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George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Being aged, being active,

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Presentation on theme: "George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Being aged, being active,"— Presentation transcript:

1 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Being aged, being active, and being at risk Who is a disadvantaged senior?

2 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Source: Cedefop (2010) Adaptation from De Lange et al., 2006. Representation of possible definitions of the concept ‘ageing’ and indicators The definition

3 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP

4 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP The proportion of the population aged 50-64 years in all 27 EU members, has grown from 16,8% in 1998 to 18,6% in 2008. Some facts

5 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP The share of people aged 65 years or over in the total population is projected to increase from 17.1% to 30.0% and the number is projected to rise from 84.6 million in 2008 to 151.5 million in 2060.

6 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP The number of people aged 80 years or over is projected to almost triple from 21.8 million in 2008 to 61.4 million in 2060.

7 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Whereas in 2008 in the EU27 there are 4 persons of working age (15-64 years old) for every person aged 65 years or over, in 2060 the ratio is expected to be 2 to 1.

8 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Projected total population change over the projection period 2008-2060 (2008=100) for the EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland Source: Eurostat, EUROPOP2008 /Convergence scenario

9 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP The disadvantaged senior Many researchers have acknowledged that as people age, they become increasingly marginalised by society in economic, social, political and cultural terms. BUT NOT ALL OLDER ADULTS ARE MARGINALISED OR “DISADVANTAGED”

10 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP On average, the elderly face a higher risk of poverty than the overall population. 28% of single people over the age of 65 are at risk of poverty. In some countries the prevalence of poverty amongst single people over the age of 65 is shockingly high (Estonia 79%, Bulgaria 68%, Cyprus67%). Source: Eurostat (2008) http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tsdsc240&language=en Factor #1: Risk of Poverty

11 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Source: Eurostat (2008) http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tsdsc240&language=en

12 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Not surprisingly, as people get older, fewer consider their health to be good, though there continues to be a tendency for more women to report bad health than men. Source: Eurostat (2008) Factor #2: Health Condition

13 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Source: Eurostat, Health Interview Surveys, 1996-2003 Self-perceived health status of women and men aged 65-74 (2004)

14 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Overall there is a marked tendency for more people aged 65-74 and women in particular, to perceive their health as being bad. In Belgium, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden, under 10 % of both women and men reported being in bad health. Moreover, in all these countries, together with Denmark and the UK, around 60% or more of women and men considered their health to be good.

15 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Recent research findings in Europe show that if willing to work past retirement age (65+), most people would prefer the following working conditions: maximum one hour commuting time to work, maximum one hour commuting time to work, same or higher remuneration for work, same or higher remuneration for work, and work involving low responsibility. and work involving low responsibility. Factor #3: Employment Opportunities

16 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Respondents’ willingness to work after reaching the age of 65 (in %) Source: Cedefop (2010) Adaptation from Remr & Kotνkovα, 2007.

17 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Internal motivation becomes more important in unemployment. Motivation and willingness to work are relatively fragile at old age. When older people lose their job, they tend to find a new one with far greater difficulty and stay unemployed longer.

18 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP People with formal qualifications, and people in the higher socio-economic groups, are more likely to stay in work than the unqualified and those in routine and semi-routine jobs.

19 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Older people –older women especially– who wish to remain in the workforce need access to learning in order to be able to participate in the labour market or change their career (mainly for those below pension age).

20 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Older worker policies: employability solutions Source: Cedefop (2010)

21 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Source: Cedefop (2009)

22 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Needless to say that a high proportion of people at that age group and especially over 64 is largely invisible, but not statistically irrelevant, as many senior citizens in Europe, either participate in informal learning activities, or they simply do not participate in any education or learning activity at all, due to lack of access or other factors that are as yet unidentified. Remark

23 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP This definition is crucial as it essentially relates to the main barriers that are preventing seniors’ access to education and learning in its various forms.

24 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Following this principle, older adults should have equal rights and access to education, with positive measures put in place to ensure equality of provision. Furthermore, education purely for the sake of enjoyment should also be encouraged in later life.

25 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP It is in this respect that we need to make a clear distinction among those seniors who make that conscious decision to access and participate in learning activities and those who do not, in order to identify the ones benefiting from learning and the ones who don’t and therefore may be considered disadvantaged. The identifiers

26 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP The possible agents and factors involved in broad areas of adult life (health, educational attainment and learning, social and living conditions, employment and economic conditions), the importance of other possible catalysts, and of course the significance of self-efficacy, set the basis for mapping the identifiers for disadvantaged senior citizens

27 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP 1. Low or no qualification (that is linked to low educational attainment or illiteracy in some cases). 2. A health condition that may impede or obstruct seniors’ access to learning facilities (e.g. museums, libraries, ICT).

28 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP 3. Low degree of self esteem (which is an overarching identifier although it must not be confused to perceived self-efficacy). 4. Low participation to public and social life (occasionally due to lack of a catalyst or “important others” that may operate positively towards motivating seniors to participate).

29 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP 5. Low income or pension. 6. Employment at risk or at the verge of unemployment. 7. Little or no knowledge of ICT.

30 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP

31 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP All the above determinants show that older adults, as people in other life stages or transitional phases, require change in work, social life, and health. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way of negotiating these transitions. The negotiation

32 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP The population even when we refer to older adults or senior citizens varies considerably in traits as it reflects diversity in age, gender, race, education, and employment. To keep in mind

33 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Self-directed learning begins with an incentive to learn plus an interest, leading to accessing resources; with systematic attention in their learning, some projects may be completed whereas others could remain ongoing

34 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP The short-term target We need to understand the basis on which older people make choices about undertaking learning in both formal and informal contexts in a changing world, to identify what constitutes a successful learning experience and to assess what learning means in the context of their own lives.

35 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP The long-term perspective Education may facilitate participation of disadvantaged seniors in democratic societies. This calls for major changes in our structures and not only in terms of participation in educational provision, but also in terms of providing opportunities through self-directed learning.

36 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP There are evidently two important and intertwining factors that relate to identifying seniors as being disadvantaged: access and participation. The implication

37 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP It is of relevant importance in delivering those two conditions (access as providing the opportunity and participation as strengthening or increasing the motive) through self-directed learning. This will enable or empower that part of the European population to make their way in and actively take part in a productive way to life and economy.

38 George K. Zarifis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Faculty of Philosophy Project Number: 502217-LLP-1-2009-1-PT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP PromoteActive Learning and Ageing of Disadvantage Senior http://projectpaladin.eu/


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