must : pass information Upward, downward or horizontally to get directions be « bridged » decisions taken over him
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager The actor/decision maker In this role the manager must : decide, take initiatives enforce its decisions follow, monitor its implementation Setting objectives Organizes work
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager The innovator In this role the manager must : solve problems cope with new situations (with its teams, its customers, suppliers…) find and invent, as needed, solutions fight against routine (process, meetings…) by varying methods, formats, subjects, roles
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager The attendants In this role the manager must : promote the development of its collaborators lead them to greater autonomy contribute to their training manage potential
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager The unifying In this role the manager must : mobilize the team, the energies give meaning, motivation promote cohesion serve as an example
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager The pentagram of the manager The unifyingThe actor/decision maker The innovatorThe attendants The relay
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager Case study Brainstorming The links between the role of manager and action on stress
Part 4: Act on stress as a manager The pentagram of the manager and the action cope with stress The unifying (promoting trade in the team, communicate, manage conflicts) The actor/decision maker (crop practices “stressful”, balance the workloads) The innovator (fight with routines, promote the creativity The attendants (be careful with staff, exchange, make verbalize) The relay (up the information on cases in overdue at your hierarchy and service hr)
Part 5 : Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication I filters of perception It’s important to remember that the reality on and with which we communicate is a construction and like the characters of myth Plato’s cave, we believe strongly that it is reality. To « build » this reality, we must pass through the different filters The neurological filters The cultural filters The personal filters
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication The process of elaboration of the information In addition to the filters of perception, enter involved in treatment information The billions of stimuli we receive (perception) are processed according 3 process The selection The generalization The distortion
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Case study To understand the concepts of representation, we will build on our numerical representations. Translate for you, in this text, the parts in bold in numerical elements. Francis has often change (how many?) of society. He has worked in big societies (how many employees?) and also in a small company (how many employees?). In his last job, he was very well paid (how much €/month?), but since he has a big family (how many children?), he have loads. He makes sport regularly (how many times a month?) and has many close friends (how many?).
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Go beyond the surface structure of the language active listening will keep listening attitudes «directed» empathy surface structure of language, what is communicated Representation of experience, Deep structure of language Lived experience Selection, generalization, distortion
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Illustration Listening skills, is to possess besides his own, the brains of the other. Leonardo da Vinci
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication The reformulation « Echo » or reflection summary or abstract clarification reverse
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Illustration Norman MAIER has adapted the work of Carl ROGERS to the company by setting 14 point rules of good reformulation. 1. Use its own language, without trying to repeat or rehash the words of another. 2. Leave an opening « is that correct ? » ; « do you think ? » 3. Reformulate the thinking of other as a realization : « So you think that more means are needed » and not as a statement «So we need more resources. » 4. Accept silence without seeking to furnish 5. Don’t try to rewrite everything but only the last idea made, though it summarizes the whole 6. Don’t want to go beyond what is expressed 7. Accept contradictions without the stress : it contradicts itself, that it evolves 8. Don’t restate something that the other tries to hide, such a strong emotion 9. Reformulate the hesitations, for example between : What he would do and what he thinks should be done 10. Reformulate only what seems enough said 11. Doesn’t evaluate, or judge 12. Don’t interpret 13. Knowing that a problem may hide another 14. Admit that the other give itself the solution
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Illustration An unsolved problem is ill-posed problem. Albert EINSTEIN
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication The two lines of questioning OPENCLOSED The axis of the opening, depending on the openness (which may lead to the other several types of responses) or closed (which directs to a single type of answer) questions The axis of influence, depending on whether the issues orient in a manner by which the questions NEUTRALNEUTRAL + + + INFORMATION How did you ? BINARY CHOICE CONTROL YES / NO Are we okay ? INFLUENCEDINFLUENCED THINK IN A FRAME PRE- ESTABLISHED How to avoid this risk ? INTERRONEGATIVE SEARCH OF THE YES Don’t you think ?
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Effective questioning Stay open-ended questions to obtain more information By the more or less influencied open-ended questions, focus the attention on fields more or less extensive Focused on one point per question Allow time to respond (use silences) Be synthetic
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Each individual has 3 dimensions Internal states Cognitive processes Behaviors
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Understanding by separating the three planes Internal statesCognitive processes Behaviors Our question to win to separate the 3 plans, what is the registry of facts, the registry of feelings or of judgments In addition, its allows us also to ask our interlocutor on plans he ignores This is especially important that the three plans are in interaction
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication The questioning is more efficient in a situation embodied Situation concrete When our interlocutor tells us in a manner «disembodied », we do withdraw that information «intellectualized» : you don’t ever listens It’ better get our interlocutor in an experience concrete : the last time i didn’t listened When is it ? Where it was ? What did you do ? You thought what ? You feel what ? Situation disembodied
Part 5: Prevent and minimize the impact of stress by communication Case study Role-playing, managerial situations related with stress
Part 6: My action plan during intercessional Case study Compared to what has been seen so far, what are the odds in I’ll experiment works by the next session ?
Conclusion Stress has many dimensions Its consequences are very serious For ourselves, as our employees we can act on stress, its causes, its consequences or a mix of both In our role of manager we can act to limit and detect stress, in case of detection of potential situations severe : warn his superiors and HR Services By our capacity for empathy and listening we can relativize, verbalize and thus help to reduce impact of stress
Bibliography To go a little further… Acting on Stress at Work – F Guez and AC Delhommeau – Nathan – Les Echos 2009 Learn to manage stress - Dr Charly Cungi- ed. Retz, 2003 Stress at work - Patrick Legeron ed. Odile Jacob, 2001